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Full text of "The magazine of American history with notes and queries"

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

FORT WAYNE & ALLEN CO.. INO 



G0 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



833 01747 7826 



GENEALOGY 
973.005 
M27 
1892 
.28 



I 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 



http://archive.org/details/magazineofamericv28stev 





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Q^yv^c^^c^-^i^ 



MAGAZINE 



OF 



AMERICAN HISTORY 



WITH 



NOTES AND QUERIES 



ILLUSTRATED 



EDITED BY MRS. MARTHA J. LAMB 



VOL. XXVIII. 

July to December, l8Q2 



743 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 



Copyright, i8g 2 
Bv HISTORICAL PUBLICATION CO, 



Press of J. J. Little & Co 
Astor Place, New York. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Mrs. Martha J. Lamb. I 

The Beginnings of the City of Troy • A Q Duddlesion. 20 

Fort Harrison in History ; Cyrus Thomas. A.M. 27 

The Pre-Columbian Literature of North America — ■ ^.^ ^ ^^ ^ 

How England Forced the Slave upon America Uon . S . B. A/. Byers. 42 

Switzerland's Model Democracy • . • • - ■■■■• ■■■ ■■■ ■ - ; - ■" ^ f Lamk 50 

The Making of a State : Discovery and Settlement of Kentucky ^ ^^ ^ .^ ^ 

Dr. Lewis F. Linn, of Missouri. Franklin Becker. 57 

What Constitutes Good Citizenship ......... '.Kate Mason Howland. 59 

Virginia's Statesmen in 1788 ^ )//w j q Ty i er . 60 

President Lincoln's Portrait . Francis Parkman. 68 

The Village of Deerfield, 1704 ...... ...73! 150. 231, 315, 393, 472 

Notes, Queries, and Replies ?6 Ig3) „ g6< 4 - 5 

Societies 7 g > I57j 234, 318, 398, 477 

Book Notices ^"^""'"' . .Richard Dillard. M.D. 81 

The Historic Tea Party of Edenton, N. C, 1774- ■ ■ • • ■ " " " ' ' ' Hon _ Jrving B _ Richma „. 89 

Muscotin j ane De Forest Shelton. 9 8 

The Ends of the Century ' " " ^ j ose ph Kirkland. ill 

The Chicago Massacre in 18 12 '...Robert Reid Harrison. 123 

The Old Dominion . • G* nm \ Marcus J. Wright. 125 

Return Jonathan Meigs, 1801-1891 _ .Ernest IV. Clement. 129 

The United States and Japan 

The Successful Novel of 1836. Horse Shoe ^inson^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Sabbath-Breaking and the Clash of Theological Steel Charles Robeson 145 

Tribute to Theodore W. Dwight u _ 

The Christian Endeavor Convention, 1892 154, 234 

Historic and Social Jottings .--.-• ^ " M ' aHha j_ Lamb . l6 i 

Progression in Steam Navigation, 1807-1892 ■ • ■ • &m(/ £ c/a> .^ lg2 

Capture of Stony Point Alha , t j Rupp _ lSs 

Columbus. ASonnet ..Prof. Paul Van Dyke. 186 

An Old Book ■,"":'"" ' ' ' ' ' '',',' ' ' ' ' Hon. Charles Moore. 189 

How England Gained by Holding the Northwest 1 orts ■ ^ ^ ^ 

Oglethorpe as a Landed Proprietor in Georgia^ ^ • • ; ^. Wallaa , IgS 

Lines Attached to a Petition to Congress, 1826 Capt ^^ c ^. ;?( , ; . 2I? 

An Early Combat in Vermont Thomas MacKellar. 216 

Our Greatest Men. ASonnet ••• '"'"."".", , p R Cnutant MD 217 

B.bliograph.cal Notes on Poems and Ballads relating to Major Andre. R. B. Coulant. M.D J 

The Exhibit of American History at the World's Fair 

^0^\ 



IV CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Wisconsin's Priceless Historic Treasures 223 

Moses Hopkins of California 230 

White Plains in the Revolution Mrs. Martha J. Lamb. 241 

Columbus in Romance 0. A. Bierstadt. 272 

A Bit of College History Roger S. Baldwin. 280 

Career of General James Hogun Hon. Walter Clark. 284 

Some Relics of John Howard the Philanthropist Howard Edwards. 288 

A Historian in Color Charles Henry Hyde. 296 

Tribute to George William Curtis 311 

Louis XIV. and William III 313 

New York's Great Object Lesson Mrs. Martha J. Lamb. 321 

Discovery and Settlement of Louisiana Colonel John Doniphan. 346 

Our Country and Columbus. A Poem . .Philip Frenean. 351 

The Quakers in Pennsylvania '.Albert C. Applegarth, Ph.D. 353 

Memoirs of the Discovery of America Otto, Count de Mosloy. 358 

Washington and His Mother ./. M. Toner, M.D. 368 

Guy Johnson on the North American Indians William L. Stone. 372 

John and Ebenezer Cleaveland A. F. Stickney. 391 

Newspapers in Kansas 393 

Declaration of Independence by a Colonial Church Richard Dillard, M.D. 401 

The Story of Marco Polo Elizabeth Eggleston Seelye. 411 

General William Richardson Davie Hon. Walter Clark. 415 

America's Earliest Thanksgiving Days Edward Everett Hale. 431 

Francis Aquila Stout General Meredith Read. 432 

Glimpses of the College of New Jersey Thomas W. Hitchcock, Jr. 450 

Dedication of Buildings. Chicago Columbian Exposition 460 






ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

Portrait of Abraham Lincoln i 

First Meeting- House, Troy, N. Y. , 1798 ' 3 

Court-House, Troy, N. Y. , 179S . 3 

Map of the Province of New York, 1656 5 

House of Matthias Van Der Heyd'en, Troy, N. Y 7 

Mansion of Jacob D. Van Der Heyden . g 

Portrait of Stephen Van Rensselaer 11 

Troy Female Seminary, 1830 13 

View of Troy, 1S45 15 

Fac-simile of Washington's Letter, May 16, 1785 ' 61 

Portrait of Darius Heald 81 

Portrait of Mrs. Penelope Barker 83 

Fac-simile of Yale College Commencement Ball Ticket, 1797 100 

Facsimile of Bath Ticket, N. Y, 1819 101 

Fac-simile of Ball Ticket, New Haven. 1815 103 

Portrait of Sir Isaac Newton 161 

The Steamboat " Clermont," 1807 1G3 

The Steamship "' Great Western " 167 

The Gang Plank of Steamship, 1892 169 

Night Signal of a Disabled Steamer. 1892 171 

Steamboat of John Fitch, 1796 173 

The White Star Steamer " Majestic " 175 

Unloading a Banana Steamship 179 

Portrait of James II 241 

White Plains, N. Y., 1892 243 

Court-House, White Plains, N. Y 245 

Reading the Declaration of Independence, N. Y. City, 1776 248 

Washington's Headquarters, White Plains, N. Y 251 

Fac-simile of the Commission of Adjutant Elijah Miller, 1775 253 

Mitchell House, White Plains, N. Y 255 

Revolutionary Howitzer 257 

Summer Residence of Whitelaw Reid, White Plains, N. Y 261 

Celebration of the One Hundred and Sixteenth Anniversary of the Birthday of the State of 

New York 265 

Homestead of Judge Nehemiah Browne, White Plains, N. Y 267 

Homestead of William P. Van Rensselaer, Manursing Island 269 

Portrait of General George Washington 271 

Seal of the State of Arkansas 308 

Portrait of Columbus 32 r 

Maps of the World. 1400, 1 492 322, 323 

Interior of Vault, Sub-Treasury, N. Y. City 325 



VI ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Columbus Arch, N. Y. City 327 

Hebrew Orphan Asylum Cadets, Columbus Parade 331 

Columbia College Students, Columbus Parade 333 

Ship of Four Centuries Ago 336 

Naval Parade, Columbus Celebration 337 

Seventh Regiment, N. Y. , Columbus Parade 341 

Views of the Columbus Celebration 343 

Portrait of John Law 347 

Portrait of the Duke De Choiseul 349 

Portrait of Philip Freneau 352 

Seal of the State of California 389 

Portrait of Francis Aquila Stout 401 

St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Edenton, N. C. , 1745 403 

Court-House, Edenton, N. C, 1731 405 

House Erected by Francis Corbin, Edenton, N. C, 1758 407 

Fac-simile of Signatures, St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, 1776 406 

Home of Governor Samuel Johnston, Edenton, N. C, 1801 409 

Columbus with Juan Perez, at the Monastery 411 

Catapult Loaded and Discharged 412 

Passport of Gold, such as used by the Polos in China 413 

Portrait of General William Richardson Davie 416 






MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



Vol. XXVIII JULY, 1892 No. 1 



THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 

AT the time Washington was inaugurated first President of the United 
States, a crude little village at the head of navigation on the Hud- 
son, containing not more than fifty inhabitants, had just made its polite 
bow to the country of its birth with the classic name of Troy. Its older 
neighbors laughed at its ambition in searching ancient history for a title, 
and the critics were for some time well-supplied with humorous items for 
the newspaper press. Albany, with her one hundred and eighty years, 
saw no very formidable rival, however, on the historic site where three 
years before were only five well-cared-for and flourishing farms. Lansing- 
burgh, four miles above, had little to fear, as she was already eighteen, 
blooming, and prosperous — with a population numbering five hundred ; 
Hudson and Poughkeepsie below had become comparatively rich and 
saucy, and paid no heed whatever to the classic pretensions of the new 
aspirant for public notice. 

The Van der Heydens had owned the landed property at this point, 
— formerly a part of the Van Rensselaer manor — since 1707, and in 1786 
Jacobo Van der Heyden had been persuaded by some New England men, 
of whom were Benjamin Covell, of Providence, Rhode Island, and Stephen 
Ashley, from Salisbury, Connecticut, to lay out about sixty-five acres in 
building lots and streets ; and the enterprising Covell was the first to lease 
one of them for his own use. The map of this plat was completed May 1, 
1787, and the village to be was called Vanderheyden, in honor of the Dutch 
farmer and his family. The design comprised two hundred and eighty- 
nine lots, and was modeled after Philadelphia, with rectangular streets and 
regular squares, the streets being sixty feet wide. Covell at once pro- 
ceeded to buy a little store and move it upon his newly leased lot, and 
commence operations. He wrote to his brother presently : " This country 
is the best for business I ever saw ; done more business in one day than in 
one week in Providence. The night of the 15th, after sundown, took in 
twenty dollars. I am one mile from Benjamin Thurber's, down the river. 
They are all well. I board at Stephen Ashley's. " Other New England 
men were attracted to the place, and nearly every one advertised his call- 

Vol. XXVIII.-No. 1— 1. 1 



2 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 

ing in the newspapers of Albany and Lansingburgh, for the point was most 
favorably situated to catch the growing trade of Vermont and Massachu- 
setts. The inhabitants were chiefly of English descent from the begin- 
ning, and on the evening of the 5th of January, 1789, held a meeting for 
the sole purpose of " establishing a new name for the town," and surprised 
and offended the Van der Heyden family, whose Dutch name to them was 
neither unpoetic or too polysyllabic, by choosing that of Troy ; and then 
published an advertisement in three successive issues of the Albany 
Gazette, announcing the proceedings of this important meeting, together 
with the new name in display letters. There was foresight in the bold 
movement, for, with the laughter and the criticism which the name pro- 
voked, the village became widely known. Travelers went out of their way 
to see it, and settlers moved in from many quarters. The enthusiasm of 
those who had undertaken to make the place an important centre of trade 
and commerce was contagious. Some of the principal men among the 
newcomers conducted religious services every Sabbath, at first in a room 
in Stephen Ashley's house, he having leased the homestead of Matthias 
Van der Heyden, and transformed it into a popular tavern for the accom- 
modation of people from the country, with a notable sign, supported by a 
tall post on each side of the road, on which was printed in large letters: 

" This gate hangs high, it hinders none, 
Refresh, then pay, and travel on." 

A small school-house was soon built, which was henceforward used for 
Sunday services, the people assembling at the blowing of a conch shell — 
the one which usually called the ferry-boat from the other side of the 
Hudson when a passenger wished to cross the beautiful river. 

The first meeting-house in Troy, a plain wooden structure, forty by 
sixty feet, was commenced in the summer of 1792, the people having 
incorporated themselves in December, 1791, into a Presbyterian congrega- 
tion, according to the laws of the state of New York. This meeting-house 
was not finished for some years, but in the spring of 1793, the flooring 
being laid, it was used for the ordination of Rev. Thomas Coe. Seats 
were constructed for the occasion with boards resting on blocks of wood, 
and a temporary platform erected for the preachers. The high cylindrical 
pulpit when completed was reached by a narrow flight of winding bal- 
ustraded steps. The canopy above it was surmounted with the figure of 
a dove. Arthur James Weise, M.A., tells us in his new work on Troy * 

* Troys One Hundred Years, 1789-1889. By Arthur James Weise, M.A. Square octavo, 
pp. 453, with 90 illustrations. The Magazine is indebted to the publisher of this work, William 
H. Young, Troy, New York, for permission to use some of its historic illustrations. 



THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 




FIRST MEETING-HOUSE, COURT-HOUSE, AND JAIL IN TROY, 1798. 

that " below and in front of the pulpit was the desk of the clerk who lined 
the psalms and hymns and led the singing." The pews were of the old 
New England pattern, square and built like boxes, the younger members 
of the family sitting with their backs to the minister.* There was no way 
of warming the place of worship in those days; thus in winter hot bricks 
and quaint foot-stoves filled with live coals were carried by the church- 
goers. Dr. Wiesse says that " Rev. Jonas Coe often preached in his cloak 
with knitted gloves on his hands." 

The first court-house and jail in the classically named town was secured 

* See picture of interior of an old New England meeting-house, in Magazine of American 
History for December, 1886 [xvi. 511]. 



4 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 

from the legislature in January, 1793, at its session in the city of New 
York, after an animated contest. Lansingburgh being the older settle- 
ment was sure of winning, as it was understood that the village which 
would subscribe the most liberally for the erection of the building would 
be preferred. Troy, although young and overburdened, subscribed one 
thousand pounds, to the great astonishment of Lansingburgh, and thus 
became the county-seat. Jacob D. Van der Heyden presented the site of 
the buildings. The jail was built in the alley at the rear of the court- 
house, and a whipping-post and a pair of stocks were placed in the 
court-house yard. 

Troy progressed rapidly from this time forward. The office of the 
Nortliern Budget was removed from Lansingburgh to Troy in 1798, and in 
1799 that paper reported the population of the village as numbering two 
thousand. In 1800 the first public library was established in Troy, with a 
small collection of books ; the same year the need of a bank began to be 
discussed with great earnestness, and one was successfully established in 
1 801. But with all this enlightened progress it was as late as 18C4 before 
a stove could be introduced into the meeting-house for the comfort of 
Christians on the Sabbath, and then it gave great offense and caused 
several persons to withdraw altogether from the church services. Carpets 
were opposed also on the ground of their worldliness, and the good people 
were scandalized when the bass-viol and other musical instruments were 
brought into use to support the singing of the choir. The same feelings 
prevailed as in some parts of New England where they were styled 
" Satan's ungodly feedles." 

The changes in ownership of the estate of the Van der Heydens 
are shown with precision by Dr. Weise in his new work. The title of the 
property had been confirmed to them in 1720 by Maria and Hendrick 
Van Rensselaer, two of the executors of the patroon. The original manor 
of Rensselaerwyck was forty-eight miles long and twenty-four miles wide, 
the Hudson river dividing it into two equal parts. It could hardly have 
been located more advantageously, even with our present knowledge of 
the physical peculiarities of New York. The courses of the Hudson and 
the Mohawk, in their wonderful adjustments, were from the first the 
strength of the state, one angle of which rests on the Atlantic, another 
on the St. Lawrence, and the third on the great lakes, connected by val- 
leys and streams with the Mississippi, whose tributary the Missouri has 
its source within a single mile from the headwaters of the Columbia river. 
Yet this manor was founded at a time in the world's history when the 
known geography of America extended scarcely beyond its coast-line. 



THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OE TROY 




DITCH MAP OF THE PROVINCE AND CITY OF NEW YORK, 1656. 



6 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 

The land was purchased from the Indians in due form, the larger portions 
of it during the year 1630. The conveyances were ratified in presence 
of the governor at Manhattan, and his five counsellors. Their names 
attached to the deed, which bore the great seal of the Dutch province in 
red wax, were Peter Minuit the governor, Peter Byvelt, Jacob Ellertsen 
Missinsk, Jan Jansen Brouwer, Simon Dircksen Pos, Reynert Harmenssen, 
and the private secretary of the governor, Leonard Kool. The son of Jan 
Jansen Brouwer married the daughter of the famous Anetje Jans, and 
their descendants, the Browers of to-day, are among the substantial citizens 
of the city and state. The quaint Dutch map of New York in 1656 is 
worthy of close study, showing as it does the confluence of the two rivers, 
the Mohawk and the Hudson, which has justly been called the key to 
the whole continent. The Van Rensselaer colony had become in a quar- 
ter of a century, at the time this map was made, more notably prosperous 
than any other part of the province. The fertility of the soil and the facil- 
ities for its cultivation had wrought wonders. The principal settlement 
was then on the west side of the Hudson — the germ of Albany. The 
little picture also of the germ of New York at the mouth of the "Groote" 
river, invests the broad and picturesque colonial period, lying back of our 
national existence, with fresh attractions. The genius of history is cer- 
tainly abroad in the land just now, and whatever concerns American be- 
ginnings and the progressive conditions of its various decades and centuries 
is sought with an avidity unknown in former times. 

In 1794, writes Dr. Weise, " Troy became the temporary home of several 
distinguished French refugees. The most eminent were Frederic Seraphin, 
marquis de la Tour du Pin Gouvernet, and his lovely wife. The marquis 
had served with distinction as an officer in the French Army, and at the 
beginning of the Reign of Terror had loyally devoted himself to save 
Louis XVI. from dethronement. Losing in a single day in April, 1794, 
by ordered executions, his father, father-in-law, and uncle, and knowing 
that his own life was in jeopardy, he escaped arrest by concealing himself 
for six weeks in the city of Bordeaux. Then he secretly succeeded in 
obtaining passports to America for himself, his children, and their nurse. 
Disguised as peasants they embarked without detection and had a safe 
passage to the United States. The young and accomplished marchioness 
was also successful in securing a passport, dressed as a boy under the 
name of Charles Lee, whose uncle, it was alleged, had died, leaving him 
property in the United States. Sailing as they did in different vessels, 
the marquis and marchioness were some weeks later joyously united in 
New York City. It is said, the only property they brought with them 



THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY J 

was several hundred fine towels contained in two trunks. Bearing letters 
of introduction to certain wealthy citizens of Albany they arrived in that 
city in a sloop from New York. Being advised that Troy would afford 
them a pleasant as well as a secluded residence, the anxious exiles came 
to the village in the early part of the summer, bringing letters of introduc- 
tion to Mrs. John Bird, afterward the wife of Colonel Albert Pawling. 
Her kind offices and sympathy were gratefully accepted and appreciated 
by the homeless foreigners. Desiring to live in the utmost seclusion pos- 




HOUSE OF MATTHIAS VAN DER HEYDEN, I752. 
LEASED BY MR. ASHLEY FOR A TAVERN. 



sible, they requested her to refrain from introducing them to her friends, 
and to shield them as far as practicable from any attentions which as 
strangers and persons of rank might be shown them by the inhabitants." 

The marquis rented the only unoccupied dwelling in the village of 
Troy, a vacant tavern, and some rough boards were nailed across the front 
door-way to prevent the intrusion of visitors. The house was scantily fur- 
nished, and the nurse was the maid-of-all-work. The sum of $8,000, which 
the marquis succeeded in bringing with him from France, was placed at 
interest, and en this small income they tried to subsist. Not succeeding, 



8 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 

the marquis finally purchased a small farm and cultivated it with the assist- 
ance of a few slaves, selling his produce in Troy and Albany. A nephew 
of Rochambeau, of revolutionary fame, found also a temporary refuge in 
Troy, and took long strolls into the country with the marquis, and occa- 
sionally they were visited by Talleyrand. At the close of the French rev- 
olution the marquis returned to France with his family, and his confis- 
cated property was restored to him. He was in public service under 
Napoleon, notably as minister plenipotentiary to the court of the Nether- 
lands, and afterwards to Sardinia. He died in 1837, at Lausanne. 

In 1795, the Duke de la Rochefoucault-Liancourt' was in Troy, and 
noted in his journal that the town had fifty or sixty stores or shops, and 
their number was daily increasing. He said the houses were very neat 
and numerous, the inns were excellent, vessels were moored near all the 
keys, tan yards, potash works, rope walks, and mills, were either in full 
work or building. " The sight of this activity is really charming." 

Of the rise of churches of many denominations Dr. Weisse gives inter- 
esting particulars. At the same time the educated merchants were con- 
stantly alive to the welfare of the young in the matter of schools. Few 
American towns east of the Alleghenies ever progressed more evenly as 
well as rapidly. John Lambert, an English traveler, in 1807, wrote of 
Troy. " It is a well-built town, consisting of one street of handsome brick- 
houses. . . . There are two or three short streets which branch off 
from the main one : but it is in the latter that all the principal stores 
warehouses and shops are situated. It also contains several excellent 
inns and taverns. The houses are all new and lofty, and built with much 
taste and simplicity, though convenience and accommodation seem to 
have guided the architect more than ornament. The deep red brick, well 
pointed, give the buildings an air of neatness and cleanliness seldom met 
with in old towns. The trade which Troy has opened with the new settle- 
ments to the northward, through the states of New York and Vermont, as 
far as Canada, is very extensive, and in another twenty years it promises 
to rival the old-established city of Albany. Its prosperity is, indeed, already 
looked upon with an eye of jealousy by the people of the latter place." 

When twenty-seven years old, in 18 16, Troy was incorporated into a 
city, and Albert Pawling was the first mayor. Henceforward it outrivaled 
all rivals in its industrial strides. The products of its manufactories were 
distributed over the entire world. Church bells made in Troy, called the 
people of all lands to prayer and praise ; collars, cuffs, and shirts from her 
manufactories became the necessity of the men and women of every clime ; 
the stoves of the classically named city warmed the homes of all people ; 



THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 



as railroads came into use her steel rails went into every state ; and her 
railroad and street cars conveyed passengers to their destination in both 
hemispheres. At the centennial celebration in 1889, it was stated that of 
the manufacturing centres, Utica, Albany, Rochester, Newark, Philadel- 
phia, and Pittsburgh, all remarkable for their large, varied, and long estab- 
lished industries, not one of them had relatively much more than half as 
many workers as the busy city of Troy. 

It was an event of more than passing consequence when Mrs. Emma 
Willard selected the young city for the establishment of her seminary in 
182 1, for the higher education of women, the corporation and citizens of 




MANSION OF JACOB D. VAN DER HEYDEN, I794. 
SEAT OF THE RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, 1834-1841. 

Troy having offered to provide her an appropriate building. This famous 
school, the first of its kind in America, prospered, and it has enriched the 
lives of thousands of bright women, and from it an influence has emanated 
that appears in the rise and development of many women's colleges 
throughout this country and in other lands. 

During the same year the enlightened patroon, Stephen van Rensselaer, 
born in 1764, the fifth in the direct line and the last of the patroons, then 
chancellor of the University of New York, and president of the State 
Agricultural Society, caused a careful and painstaking geological survey 
to be made along the route of the new Erie canal. Professor Amos 
Eaton conducted the work under the direction and at the expense of 
Van Rensselaer. From the data collected in this and other surveys the 



10 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 

need for further technical education became apparent, to supply which 
Van Rensselaer founded the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, choosing 
Troy as its location, and for a long time defrayed half of its current 
expenses. He fitted up, at his own cost, the Farmer's Bank Building for 
the use of the school, which was first opened on November 5, 1824. 
He appointed eight trustees for the institution, Rev. Samuel Blatchford, 
Elias Parmelee, John Cramer, Guert van Schoonhoven, Simeon de Witt, 
T. Romeyn Beck, John D. Dickinson, and Jedediah Tracy. Rev. Mr. 
Blatchford was made president of the school, Amos Eaton senior pro- 
fessor, and Lewis O. Beck junior professor. This school was duly incor- 
porated by an act of the legislature in 1826. In 1834 it was removed to 
the Van der Heyden mansion (page 9), where it remained until 1841. Van 
Rensselaer was a Christian, a philanthropist, and a patriot, as well as a 
thoroughly educated gentleman. He cherished the democratic doctrine 
that all men are equal ; he assumed nothing, offended no one, and his 
judgment was held in severest respect. Among the early rules for the 
new institution was this : " When the weather is fair, and the state of the 
roads permits, it will be the duty of every student to attend divine service 
at some of the societies of Troy or Lansingburgh. The distance to either 
of the six places of public worship in Troy is almost one mile and a quarter, 
and to those at Lansingburgh about one mile and three quarters. When the 
weather is too unfavorable for attendance at church, sermons or religious 
lectures will be read in the lecture room at the school, forenoon and after- 
noon, a professor being present, by the students in turn, and such other 
religious exercises will be attended to as may be ordered from time to 
time by the president." Van Rensselaer was a member of congress at 
the time the school was first opened. He was a man of commanding 
presence, tall, erect, stately, with dark expressive eyes, and the graceful, 
dignified, courteous manners of the old school. 

The first catalogue of the Troy Female Seminary contained the 
names of ninety pupils, twenty-nine of whom were daughters of the 
residents of Troy. The others were from nearly all the different states in 
the Union. In 1824, when Lafayette visited the city of Troy, Dr. Weisse 
says: "The marquis went with Colonel Lane in the barouche, attended 
by his son George Washington Lafayette, his secretary M. Vasseur, his 
chivalrous friend Colonel Hager, and members of the committee of 
arrangements, to the Female Seminary. At the entrance of an arbor 
covered with evergreens and flowers, extending from Congress street to 
the side doorway of the building, he was welcomed by Mrs. Albert 
Pawling (wife of Troy's first mayor), of the committee of nine ladies 



THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 



II 




HON. STEPHEN VAN RENSSELAER. 
FOUNDER OF RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE IN TROV, 1824. 

appointed to meet him there, and to introduce him to Mrs. Emma 
Willard and her corps of teachers. 

Passing under the decorated arch, displaying the motto, ' America 
commands her daughters to welcome her deliverer, Lafayette,' and 
through the arbor, the marquis reached the steps on which Mrs. Emma 
Willard was standing to receive him. Above the doorway which he 
approached was an arch of evergreens and flowers, and the motto, 
' We owe our schools to freedom : freedom to Lafayette.' Having been 
introduced to Mrs. Emma Willard, the marquis listened to a song of 
welcome composed by her and sung by the pupils of the school. Having 
been presented with a printed copy of the song, and a copy of Mrs. 



12 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 

Willard's ' Plan of Female Education,' Lafayette returned through the 
arbor to the barouche awaiting him." 

In her Personal Reminiscences of Emma Willard, Miss Harriet A. Dil- 
laye says, " Her visit to a class was an inspiration. Her presence was 
queenly, made attractive through mingled dignity and courtesy. Her 
dress in harmony with her character and the occasion, was appropriate, 
often elegant, always picturesque. She had recently returned from her 
European travels ; her school was in the high tide of success, peerless 
among the female seminaries, not of our country only, but of the world. 
She was then in the full enjoyment of the 'youth of age,' with finely 
developed physique, and her mind distinguished for vigor and versatility. 
No other woman ever impressed me so deeply. All who saw her in the 
midst of her pupils, and specially when she met them for her weekly lec- 
ture, felt they were in the presence of a true, consecrated priestess. How 
well I remember the first time I listened to her teachings ! She began by 
saying that she had often wished, in her experience as a teacher, she could 
find time to write a novel enforcing the necessity of trutlifnlncss. Her 
friend Miss Edgeworth, she added, had written it for her, in her recently 
published Helen, which she advised us to read — a story in which the mis- 
fortunes of the heroine were traced to a falsehood that preceded her mar- 
riage. She made us know and feel in her talk, that truth in little things 
as well as great should pervade the entire character ; that without it we 
were resting upon the shifting sand. . . At the age of fifty, in the 
midst of varied literary and educational labors, Mrs. Willard studied 
Hebrew and Greek that she might read the Old and the New Testaments 
in their original languages. She did not talk much about religion, but its 
principles were the controlling power of purpose and action. My first 
interest and work for foreign missions was the fruit of her enthusiasm for 
the girls of Greece." 

Troy appreciated Mrs. Willard and recognized in her the greatest 
educator of her day. She was courageous, gentle, and refined, and 
developed great power in guiding and directing those whom she taught in 
all elegant and womanly ways. She took an active interest in the common 
schools of the city, making valuable suggestions for their improvement, 
and she worked early and late in season and out of season to establish for 
young women a class of public and permanent institutions of the same 
grade as existed for young men. She wrote many useful school-books, one 
of which was an excellent treatise on astronomy, and she revised numer- 
ous others. Her publications were translated into many of the languages 
of Europe and Asia, and had for the times an immense sale. In New 



THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 



13 




TROY FEMALE SEMINARY, 183O. 



England, more than in any other part of the country, and consequently in 
Troy, education was just then the absorbing social topic. Birthright was 
by no means ignored, but it counted for little uniess divested of all 
suspicion of ignorance. The standard by which men and women were 
measured was intelligence ; and intellectual effort and achievement were 
universally commended. It was the period of important beginnings, when 
authorship took a vigorous start, and the great newspaper system of the 
country was struggling into life and power. Mrs. Willard formulated 
plans and methods of teaching by projecting normal schools long before 
the day of normal schools had come. Her books on history were greatly 
in advance of any prepared by her contemporaries, and her geographies, 
charts, atlases, pamphlets, and addresses were better than any that had 
preceded them. In 1846 she made a journey through the western and 
southern states, addressing teachers' conventions, and in 1854 she attended 
the World's Educational Convention in London. She was the author of 
many poems, the best known of which is " Recked in the Cradle of the 
Deep." 

The Troy Female Seminary was a plain, old-fashioned brick edifice, 
of the simplest architecture, the interior having been constructed, in the 
beginning*, with rooms and halls according to the plans furnished by Mrs. 
Willard ; and the building was subsequently enlarged from time to time 
as necessity demanded. How far its influence went toward the founding 
of other educational institutions in Troy it is difficult to say, but they 
multiplied with singular rapidity. In 1828, even before a railroad was in 
successful operation on this side of the Atlantic, and when Troy had only 
boasted for two years of a steam ferry across the Hudson, the Troy 
museum was opened to the public, in the upper part of a three-story brick 
building. Collections of natural and artificial curiosities were creditably 



14 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 

displayed, including stuffed birds, shells, zoophytes, corallines, petrifac- 
tions, reptiles, and not less than seven hundred insects. There were also 
a number of life-size wax figures of distinguished people, numerous paint- 
ings, and a large exhibit of implements of warfare used by savages. 

Few places in the United States manifested so much local pride and 
activity as Troy. The people had successfully competed for the trade of 
the surrounding country, had generously welcomed all comers to the seat 
of their thrift and enterprise, and as Dr. Weise says, " were freely giving 
their money and influence for the furtherance of state and national 
interests." It was said of Troy that when any project for the benefit of 
the city was started — and approved generally — there were no bickerings 
or jealousies or rivalship or long debates, but the people went to work 
and accomplished it. They not only looked well to their own individual 
interests, but united as one man in sustaining the interests and advancing 
the prosperity of Troy. In 1837 the English novelist, Captain Frederick 
Marryat, visited Troy, and wrote in his Diary : 

" Troy, like a modern Academy, is classical as well as commercial, hav- 
ing Mount Olympus on one side and Mount Ida in its rear. The pano. 
rama from the summit of the latter is splendid. As I surveyed the busy 
scene below me, the gentleman who accompanied me to the summit of the 
mountain informed me that forty-three years ago his father was the first 
settler, and that then there was but one house in the place where now 
stood the splendid town. We have here a singular proof, not only of the 
rapidity with which cities rise in America, but also how superior energy 
will overcome every disadvantage. It would be supposed that Albany 
could have crushed this city in its birth, but it could not, and Troy is now 
a beautiful city, with its mayor, its corporation, and a population of twenty 
thousand souls, and divides the commerce with Albany, from which most 
of the eastern trade has been ravished. The inhabitants of Albany are 
termed Albanians ; those of Troy, Trojans ! In one feature these cities 
are very similar, being both crowded with lumber and pretty girls." 

As early as 1844 there were twenty-four churches in the city of Troy, 
and the number has increased fabulously, so to speak, in the nearly half 
century since then. Dr. Weise gives in his excellent volume an account 
of each church, which will be of immense service to future historians. He 
has, indeed, gathered into his pages an amount of statistical information 
on all themes that concern the unfolding of a successful city, which will go 
down to posterity as a priceless contribution to the sum of human knowl- 
edge. Much of the data involved he has secured from sources which no 
longer exist, and which would have been lost irreparably by the fatalities 



1 6 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 

of time, without his intervention. The maps and pictures vividly illustrate 
the growth and appearance of Troy from decade to decade, and are well 
worthy of preservation in this permanent form. The book contains many 
personal sketches, notably of the galaxy of illustrious lawyers associated 
with the Troy bar during its history. Prominent among these we find 
Hon. William L. Marcy, a graduate from Brown University in 1808, who 
read law with the eminent William M. Bliss, and subsequently with John 
Russell in the early days of Troy, and who was admitted to the bar in 
181 1, and in 1816 became the first recorder of the new city. He was sub- 
sequently United States senator, then governor of New York for three 
consecutive terms, secretary of war under President Polk, and secretary 
of state under President Pierce. 

The life and character of William A. Beach, quoted from the masterly 
centennial address of Hon. Roswell A. Parmenter, is full of interest. He 
says : " In the portrayal of Mr. Beach's professional character, extending 
over half a century, it shall be my aim to hold the scale with a steady 
hand and with an even poise, not forgetting the great learning and varied 
accomplishments of other distinguished members of the Troy bar. I recall 
the fiery zeal of Judge D:ivid Buel, the courtly bearing of Judge Hunt, 
the classic eloquence of Senator Strong, the natural oratory and pungent 
wit of General Calvin E. Mather, the subtle cunning of Job Pierson, the 
vehement sarcasm of Abraham B. Olin, the scholarly attainments of 
George Van Santwood, the uncultured power of Robert A. Lottridge in 
the trial of criminal causes, the inimitable humor and repartee of Gen. 
George R. Davis, the polished and attractive argumentation of Gardner 
Stow, the urbanity and earnestness of Judge John D. Willard, the black- 
letter law learning of Judge Samuel Huntington, the unerring judgment 
and sterling common sense of Judge Isaac McConihe, the ready book 
learning, natural as well as acquired, of Judge George Gould, and the cau- 
tious but comprehensive mind of David L. Seymour. Nevertheless, I feel 
constrained to rank the late William A. Beach as pre-eminently the leader 
of the Troy bar. In his professional career he survived three epochs. 
While comparatively a young practitioner he attained the leadership of 
the Saratoga bar. In his maturer years and better judgment he selected 
the city of Troy as the theatre of his local practice of the law, where, by 
common consent, he became the trusted oracle of the Troy bar. Subse- 
quently he removed to the city of New York, and there, in the midst of 
the giants of the profession, he again took a front rank and maintained it 
with undimmed lustre for fifteen years. . . . 

Possessing quick perception and a retentive memory, he could readily 



THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY IJ 

master every branch of legal science. His professional life was without a 
blemish. In addition to his mental gifts he was blessed with a physical 
constitution which enabled him, in any emergency, to successfully en- 
counter and overcome obstacles which to another less resolute would 
appear insurmountable. He never lagged behind when duty called him 
to the front — as in the celebrated trial of Theodore Tilton against Henry 
Ward Beecher, which continued before Chief Justice Neilson and a jury, 
in Brooklyn, for a period of six months. The trial, however, was really 
before the reading public of America. On either side the array of eminent 
counsel was formidable, but their strength and courage had become ex- 
hausted, so great had been the labor, strain, and responsibility imposed 
upon them. One of the number, however, faced the closing ordeal with 
unparalleled heroism and undaunted resolution. That man was William A. 
Beach. Tired as he undoubtedly was, he did not falter in the final struggle 
in behalf of his client. The inspiration of the scene aroused all the latent 
energy of his soul, which imparted to him courage and determination. On 
that bright morning in the rosy month of June, the one hundredth day 
of the trial, he commenced the final argument for the plaintiff. The 
cause and the tribunal, ambition, pride, and reputation called for the 
display of all his ingenuity, genius, skill, and power. He was equal to the 
occasion. Every intonation of his voice, every burst of eloquence, every 
flash of his eye, and every movement of his body bespoke him as the fore- 
most advocate of the age. His address, in its delivery before the jury, 
occupied ten consecutive court days. During all that time he employed 
and brought into requisition every rule of logic, every favorable conclusion 
deducible from the evidence, every presumption of law and fact, and every 
flower of rhetoric, arranged and embellished with the choicest language. 
As a specimen of artistic skill and eloquence, that address, in my judg- 
ment, has never been surpassed in ancient or modern times. Over its 
delivery a crowded auditory hung in breathless suspense day after day, and 
finally, when the last word had been uttered, all decorum gave way, and 
the courthouse resounded with the universal acclaim. This great argu- 
ment, as published, covered over two hundred printed pages, and will live 
while the English language continues to be read or spoken. In beauty of 
diction, in fertility of illustration, in loftiness and purity of sentiment, in 
grandeur of conception, and in power of argumentation, both by way of 
attack and by way of defence, that speech will successfully challenge com- 
parison with any previous forensic argument, in any country and in any 
age of the world's history." 

The poetical contribution in 1889 to the exercises commemorative of 

"Vol. XXVIII. -No. 1.-2 



1 8 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 

the one hundredth anniversary of the naming of Troy, by Mr. Benjamin 
H. Hall, is printed at length in the handsome work of Dr. Weise. Its 
cleverness in fanciful pleasantries and quaint conceits renders a brief 
quotation exceptionally fitting in this connection: 

" The wise heads all assembled 

In seventeen eighty-nine, 
Determined that the hamlet 

Should have a title fine ; 
That so throughout the ages, 

In peace as well as strife, 
Some brilliant designation 

Should ever give it life. 

And first they took the Bible, 

And turned its pages o'er ; 
Read Numbers and the Chronicles, 

Did Joshua explore : 
Then thumbed the leaves of Rollin, 

Josephus studied through, 
And sought in Guthrie's system, 

For something that might do. 

They copied all the proper 

Names, and improper too ; 
Exhausted combinations 

Till every man was blue; 
Then spelled each title backward, 

In hope at last to find 
Some startling appellation 

For future fame designed. 

Ten hours in fruitless effort 

These grand old heroes passed, 
Till nature faint, exhausted, 

Gave signs she could not last ; 
The tongue of one was twisted, 

Another's neck was wry, 
A third was still with lock-jaw, 

A fourth desired to die. 



THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY OF TROY 19 

Such was the fearful present ; 

More dark the apparent fate, 
That on their mental labors 

Seemed threateningly to wait ; 
When one old classic scholar 

On trembling legs arose, 
* ■ * ■* 

Thus spoke he : 'I remember, 

When I was very young, 
The story of a city 

In ancient fable sung, 
That for ten years resisted 

Siege and starvation slow, 
And then surrendered only 

Through treachery of the foe. 

The name of that walled city 

Was good in olden days, 
But we can use it better 

By means of modern ways ; 
And keep it as a. lesson, 

That no insiduous foe 
Must be allowed to enter 

And turn our weal to woe. 

For ten hours we have labored, 

And not a single name 
Has yet been deemed sufficient 

To sound our local fame ; 
To save this noble people, 

For grief to give them joy, 
Oh, call these dozen dwellings 

And five small groceries — Troy.' " 



FORT HARRISON IN HISTORY 

The Secretary of War recently directed that the new military post at 
Helena, Montana, should be named " Fort Harrison " in honor of the 
President. This is the second time in the history of the nation that a 
United States military station has borne that designation, and revives 
memories of two famous men whose early life was intimately associated 
with the original " Fort Harrison " of the old Indiana territory, both of 
whom in subsequent years received the highest honors within the gift 
of the nation. These men were William Henry Harrison, grandfather of 
the President, and Zachary Taylor. 

An old well, without curb or cover — long since in disuse and partially 
filled with the refuse of years — a hundred yards back from the east bank 
of the Wabash river, three and a half miles north of the city of Terre 
Haute, Indiana, marks the site of old Fort Harrison, so named in honor of 
General William Henry Harrison, who was governor of the territory at 
the time of the fort's erection, and afterwards president of the United 
States. Around the old well stretch the fertile fields, which, in the march 
of progress and civilization, have taken the place of the wild forests once 
the home of the red man. At the foot of the gentle slope on which the 
fort stood flows the peaceful river, the ripple of its waters telling no tales 
of the sad tragedies that long ago were enacted on its wooded banks. 

In early times Fort Harrison was a place of considerable importance, 
being for many years the frontier garrison of the West — the old " Indian 
line " which defined the boundary of the Indian hunting grounds crossing 
the territory of Indiana just above the fort. The latter was erected dur- 
ing the fall of 18 1 1, by General Harrison, who advanced up the Wabash 
with a strong force, for the purpose of subduing the Indian leader Tecum- 
seh, and his brother the wily Prophet, members of the Shawnee tribe, 
whose united appeals had aroused all the tribes in the northwest territory 
into the formation of a grand confederacy against the whites. The treaty 
of 1809, known as the "Treaty of Fort Wayne," made by Harrison, and 
by which the Delaware, Miami, and Pottawatamie tribes ceded to the 
whites a large tract of land on the Wabash, aroused the ire of Tecumseh, 
who was absent at the time, and who refused to acknowledge it or abide 
by its conditions. He threatened with death the chiefs who had signed 
the treaty, and announced his determination to prevent the lands being 



FORT HARRISON IN HISTORY 21 

surveyed or settled. It was after this celebrated conference at Vincennes, 
then the seat of government of the territory, and where Harrison's cool- 
ness and self-possession alone saved him from death at the hand of Tecum- 
seh, that the latter began in earnest his war against the whites. Harrison 
was furnished by President Madison with a force of infantry from Ohio, 
Kentucky, and Indiana, and in September, 1811, began his march up the 
Wabash from Vincennes towards the Prophet's town (near the present 
location of Lafayette), where the hostile tribes had assembled. The 
necessity of establishing a fort was apparent, and Harrison selected this 
point on the east bank of the Wabash, some fifty miles above Vincennes, 
which possessed many natural advantages as' a means of defense, little 
thinking that almost under its very walls would spring into life a city. 

The army was quartered here during the months of September and 
October, and the walls of the fort erected, stalwart trees of the encircling 
forests furnishing the material. From rare engravings still in existence, 
it appears to have consisted of a rough stockade of heavy timber, about 
one hundred and fifty feet square. The northwest and southwest corners 
facing the river, terminated in blockhouses, two stories in height, pierced 
on both faces with embrasures in each story, through which to fire upon 
the enemy. The northeast and southeast corners terminated in bastions, 
which projected sufficiently to command the outside of the walls in two 
directions. The soldiers' barracks of rude log-huts were within the fort 
and formed the western line. The gate opened to the east ; north of it 
was the guard house, to the south the magazine, and near the latter was 
the well before referred to. 

While at the fort General Harrison, under express orders from the 
president, attempted a reconciliation with the Indians, but his overtures 
were treated with contempt, and an attack made on his forces. This ended 
the negotiations for peace, and on the 28th of October Harrison took up 
his march for the Prophet's town. A week later he was attacked near the 
latter place by a large force of Indians, who were disastrously defeated 
and put to flight. The battle is known in history as that of Tippecanoe. 
The most important event in the history of Fort Harrison was its 
defense against the attack of a large body of Indians, by Captain Zachary 
Taylor — afterward president — in September, 1812. Taylor, then a young 
man of twenty-eight, exhibited in his defense of the fort the bravery and 
hardihood which in subsequent campaigns gave him among his soldiers 
the sobriquet of "Old Rough and Ready." He had been in the service 
but a few years, having spent his life until twenty-four on his father's 
plantation in Kentucky. His brother Hancock held a lieutenant's com- 



22 FORT HARRISON IN HISTORY 

mission in the United States army, and upon the death of that officer in 
1808 Zachary succeeded to the commission. He was promoted to a 
captaincy in 1810, and after the declaration of war with Great Britain in 
1812 he was placed in command of Fort Harrison. 

It was no slight dress-parade duty that fell to the share of the little 
garrison in the frontier fort. Almost in the midst of an enemy's country, 
surrounded by a sleepless, savage foe, and kept ever on the alert day and 
night, to guard against surprise, the brave Taylor and his little body of 
soldiers were worn out when, in the dusk of a September evening in 1812, 
the presence of the savages in the neighborhood of the fort became mani- 
fest. To add to the other misfortunes, two-thirds of the garrison of fifty 
men were sick and unfitted for duty with an epidemical fever that scourged 
the entire Wabash valley that year. These facts coming to the ear of the 
revengeful Prophet, still smarting under his defeat at Tippecanoe in the 
previous November, led to the expedition against the fort. 

The first signs of the presence of the enemy was the exchange of sig- 
nals between them, the calls resembling the gobbling of a turkey. The 
ears of the sentinels, trained to distinguish such signals, detected the 
presence of the Indians, and the drum soon beat the men to arms. Two 
members of the garrison, the brothers Doyle, rash and adventurous fel- 
lows, volunteered to make a reconnoissance to ascertain, if possible, the 
strength of the enemy. They ventured forth but never returned, the 
sound of four shots shortly after telling their fate. The lateness of 
the hour prevented a search for the young men, but next morning their 
bodies were found, horribly scalped and mutilated. 

Late in the evening of the same day, Thursday, September 4, Lenar, 
a chief, with some thirty or forty Indians of the Delaware, Pottawatamie, 
Kickapoo, and Miami tribes, appeared before the fort, bearing a white flag. 
The chief announced his desire to speak with the captain on the following 
morning and obtain some provisions. Had Captain Taylor not been famil- 
iar with the tactics of this enemy the ruse might have been successful. 
But he was not thrown off his guard, and that night every precaution was 
taken against a surprise ; the commander himself personally examined 
each soldier's arms and supplied him with extra rounds of cartridges. 
He evidently was not over-confident of his ability to hold the fort against 
an attack, for in one of his official dispatches to General Harrison he 
said : " From the unhealthiness of my company I had not conceived my 
force adequate to the defense of this post, should it be vigorously attacked, 
for some time past." 

Circumstances proved that Captain Taylor's precautions were very 



FORT HARRISON IN HISTORY 23 

timely, for about eleven o'clock that night the garrison was aroused by the 
sound of firearms, and once again the drum-beat summoned the men to 
their posts. The commandant, who had just arisen from a sick-bed, 
where he had been confined by the prevailing fever, immediately sprang 
up, ready to confront the enemy. It was discovered that the savages had 
fired the lower blockhouse, which contained the stores of the army con- 
tractor. A fire under ordinary circumstances would have been a trying 
affliction to the little band in the fort ; but surrounded as they were by 
furious enemies eager for their blood, the situation became appalling. 
Great consternation prevailed, during which two of the best men in the 
garrison leaped over the pickets, preferring possible death at the hands of 
the Indians to the terrible fate which seemed certainly to await them. 
But great as was the peril of the garrison, the brave heart of the com- 
mandant was undaunted, and he at once set to work to subdue the fire. 
The night was so dark that the savages had crept up to the block-house, 
although it was occupied as an alarm post, and set it on fire in several 
places. The flames communicated to some whiskey in the stores and 
were soon apparently beyond control. The scene that ensued must cer- 
tainly have gladdened the hearts of the savages, and their discordant yells, 
added to the raging fire and the cries of the women and children, were 
enough to appal the bravest heart in the garrison. 

Captain Taylor, with great presence of mind, ordered men upon the 
roof of the barracks to tear away the burning portion. The smallness of 
the number of effective men in the garrison rendered it exceedingly dan- 
gerous to detail soldiers to carry water from the well to quench the flames, 
and the offer of the brave women to perform this duty was gladly accepted. 
The roof was tern off in the midst of a shower of bullets, with the loss of 
but one man killed and two wounded ; and this with the heroic efforts of 
the women stayed the progress of the fire and infused fresh courage into 
the hearts of the despondent soldiers. They set to work to repair the 
damages, and before daybreak had erected a temporary barricade across 
the gap in the stockade. It would be difficult to conceive of a more haz- 
ardous undertaking than this, the men being subjected to a constant and 
heavy fire of balls and showers of barbed arrows. Yet the work was done 
under the personal direction of Captain Taylor, and from the shelter of 
the barracks the garrison returned the fire of the savages with such effect 
as to compel them to retire at six o'clock, after a constant assault of seven 
hours. Unsuccessful in their attempt to capture the fort, the Indians dis- 
played their devilish ingenuity by driving together all the horses and hogs 
belonging to the garrison and the citizens, and shot them in their sight, 



24 FORT HARRISON IN HISTORY 

while they drove off all the cattle belonging to the fort, amounting to 
seventy or more. Disheartened by the failure of their attack, the Indians 
made no further effort to capture the fort, although they remained in the 
neighborhood for a day or two, finally retreating toward the White river, 
committing many depredations along their route. 

The loss of the garrison during this attack was but eight killed and 
wounded. The Indians numbered four hundred and fifty, sufficiently 
strong to bury their dead or carry them away ; for this reason their actual 
loss was never ascertained, although it must have been very heavy. For 
many years after the battle it was not an unusual event for bones of the 
buried warriors to be turned up by the plow, or protrude from the banks 
of the river, brought to sight by the washing of the waters. The troubles of 
the garrison did not end, however, with the disappearance of the Indians, 
as having lost their stores and stock, they were compelled to subsist on 
green corn. Captain Taylor attempted to send intelligence to Governor 
Harrison at Vincennes, but the two men he dispatched were intercepted 
by the Indians and compelled to return. His orderly sergeant and 
another man were then dispatched through the woods, and finally, after 
many hardships and narrow escapes, reached the Old Post with intel- 
ligence of the critical situation of the garrison at Fort Harrison, which 
was soon relieved by a large force of Kentucky volunteers. 

Taylor was promoted to the rank of brevet-major for his gallant 
defense of the fort, the first instance in the service of that species of pro- 
motion. He continued to rise in the army, and after his distinguished 
service in the Mexican war was elected to the Presidency. The founder 
of the fort preceded him in the presidential chair, and thus it may be said 
that Fort Harrison played a certain part in the making of Presidents. 

After Taylor gave up the command of Fort Harrison, Major Sturges 
of the regulars was in charge of the post until 1816; he was succeeded by 
Major John Chunn, who had been in command of Fort Knox, at Vin- 
cennes. Dr. Benjamin F. Swafford, an old and well-known physician of this 
city, who spent his boyhood in the neighborhood of the old fort, and who 
is replete with interesting facts concerning it, has in his possession the 
original order by which Major Chunn was transferred from Fort Knox to 
Fort Harrison. It is yellow with the roll of years, a document prized 
highly by its owner, who will not allow it out of his possession. It reads : 

" Fifth Military Department, Headquarters, Detroit, 

10th May, 1816 

Sir: — Having been informed by Major Morgan that he has marched 

out of the department by order of General Jackson, and that in conse- 



FORT HARRISON IN HISTORY 25 

quence Major Morgan thought it his duty to order you to occupy with 
your command the fort he had left, you will continue to make Fort Har- 
rison your station, and consider yourself commandant thereof. Such of 
the publick property that without great expense be removed from Fort 
Knox to Fort Harrison you will cause to be removed and placed in as 
much security from depredation and from the weather as your stores will 
admit. If the quantity of small arms is very great you will communicate 
with the officer of the ordnance department nearest to you to learn if any 
arrangements have been made by his department for the removal of the 
arms and supplies of ordnance stores. Take care, however, to have your 
command as well furnished as possible with the means of defense, and 
always be on your guard against Indians, never permitting them to take any 
undue liberties, and punish promptly any insult they may offer — it is the 
best way to keep on good terms with them. You will at the same time 
prevent any person from abusing or maltreating the Indians, considering 
yourself their protector in all that regards their rights and privileges. 

You will be pleased to send me sketch of the fort and grounds in the 
vicinity, stating the number the barracks will contain, the nature of the 
soil about the fort, and the general quality of the land near you. Also, 
whether the position is well chosen, whether it be healthy, and the quality 
of the water. Be pleased, also, to give a statement of the different tribes 
of Indians in your neighborhood, and the amount of warriors in each 
tribe. Also the state of the fort as to comfort and defense. And, finally, 
any information touching the command. 

With respectful consideration, I have the honor to be, sir, 

Alex. Macomb, 

Maj. Gen. Com. Fifth Military Deft. 

To Maj. Chunn, 

2d Reg 7 of Infantry, Com. Fort Harrison." 

Major Chunn remained in command of the post until 1819, when he 
was transferred to Detroit. He afterwards returned to the fort, and was 
in command of it from some time in 182 1 until it was dismantled by 
order of the government in 1822. He lived in the vicinity of Terre Haute 
until his death, which occurred in 1847. A married daughter and other 
descendants bearing his name still reside in Vermilion county. He was 
of the highest standing in the Masonic fraternity, and assisted in the 
organization of Terre Haute lodge in 1819, one of the oldest lodges in 
the state, on whose records his name may be found. 

Traces of the fortifications existed here as late as the fifties, and the 
blockhouses were preserved nearly intact until 1849. After these disap- 



26 FORT HARRISON IN HISTORY 

peared the logs were for a long time to be seen lying about the old site; 
but for years the only thing that has served to define the location of the 
fort is the well, now in the last stages of disuse. 

"Old Drummer Davis," as he was familiarly known, the rattle of whose 
drum aroused the garrison when the attack we have described was made, 
was one of the last survivors of the force, and his stories of the memorable 
attack found many ready hearers when he chose to relate them. The vic- 
tims of the conflict were first buried near the fort, and later were rein- 
terred near what is known as the " Durkee's ferry road." When a road 
was once projected through this burial place, the old drummer was fore- 
most in opposing it as a desecration. He and some of the other soldiers 
then living declared that they would shoot the first man who attempted 
to open the road across the graves, and the matter was finally dropped. 

One of the girls who melted the bullets used by the soldiers in the 
defense of the fort, has descendants living in the neighborhood of the fort, 
as also the two brave young women who carried the water used in quench- 
ing the fire in the blockhouse. Among these are numbered some of the 
most prominent persons in Vigo county, who refer with pardonable pride 
to the part played by their ancestors in the history of the old landmark. 
For years after the battle a soldier named Black was celebrated through- 
out this region as the " crack shot of Fort Harrison." During the memor- 
able engagement an Indian had mounted a tall cottonwood tree that stood 
on the bank of the river opposite the fort, and from this commanding 
position would have been enabled to do much damage to the garrison. 
Black espied him, and calling the attention of a comrade to the Indian, he 
drew a sight and fired, bringing his man down at the first shot. Years 
afterward it was a frequent occurrence for the lads in the neighborhood 
to gather at the old fort, and with their rifles endeavor to chip the bark off 
the old cottonwood out of which Black had dropped the savage. 

It may be of interest to state that only a few summers ago the bones 
of the Doyle brothers were found at the foot of the old oak-tree where 
their comrades buried them more than eighty years ago. These brothers 
were perfect dare-devils, to whom danger was unknown, and when they 
ventured out of the fort on that September evening they were soon sur- 
rounded by their red foes. They were not the kind, however, to die with- 
out a struggle, and backing up against the oak-tree they sold their lives 
dearly, killing many an Indian before they fell. 



CI. X). JjAAjdjJjbOyUh^ 



Terre Haute, Indiana. 



PRE-COLUMBIAN LITERATURE OF NORTH AMERICA 

This appears to be a propitious time for the discovery of facts relating 
to that epoch which forms the dividing line between the historic and pre- 
historic times of our continent. New data are being brought to light and 
additional light thrown on those already known. Even what seemed to 
be hopelessly beyond the reach of research is being attained. The myste- 
rious inscriptions found by Stephens and others on the ruined temples and 
palaces of Central America, and the few strange manuscripts which escaped 
the ruthless hands of the conquerors, are on the eve of yielding up to our 
earnest solicitation their secrets. I have the pleasure of announcing to 
archaeologists and others interested, that I have ascertained beyond 
question the true rendering of a sufficient number of the written charac- 
ters in the Maya Codices to furnish a key to the interpretation of all the 
rest. I trust that the pride I take in making this announcement will be 
considered pardonable, as there was no greater desideratum in regard to 
American archaeology than the interpretation of these manuscripts and 
inscriptions. From the discoveries of Stephens and Waldeck to the 
present there has gone forth a hopeless longing for the solution of this 
riddle, for some means of compelling the American sphinx to give up its 
secret. 

I am as yet but on the threshold of the solution, which will require the 
long and patient labor of more than one worker, and which cannot be 
completed until the linguistic material locked up in manuscripts has been 
published. Nevertheless, I purpose to state briefly the method and 
nature of the discovery, and what light the little progress so far made 
throws upon these ancient records. 

My study has been confined almost exclusively to the four Maya 
Codices which have been published, and with which I must take for 
granted the interested reader is more or less familiar. As illustrations, 
which are absolutely necessary to a critical exposition, .cannot be given 
here, I can only make general statements. 

A notice of these codices and of the data relating thereto has been 
given by Dr. Brinton in his " Introduction " to my Study of the Manuscript 
Troano, published by the United States Geological Survey, in 1882. In 
that work, and others by Dr. Forstemann, Dr. Schellhas, Dr. Seler, Rosny, 
Charencey, and myself, illustrations and general explanations of these 



28 PRE-COLUMBIAN LITERATURE OF NORTH AMERICA 

written characters are given. A somewhat thorough and satisfactory- 
explanation of the use and relation of the numerous day and numeral 
characters found in the Dresden and Troano Codices has been presented, 
chiefly by Dr. Forstemann and myself, but up to the present no satisfac- 
tory interpretation of any of the written characters has been obtained. In 
fact, it was and still is, so far as known to the reading public, a mooted 
question whether they are phonetic or mere symbols. Although Bishop 
Landa in his well-known work, Las Cosas de Yucatan, written in the six- 
teenth century, gives what he claims to be the alphabet (" a, b, c ") of the 
hieroglyphic writing, all efforts at interpretation by means of these up to the 
present have confessedly failed. Although I now know that he was in 
part correct, yet my clue was obtained from the symbols for the cardinal 
points. I was convinced at an early stage of my study, that the symbols 
for east and west were phonetic characters ; but reversing their true posi- 
tions in my assignment my efforts to apply their phonetic elements in the 
interpretation of other characters failed. Determining recently to make 
another earnest effort to solve the problem, after trying in vain all the 
supposed clues known to me, the thought struck me of reversing the car- 
dinal symbols and trying the new phonetic value this would give them. 
Without mentioning the details of my progress, it is sufficient to state that 
this soon led to the satisfactory rendering of several characters in the 
Troano and Dresden Codices. Of course, the chief aids in determining 
the correctness of interpretations were the agreement in phonetic value 
in different combinations and correspondence with the accompanying pic- 
torial representations. These discoveries, of course, convinced me that 
the writing was to some extent phonetic. It also led to the further con- 
clusion that those figured are chiefly the consonant elements, which vary 
in form or details according to the vowel elements with which they are com- 
bined. I also soon found that some of Landa's letter characters were rude 
and imperfect attempts to represent these written elements, and have ascer- 
tained that the following of his list are substantially correct, requiring cer- 
tain modifications mentioned.* 

His second B, which is a circle inclosing four dots, requires an addi- 
tional dot in the centre. The outer four dots are often found placed 
against the surrounding circle. His C is correct when used in connection 
with certain vowel elements and without the hooks at the top. His 
E is correct, though frequently found without the inner semicircle. His 
second H, his /, CA, and K are substantially correct. The first L should 

* Those readers who do not have Landa's work at hand will find an exact copy of his characters 
on page 141 of my Study of the Manuscript Troano. 



PRE-COLUMBIAN LITERATURE OF NORTH AMERICA 29 

have two additional dots in the left portion of the character. It was the 
lack of this knowledge that led him into an error in his explanation of the 
native method of writing words. With three dots the left portion of the L 
resembles very closely the symbol for E, hence he took for granted that 
in writing the word LE " a lasso or snare" they used the E twice, thus 
ELE, although he admits they did not sound the first E. As this first 
part of the L is often used alone for the letter, it is distinguished from 
the E by having the dots hollow and the one at the left a minute parallelo- 
gram touching the margin, while those of the latter are, in most cases, 
solid or incomplete and drawn in. His second L if turned around so 
that what is the top as given is made the bottom, will be a rude figure 
of the true character, which is known to students of these codices as the 
symbol for the Maya day Allan. His KU is a poor attempt at drawing 
the correct character for this sound. His first X if turned half around will 
present a very rude drawing of the symbol for CH '. In the codices this 
is usually a partially closed hand, with a small marginal circle and inverted 
7* in it ; on the monuments it is an open hand. His second X is a com- 
bination of two characters ; the dotted lines if curved upward and forward 
so as to connect with a (usually) small circular figure against the forehead 
are the X symbol, the head being the symbol for N. His U character needs 
a small circular dot on each side of the middle prominence. His charac- 
ters for HA and 77 are substantially correct ; that for MA is of the proper 
form, but the little circles should have lines across them in one direction. 
His sign of aspiration is correct, but is usually turned on the side opening 
toward the character with which it is connected. 

In addition to these I have discovered the characters for N, o (dz), TH, 
P, M, and Y ; also another character for X, the distinguishing characteristic 
of which is cross-hatching. The Z is a material modification of Landa's 
symbol for this letter. 

It is proper, however, to inform the reader that these symbols are not 
to be considered letters in the true sense of the term, nor is there any 
uniform rule, so far as I have yet discovered, by which we can trace the 
transition of forms or judge of the exact and full extent of their phonetic 
value. The difficulty to be encountered on this account in deciphering 
these records is foreshadowed by Landa, who says : " Of these letters I 
give here but the a, b, c ; their great number does not allow of more, 
because they employ a character for all the aspirations of the letters, and 
another for marking the divisions (or parts) and thus they become infinite." 

If there was some rule for modifying the consonant characters according 
to the pronunciation and the vowel additions, the process of decipherment 



30 PRE-COLUMBIAN LITERATURE OF NORTH AMERICA 

would be much simplified, but this is found only to a very limited extent. 
For example, three entirely different characters have been discovered for 
L, while but one has been discovered for Y ; two bearing no resemblance 
to one another have been found for M, and but one for N. The syllable 
XUL has a distinct character, which is substantially the same as Landa's 
character for the month of this name, omitting the right appendage. 
What adds to the difficulty is the fact that the parts of compound charac- 
ters do not always correspond with the syllables of the words they repre- 
sent, while on the other hand they sometimes contain the elements of 
more than one word. 

The day and month characters are to some extent phonetic, but it is 
useless to attempt an explanation without figures. 

Some of the more important results already obtained or indicated are 
the following : 

1st, That the direction in which the characters are to be taken is as 
stated in the Study of t lie Mamiscript Troano, pp. 136-140. My conclusion 
in regard to the direction in which the inscription on the Palenque tablet is 
to be read (same work pp. 200 and 201) proves also to be correct. It is pos- 
sible and even probable that the order in which the groups in the Dresden 
Codex are to be taken, varies in different parts as do the numeral series. 
This I can only surmise, as I have not as yet, except in few instances, 
deciphered connected series of sufficient length to. form sentences. One 
of these in the Codex Troano relates the vulture's (buzzard's) mode of flight. 
The others, in the Dresden Codex, relate to storms of wind and rain. 

2d, The parts of compound characters so far as determined usually 
follow each other from left to right and from above downward. A prefix 
is sometimes placed below. 

3d, Although some of the characters are simply conventional symbols, 
most of them are phonetic, and the writing is of a higher grade — as writ- 
ing — than was supposed. The subject matter, however, judging from the 
slight indications we have as yet obtained, is of a very simple character. 
Pages 48 and 49, Dresden Codex, if I may judge from the few characters 
thereon I have succeeded in deciphering, relate to a game, apparently the 
game or dance in which sticks or javelins are thrown and parried.* Pages 
71-73, same Codex, relate to tempests of wind, rain, and lightning, to the 
overturning of houses and the destruction of trees. In one place, if I 
rightly interpret the characters, there is mention of a sudden change in 
the temperature from hot to cold. The pictures, so far as I have ascer- 
tained, appear, as a general rule, to be attempts to indicate the subject of 

* Bancroft, A T ative Races, vol. ii. p. 72. 



PRE-COLUMBIAN LITERATURE OF NORTH AMERICA 3 1 

the context, though the latter is sometimes widely different from the con- 
clusion likely to be drawn from a study of these alone. 

4th, Another result is the proof, as above stated, notwithstanding the 
general supposition to the contrary, that Landa's alphabet is in the main 
correct. Further study of the codices may show that some of his letter 
characters not herein mentioned may be correct when amended. 

I have ascertained by a careful study of the day, month, and numeral 
characters on pp. 46-50 of the Dresden Codex, that the year of three hun- 
dred and sixty-five days — the five days to complete the number being added 
at the end of the eighteenth month — is used in the long series which runs 
through these pages. We also learn from this series that the four-year 
system, as explained in numerous works, was also used. The proof in this 
case amounts to a positive demonstration. 

Another discovery may be mentioned here, which will be of interest to 
those engaged in the study of these codices ; to wit, that in the series just 
mentioned, and in some others of this Dresden Codex, the count of days 
begins with the last day of the preceding month instead of the first of that 
alluded to. The same method of counting is adopted on the Palenque 
tablet, as can easily be shown by several examples found thereon. 

This brief notice of the progress I have made in deciphering these 
aboriginal records is given here for the purpose of calling the attention of 
those working in the same field thereto, that my methods and discoveries 
may be tested. I will communicate freely with those prepared to judge 
in regard thereto, as I have no desire to make a claim not well founded. 



'^&-y /A L^c*} &rt^yn^u> 



Washington, D. C. 



HOW ENGLAND FORCED THE SLAVE UPON AMERICA 

THE SUFFRAGE PROBLEM 

Less than two decades after the first European settlements were 
established on this continent it became a slave market. First the native 
red man became a commodity of barter and sale by his Spanish conqueror, 
and then the sable African was brought hither as a chattel from his far- 
distant home. Thus slavery, in its most degrading form, was a distinguish- 
ing feature of the new civilization from the very outset, and it so continued 
for more than three hundred years. Not that property in man was a new 
thing in the world's history ; for, in one form or another, it had existed 
from time immemorial, and was even then a recognized institution in some 
of the most civilized nations of the old world. But negro slavery of mod- 
ern times had been reserved as a sequel to the discovery and resettlement 
of the Americas. 

At first this traffic was without express legal sanction. None was neces- 
sary. Moral criterions, like religious forms, never rise higher than the stand- 
ard of intellectual development ; and where conscience fails to condemn, 
express justification is, of course, superfluous. But there came a time in 
the progress of civilization when enlightened minds began to question the 
rightfulness of this traffic in human beings; and then it was that some 
express legal sanction of the practice began to be necessary to its respecta- 
bility. And, strange to say, this was brought about through the interven- 
tion of a Christian priest, on the principle that one wrong may justify an- 
other, provided the second can be shown to be in mitigation of the first. 

Bartolome' de las Casas, bishop of Chiapa, was, however, something 
more than a time-server — something more than a mere conventional Chris- 
tian. He was a man of humane impulses, and his long and useful life 
exemplified many of the Christian virtues. He probably saw the evils of 
slavery, both inherent and incidental, since he was an eye-witness to its 
cruelties with respect to the Indian. But he was too politic a reformer to 
attempt the impracticable ; too much of a courtier to sacrifice position and 
influence to private opinion. He was not "the stuff of which martyrs are 
made." So, in order, as he said, to ameliorate the hard lot of the Indian 
slave, he proposed the substitution of the more hardy African as a laborer 
in the mines of Hispaniola, and thus became the apologist and advocate 



HOW ENGLAND FORCED THE SLAVE UPON AMERICA 33 

of the African slave trade. The Spanish government, acting upon his 
suggestion, gave legal sanction to this trade ; and the final outcome was 
the peopling of the West Indies and the Caribbean coasts with a mongrel 
population difficult of exact ethnological classification. 

In the course of time, these miscegenic communities became independ- 
ent states, and the slave of three centuries a free citizen. Under the epi- 
demic of democratic theories originating in the disorders of the French 
Revolution, he soon became a " sovereign " invested with the right to 
govern. In other words, the Indian and the negro, the mestizo and the 
zambo, the guachupen and the mulatto, each became a voter under a sys- 
tem which made all government officers elective for short terms by univer- 
sal suffrage; and this before he had had time to fully realize his changed 
position, or to form any clear conception of his new and untried relation- 
ship to society. 

After a long series of experiments, more or less disastrous, he has made 
some progress in civilization. It would indeed be marvellous if he had 
not. And if we accept, as we must, the great natural law of progressive 
development from lower to higher forms, we must conclude that he will 
ultimately become fitted for the difficult task of self-government. But we 
know as a fact that the fanciful theories of unrestricted suffrage and 
"sovereignties within sovereignties" have hitherto worked very disas- 
trously, and that it is precisely where these mischievous political heresies 
have been partially abandoned that the alternations of anarchy and mili- 
tary despotism have become less frequent. 

With us of the United States the race problem, supplemented by a 
perverted democracy, had a later origin, and is somewhat less complicated 
in character. Our Anglo-Saxon ancestors sought no religious pretext to 
enslave the Indian. If the truth must be owned, they cared very little 
about him anyway. He might have been a legitimate member of the 
human family or might not; might have had an immortal soul or might 
not. These were minor considerations with those who considered them- 
selves "the chosen of the Lord," commissioned to " drive out the Philis- 
tine " and possess themselves of his lands. Thus denied the privileges of 
either slave or citizen, with few rights as an alien which the white man 
felt bound to respect, the Indian was never incorporated into the new 
civilization, and there was never any appreciable amalgamation of the two 
races. It was simply an example of "the survival of the fittest " — that is 
to say, of the strongest — such as we see constantly taking place among 
the lower animals of different species. 

Not so, however, with the exotic negro. Brought hither an unwilling 

Vol. XXVIII.-No. i. -3 



34 HOW ENGLAND FORCED THE SLAVE UPON AMERICA 

emigrant, he has been the innocent cause of most of our political troubles, 
first as a slave, then as a free citizen. Much of this trouble has been and 
is imaginary, of course ; but much of it has been real, and is still of such 
a character as to very seriously threaten the perpetuity of our political 
institutions. Let us see how it all came about. 

Very early in the seventeenth century, when our great Eastern states 
were yet in the infancy of colonial life, our good mother England wanted 
to increase her North American colonial products for home consumption 
and for re-exportation ; and she wanted, besides, to discourage the emi- 
gration of her European subjects to the new world, where they were dis- 
posed to seek refuge from the oppressions of the restoration. To accom- 
plish these ends, she did not hesitate to violate the spirit of her own 
ancient common law, by fastening upon us the curse of negro slavery. 
King Charles II., by public proclamation, called upon his loyal subjects to 
subscribe to a joint stock company, organized under government auspices, 
for the declared purpose of " importing African slaves into America." 
The stock was readily taken, and our Atlantic coasts became dumping 
grounds of the slaves. 

In a few decades the importation had become so great as to excite 
alarm, and the spirited little colony of Massachusetts began to protest. 
Her legislature finally grew bold enough to impose a heavy import duty 
on African slaves, and this was subsequently increased with a view of mak- 
ing it prohibitory. But the law was inoperative by reason of the interpo- 
sition of the royal council appointed by the crown, and subsequently each 
of the royal governors was instructed from London to veto all such 
measures. The colonies of Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, each 
had a similar experience. Every measure looking to the restriction of the 
traffic was promptly vetoed by the crown, and every petition to that end 
was received with haughty indifference. Finally, after the colonies had 
learned the necessity of concerted action, one of the very first measures 
of the congress of 1774, was a joint resolution providing that, after 
December of that year, " no more African slaves be imported into any of 
the colonies," and this was repeated with additional emphasis some eight- 
een months later. Afterwards, when the controversy had culminated in 
a settled purpose to throw off British allegiance, this very slavery griev- 
ance was alleged as one of the chief reasons therefor. Thus, the original 
draft of the Declaration of Independence contained, as "one of the counts 
in the indictment" against the King of Great Britain, a clause charging 
that he had " steadfastly forbidden all attempts to prohibit, or even to 
limit, the importation of African slaves into the colonies." 



HOW ENGLAND FORCED THE SLAVE UPON AMERICA 35 

This clause was stricken out, as Mr. Jefferson tells us, " in complaisance 
to South Carolina," thus affording the first example of the sacrifice of 
principle to temporary expediency; and like all such sacrifices, it cost the 
country dearly. It was an entirely new departure on the slavery question. 
It was something more than that, for it changed the whole legal aspect of 
the question. As pointed out by Dr. Von Hoist, the German historian 
of our constitution, up to that time the colonial congress, as a de facto 
body, stood committed against slavery ; but now when, for the first time, 
the congress had become a de jure body as well, it weakly abandoned 
the whole question ; and, by subsequently relegating it to the particular 
" states," tacitly legalized it therein. For although, up to the time of the 
Revolution, slavery was a fact in each of the thirteen colonies, it was a 
legal institution in none of them. Not one of the original charters under 
which the colonial governments had been established, contained anything 
that could be construed into a grant of right to property in man. Slav- 
ery was not sanctioned by either the common or statutory law of England ; 
and both classes of laws were still of force in each of the colonies. Nor 
did the fact that England had forced slavery upon them, contrary to her 
own laws, and over their repeated protests, alter the legal status of the 

case - Vb"b<©\ 

The fatal consequences of this blunder are seen on nearly every page 
of our national history. They stand out before us in the annals of the 
old confederation. We encounter them on almost every page of the 
reported proceedings of the constitutional convention of 1787. We find 
them in the curious provisions of Articles I. and IV. of the constitution 
which the convention finally submitted for ratification. They appear in 
all the debates preceding final ratification, and in the subsequent amend- 
ments to the constitution. And we see them in the long series of legisla- 
tive " compromises " and temporary expedients which followed; expedi- 
ents which settled nothing, decided no question, but merely put off the 
day of trial. Thus for eighty-six years, this slavery question kept us in 
a constant ferment ; and on one notable occasion it compromised our 
national honor by forcing us into an unjust war with a neighboring power. 
Finally, all temporary expedients failed ; and the issue had to be squarely 
met. The question was referred to the arbitrament of the sword ; and a 
four years' civil war resulted in the emancipation of the negro slave, and 
in the complete vanquishment of the Southern states of the Union. The 
problem then was, how to reconstruct the Union without involving some 
radical change in our form of government. 

Two plans were proposed — one by the President and one by the con- 



36 HOW ENGLAND FORCED THE SLAVE UPON AMERICA 

gress of the Republic. That proposed by the President, contemplated the 
rehabilitation of the vanquished states without other conditions than the 
ratification by them of the Emancipation Proclamation, and some formal 
acknowledgment by them of the paramount authority of the national 
government. In other words, the abolition of slavery, which the insurrec- 
tion had sought to prevent, and the integrity of the Union, which it had 
assailed, were to be placed forever beyond dispute. The plan proposed 
by congress was not essentially different in principle. It contemplated 
both the objects named, and also the citizenship of the liberated slave. 
But whilst citizenship was the logical sequence of emancipation, it did not 
necessarily imply the right of suffrage. A man could be a citizen of the 
United States, and 'of the particular state in which he resided, without 
being a legal voter. The broad distinction between equality of right 
before the law, and equality of right to govern, had been consistently 
maintained by our judicial tribunals from the very foundation of the 
government. Both plans imposed sweeping disabilities, incurred by what 
both characterized as " participation in the rebellion." These were remov- 
able in the one case at the discretion of the President ; in the other, at the 
discretion of congress; and in both, a formal written petition for pardon 
was necessary. 

In point of fact then, both plans were, as I have said, essentially the 
same in principle; and it was of no practical consequence to the Southern 
people which should be adopted. Nor was it a matter of any moment to 
the Northern people, except in so far as the President (who happened to 
have been born South) had failed to inspire their confidence. But one had 
been labelled " Democratic," and the other" Republican "; and this dis- 
tinction without a difference had to be maintained in the interests of 
demagogues. Neither party would yield, and finally a compromise was 
proposed : It came from the more moderate and conservative wing of the 
dominant party in congress, and made the proposed amendments to the 
constitution (now known as Articles XIII., and XIV.) the sole basis of 
reconstruction. The ratification of those amendments by the legal voters 
(then all white men) of the vanquished states, was the only essential con- 
dition to their immediate restoration to the rights and privileges of the 
union. The de facto state governments, set up in the South by the Presi- 
dent without the authority of congress, were to be recognized and legalized. 
The question of extending the right of suffrage to the freedmen, was to 
be adjourned till after reconstruction should be accomplished. It was 
then to be referred to the decision of the particular states themselves; 
but, of course, under the conditions imposed in the XlVth constitutional 



HOW ENGLAND FORCED THE SLAVE UPON AMERICA 37 

amendment. Those conditions were, the apportionment of representation 
on the basis of qualified electors ; not, as hitherto, on the basis of mere 
number, counting "all free white persons and three-fifths of all other per- 
sons." This would have insured fair representation, large or small as the 
state might choose to make it ; and viewed at this distance of time, and 
in the light of events that followed, the marvel is that the plan was not 
promptly and unanimously accepted by the Southern leaders. 

But madness ruled the hour. In the face of certain defeat, the Demo- 
cratic leaders, North as well as South, obstinately adhered to the personal 
fortunes of an accidental President who had alternately betrayed both 
political parties; and who now in order to reinstate himself with his for- 
mer political associates South, had raised hopes in them which, in the very 
nature of the case, could never be realized. Not one of his de facto gov- 
ernors submitted this compromise plan to the state assembly ; or if he 
did, it was in such a way, and under such conditions, as to insure its 
prompt rejection. In nearly every instance it was received with silent 
contempt and not even considered ; while an ignorant and servile partisan 
press denounced its promoters as " revolutionists," and its Southern apol- 
ogists as " renegades and traitors." 

Of course, this had the effect merely to strengthen the extremists in 
congress ; and then, for the first time during the exciting controversy, the 
famous Reconstruction Acts of March, 1867, became a possibility. Hith- 
erto it would have been quite impossible to enact such measures, even 
with the President's concurrence. But now they were readily passed over 
his veto by the requisite two-thirds majority. They thus became the law 
of the land, in the form and by the means constitutionally appointed. 
They provided for the framing of new constitutions for each of the van- 
quished states, by conventions of delegates to be elected by " the male 
citizens thereof, twenty-one years of age and upwards, of whatever race, 
color or previous condition of servitude " ; and they further provided that 
the state constitutions, thus to be framed, should " guarantee the elective 
franchise to all such persons." Thus the emancipated negro slave was to 
be made the chief factor in the reestablishment of local civil government, 
and a legal voter at subsequent elections. The only alternative was military 
rule, the end and consequences of which were beyond possible conjecture. 

Thus forced to a choice between two alternatives, neither of which 
could be approved, but one of which must be accepted, many Southern 
men advocated reconstruction, on the basis of the laws named, as the lesser 
of two evils. Whether this was an error of judgment, may be a matter of 
opinion. It may still be a matter of honest difference of opinion as to 



38 HOW ENGLAND FORCED THE SLAVE UPON AMERICA 

which is less calculated to retard the progress of civilization, and therefore 
which is the more desirable, military rule or universal suffrage. But it will 
hardly do to say that a man is necessarily a scoundrel because he chooses 
the one or the other. He might make such a choice even as a matter of 
principle, without necessarily being either a fool or a knave. It would be 
still more stupid and irrational so to denounce him for a compulsory choice 
of either when the only alternative consists in the selection of the other. 
Nor will it do to say that all Southern men who advocated reconstruction 
under the ultimatum thus submitted, were obscure nobodies. For we 
know, as a matter of fact, that many of them had been eminent as jurists, 
statesmen and scholars before this particular period in their personal his- 
tory ; and it is not quite easy to understand how they should have so sud- 
denly become the reverse by merely differing in opinion with some of their 
neighbors. It is now known that among those who espoused the cause of 
reconstruction were men who had filled every position of public trust, 
from that of county representative to the governorship of the state. Some 
of them had been justices of the supreme court ; others congressmen and 
presidential electors. Some of them had been, and were still, bankers and 
men of large business affairs ; others were planters with little left but their 
bare acres, but who had numbered their slaves by scores. Some of them 
had been successful military leaders, with world-wide reputation ; others 
were men of science who had turned aside from their books and labora- 
tories to aid as far as they might in saving their state from hopeless ruin. 
And there were not wanting amongst them a few young men of promising 
talents, scions of some of the oldest and proudest families of the South, 
who have since risen to eminence in the learned professions, or to national 
reputation as publicists and legislators. 

Of course such men, educated as they had been, and environed as they 
were, could hardly be expected to endorse the principles of the reconstruc- 
tion acts. They did not accept the principles of those acts per sc, and never 
pretended to. They sustained towards the measure a relation similar to 
that which Talleyrand sustained towards the French Revolution. They 
"wanted to resist it ; failing in that, they wanted to make the best of it." 
But their position differed from that of Talleyrand in this, that they had 
the courage of their convictions, and their efforts to " make the best of it " 
were consequently more successful. For amid a storm of passion and un- 
reason, unparalleled in the annals of the English-speaking race, they suc- 
ceeded, in one or two exceptional instances, in giving to their state what 
is now generally conceded to have been the best constitution it ever had. 
I say in one or two exceptional instances ; for the rule, in most of the 



HOW ENGLAND FORCED THE SLAVE UPON AMERICA 39 

states, was just the reverse. And the reason is obvious. Only in excep- 
tional instances did the white people of the South take any part in the 
work of reconstruction. They were warned by their political leaders to 
" have nothing whatever to do with it." Merchants and business men who 
showed a disposition to disregard this warning were threatened with what 
was later on styled the " boycott." Young men who might have been dis- 
posed to disregard this were threatened with " social ostracism." And 
where these threats failed, wives were exhorted to divorce their husbands 
who should "Africanize themselves" by participation in the local elections 
for delegates to the constitutional convention. The result generally was 
that the work of constitution-making, and of the succeeding legislation, 
was abandoned to ignorant negroes, led by a few unscrupulous and irre- 
sponsible white adventurers who had no permanent interest in the state. 

Such, in brief outline, was the genesis of the suffrage problem in the 
Southern states. I do not question the motives of those who forced the 
issue so prematurely upon the country. I do not question the motives of 
those who, by obstinately opposing all the milder and more rational meas- 
ures of reconstruction, became the unconscious allies of the advocates of 
this dangerous experiment. But now that passion has cooled and rea- 
son resumed sway, both parties realize the magnitude of their mistake. 
Unrestricted suffrage, where all officers are elective for short terms, is an 
expensive experiment in any country. It has been found a bad policy 
even in homogeneous communities, where the standard of public intelli- 
gence and virtue is exceptionally high. But in countries inhabited by 
mixed and heterogeneous races, and where the standard of popular intelli- 
gence and virtue is generally low, it is something more than a mistake. 
However well intended, experience has shown it to be a blunder little 
short of a crime against civilization. 

It is said that wherever the English common law prevails, there ought 
to be an adequate legal remedy for every private wrong ; and, by a parity 
of reasoning, wherever the Anglo-Saxon civilization dominates, there ought 
to be an orderly and pacific remedy for every public wrong. The difficulty 
in both cases is admitted to be in a judicious application of the remedy. 
In the case before us every one concedes the natural remedy to be a 
judicious restriction of the suffrage. The alternate, artificial remedy 
sometimes suggested is compulsory education at government expense. It 
is objected to the first that it would be " undemocratic ; " to the second 
that it involves a species of paternalism better suited to an empire than to 
a republic. The objection to the first will be seen, upon inquiry, to pro- 
ceed from a false or perverted conception of free government, while, 



40 HOW ENGLAND FORCED THE SLAVE UPON AMERICA 

with respect to the second, if the objection urged were out of the way 
entirely, others of a graver character would take its place. Intellectual 
development, or civilization as it is called, may be aided in its growth, but 
it cannot be suddenly forced into maturity. It must proceed in the nat- 
ural order, and this requires time. Hot-house civilizations, like hot-house 
plants, have a very uncertain life tenure. They may look very well on 
paper or under glass covers, but are generally useless exotics elsewhere. 
The farmer who should undertake to force the harvest season by means of 
artificial heat and light would probably be thought a lunatic. But it is 
doubtful whether he would be less rational than that republic which first 
converts its vast domain into an asylum, and then undertakes to convert 
its adopted paupers and vagrants into responsible voters by means of the 
spelling book and multiplication table. 

The suffrage problem is not materially changed by the constitutional 
amendments, notwithstanding the popular opinion to the contrary. Arti- 
cle XIV. merely changes the basis of representation, leaving the qualifica- 
tion of voters to be fixed and determined by the particular states as 
before. The only restriction is in Article XV., which provides merely that 
suffrage shall be impartial. No male citizen, twenty-one years of age and 
upwards, can be legally excluded from the ballot " on account of race, 
color or previous condition of servitude." But he may be legally excluded 
for any other reason, as, for instance, illiteracy, pauperism, vagrancy, crime 
or other causes, or combination of causes which unfit him to govern. In 
exceptional cases, this might result in individual hardship ; but all general 
laws are open to the same objection. Perfection in legislation is never 
possible, and therefore never expected. The most that is possible, and 
therefore the most that ought to be expected in such, cases is the selection 
of the least objectionable alternative. If the professed object of all gov- 
ernment is the general welfare, and not individual advantage, then it is 
manifestly the duty of a state to restrict the suffrage to those competent 
to govern without imperiling the welfare of the whole. Those of its citi- 
zens who might be thus excluded from active participation in the affairs 
of government would not be wronged, because suffrage is not a right inher- 
ent in citizenship, but a political privilege only. Besides, they would have 
all the greater incentive to fit themselves to become legal voters ; and 
with ambition supplemented by industry and frugality, they could hardly 
fail in a country like ours to ultimately attain to the prescribed standard. 
If they have no such ambition, then no political contrivance, and no 
amount of class legislation, can ever fit them to govern. Therefore, in 
neither case could there be any just cause of complaint. Moreover, if we 



HOW ENGLAND FORCED THE SLAVE UPON AMERICA 4 1 

take a common-sense view of the matter, there is no valid reason why an 
unfit person should vote merely because he happens not to be a negro. 

Of course the reform here indicated, would diminish the state's numerical 
representation. But aside from mere partisan considerations of a tempor- 
ary character, in which the welfare of the country is seldom involved, this 
would be a loss without injury. The senate would not be affected by it ; 
except perhaps, that it would be less easy for inferior men to obtain seats 
therein, and this would benefit the country. The election of President 
would still be by states ; and with a purified ballot, there would be less 
danger of disorder in case of a close election. And with respect to the 
lower house, everyone knows that it is not the number, but the ability and 
character of its representatives, that give to a state or section considera- 
tion and influence in that body. One man of real ability, with the cour- 
age of honest convictions, will have more influence, and do more to shape 
legislation, than any number of fools. Nor would the loss of mere num- 
bers long militate against any one political party. The inconvenience 
would be shared in turn by all, and therefore permanently injure none. 
But even were this less probable, every consideration of patriotism would 
still make the reform desirable ; for every honest and patriotic man prizes 
country above party. He rises above ward politics, where the safety and 
glory of the republic is involved, and cares little for the personal fortunes 
of demagogues who thrive best where fair elections are least possible. 



0jX&Ap>u<£St 



ClM-frfA. 



Caracas, Venezuela, S. A. 



SWITZERLAND'S MODEL DEMOCRACY 

POPULAR GOVERNMENT WITHOUT SPOILS 

Less than twenty years ago Switzerland went in search of a model 
democracy. Very many of her people, and not a few outsiders, feel that 
she secured what she sought for. In any event, her system is deserving 
of attention, because it is the system of an educated people, and because, 
too, it is the system of a people who have practiced democracy in various 
forms for half a thousand years. 

In many senses their constitution is the most remarkable, and the 
most advanced of any people's charter in the world. It is not a charter 
of rights wrested from kings, but a bill of privileges granted the Swiss 
by themselves. "We, in virtue of our sovereign rights, give ourselves this 
constitution." 

To understand fairly how very much the Swiss gave themselves by the 
constitution of 1874, it would be useful to glance for a moment at the 
condition of the people in times not far preceding this radical change. 

There was need of change, irrespective of a popular conceit that 
Switzerland had been a republic for many centuries. Its liberty had been 
a sort of tribal one. Each canton, as it joined the bund, or alliance, 
reserved the right to do just as it pleased ; and not infrequently the 
hundreds of little subdivisions, or townships, called communes, into which 
each canton was divided, reserved the right to do as they pleased also. 
That right has never been fully surrendered to this day by either com- 
mune or canton. 

From the times of Tell and Winkelried, down to the French Revolu- 
tion, there had existed a degree of self sovereignty, communal and can- 
tonal sovereignty, that made the general confederacy no better than a 
mere alliance. The Swiss called it nothing more: "We are a confedera- 
tion of cantons only, and we rule ourselves," exclaimed one of the can- 
tonal orators. It was only a fancy of the foreigner that styled the Swiss 
confederation a republic. There was no central or directing authority of 
any kind. It was simply an alliance of cantons, and back of it all stood 
their system of communes, old as the people themselves, which exercised 
all privileges and conceded almost nothing, not even to the cantons, of 
which the communes were a direct part. The spirit of the commune was 



SWITZERLAND S MODEL DEMOCRACY 43 

and now is to govern itself. Of course, this spirit has been modified 
somewhat, else the present national constitution never could have been 
proposed, much less adopted. No matter what the government is called, 
it is not a lifetime since the lower town classes possessed almost no privi- 
leges at all in Switzerland. Both they and the farmers were as a rule 
excluded from the polls ; they could not have office ; the farmer dared not 
sell his produce to the purchaser offering the highest price ; town agents 
and corporations with exclusive privileges took all profits ; the right to 
manufacture belonged to monopolists, and the peasant was robbed of 
all that made industry profitable or progress possible. Poverty and dis- 
tress and anarchy were common to the people, and the real government 
was the petty tyranny of the communes. 

Step by step, and twenty years apart, the situation changed. The 
first step was the intervention of Napoleon in 1798. He came, he said, 
'• in the name of Providence," to give the people a constitution. Unjusti- 
fiable and criminal as his ten years' intervention was, the people advanced 
more in science, art, manufactures, and government, than they had done 
in a hundred years before. The people learned something, too, of the 
advantages of unity and a central government. 

In a few years the second step forward was made. In 1830 an epi- 
demic of political reform seized on almost all Europe. It had its origin 
in the rise to power of Louis Philippe in France. In that year many of 
the Swiss cantons experienced a small process of political regeneration, 
though the communal system as usual remained in the pastoral background 
of dead ages. A species of freedom of the press was granted in some can- 
tons ; equality of citizenship, too ; the right to petition ; and open sessions 
of the governing body. It seems astounding that the new American 
republic possessed all these things for seventy years before they were even 
thought of in the sovereign states of Switzerland, gray with centuries of 
political existence and self-rule. The effort, made a couple of years later, 
to revise the general constitution to correspond in a sense with the 
advanced spirit of a few of the cantons, failed — failed, owing to an exas- 
perating pride in petty cantonal rule, and the born blood-and-bone oppo- 
sition of all the Catholic and a few Protestant cantons to all ideas of 
reform. The year 1848 saw another step forward in Swiss politics, but 
the amended constitution still left the country only in the situation of 
allied cantons bound as with a rope of sand. Little concentration of 
power had taken place, and the cantons and communes reserved still more 
rights than they conceded. Then came the beginning of the end of cob- 
web government and exclusive cantonal rule in Switzerland. On May- 



44 



SWITZERLAND'S MODEL DEMOCRACY 



day, 1874, the Swiss people waked from the sleep of centuries. The revo- 
lution was bloodless. 

The writer witnessed the contest that ensued over the adoption of 
the constitution of 1874. It was a contest of the so-called democracy of 
feudal ages with the democracy of modern times and the spirit of modern 
government ; a contest of tribal or cantonal supremacy, allied with the 
spirit of feudal times, against all effort at centralization of power; a bitter 
fight as to whether the many should rule themselves, or whether the few 
should be deputized to rule for them. Great concessions were made by 
the individual of his privileges; by the commune and by the canton ; but 
spite of the concessions, pure democracy remained master of the situa- 
tion. It is not so much what the people surrendered as what they did 
not surrender that makes their present system of supreme interest. What 
they did was done to insure the reality of their union, and to strengthen 
what now, for the first time, could be called the republic. Most people 
strike to get freedom ; the Swiss struck to dispose of a part of what they 
had. They had too much freedom, only it was not the right kind. The 
new freedom assured to the Swiss came with the new constitution and 
the extraordinary rights of the referendum. 

Two houses form the national parliament, called the diet. Members 
of the upper chamber may be elected either by the people or by the 
cantons, as the different cantons may determine. Members of the lower 
house are selected as in the United States, and the apportionment of 
representation is the same. The executive power is a high council of 
seven members, chosen by the diet from among its members. This 
council chooses from its number its president, who is also president of 
the Swiss republic. This council has seats in the diet and participates 
in its proceedings. The diet also elects members of the supreme court, 
the attorney-general, and the commander of the troops. No appoint- 
ments to office are made by the president personally ; that power is 
reserved to the high council and the approval of the diet. The presi- 
dent and the vice-president are chosen for one year, and neither is eligible 
to immediate re-election. The diet holds biennial sessions, and its mem- 
bers, as well as all officers of the state, are held personally responsible for 
their official actions. They may be impeached by the state, and prose- 
cuted even by individuals. They, as well as members of the high council, 
are elected for the term of three years. 

The laws that they pass are subject to the scrutiny of the people by 
virtue of the referendum — that extraordinary privilege possessed by the 
Swiss as above the citizens of any other nation. It is the check held by 



SWITZERLAND S MODEL DEMOCRACY 45 

him on all laws passed by the representative whom he has helped to send 
to parliament. It is not enough that he votes on the man — he must also 
vote on the work, and if not pleased with them the man and the work are 
both consigned to political limbo. This is the foremost right of the con- 
stitution. Every law passed by the diet must be submitted to the popu- 
lar vote if asked for by the legislatures of eight cantons, or by the petition 
of thirty thousand citizens. Against an unpopular law the latter is not 
difficult to obtain. It is the work of a day, so to speak, to secure out of 
three millions of people thirty thousand names. Forms are distributed in 
every town and hamlet, the names signed, the petitions sent to the diet, 
and the day fixed for the submission of the law to popular will. This 
day must be within the current year. The fatal day arrives, and the legis- 
lative work of a whole winter may get its death-blow in an hour. This is 
the right of the Swiss people, and in their view it is a born right, a 
natural, matter-of-course process, and a privilege they never dreamed of 
surrendering. 

In some of the cantons — the more important ones, too, such as Zurich 
and Berne — the people need not petition for the exercise of this right as 
to cantonal laws. With them, the cantonal representatives are compelled 
to submit every law to the popular vote, and that almost as soon as passed 
by the legislature. 

" It makes our legislators a little careful as to what they propose," ex- 
claim the Swiss friends of the referendum; "they can't force unjust laws 
for political effect as they do in other countries, notably the United States. 
Our diet is no nest for politicians with axes to grind, and no single locality 
can secure an advantageous law if it is not good for the whole country. 
Little canton Zug, with some demagogue of a senator, cannot secure a 
law to itself that is injurious to the great cantons of Berne and Zurich. 
Local advantage is nothing any more with us ; national good, everything. 
The candidate who is elected for promises made to his home constituents 
counts without his host; the people of other districts will bring him to 
reckoning." 

Besides the sovereign rights reserved to the people by the referendum, 
the plan is a political educator of the private citizen. In Switzerland, 
every man is a law-maker, and must be educated and intelligent.* This 

* Since this article was prepared, the Swiss have adopted a political arrangement known as 
The Rights of Initiative. Under this extremely democratic privilege the people themselves, by 
petition, may propose legislation to the government. These proposals the. government, in its 
turn, is bound to formulate into laws for submission to the chambers and to the people, to be 
voted on. 



46 SWITZERLAND'S MODEL DEMOCRACY 

education, the Swiss say, "we compel, for our schools are free, and their 
attendance is compulsory. Scarcely one in a thousand but can read and 
write, and yet we are one of the thickest settled countries of the earth. 
Our system makes us all patriots — first of our communes and cantons, 
then of our common country. Our communes are cradles of liberty ; so 
long as they are free, Switzerland is free ; so long as free, we shall be 
great." The voice of the great minority — the opponents of the system, 
the people who voted against the constitution — is not always silent. 
"This proletariat of ours," said a conservative property-holding Swiss to 
the writer a year or so ago, " is leading the country a pretty dance, and 
especially here in democratic Zurich they are compelling all sorts of laws 
against the tax-payer and in favor of the man who has earned nothing. 
It is the unjust socialistic spirit of the age. The lower Swiss voters are 
going crazy. Such great privileges as to national affairs, the half of which 
they cannot understand, make fools of them. Unfortunately, poverty is 
in the majority here, and it has no interest except in helping itself at the 
expense of others. They order expensive roads, knowing they will not 
help pay for them, costly bridges, great improvements in city and country 
— in short, they reach into every man's pocket and take what they want. 
Our laws would permit it ; they would permit anything. There is no 
stretch of outrage on the tax-payer to be imagined that such a system as 
ours would not authorize." So it is. In the minds of many Swiss, there 
is scarcely a step between Swiss democracy and extreme socialism. " As 
in the United States, so we, too, will soon be led by demagogues." Un- 
fortunately a demagogue's privilege and a people's freedom go hand in 
hand. It is noticed already in Switzerland that excellent national laws, 
formulated by the Swiss diet alter long and wise consideration, have been 
cast aside at the ballot-box by that outside parliament, whose leaders are 
liable to be self-seeking demagogues. The new and good laws that have 
been petitioned for are very few. And yet, under the constitution, every 
canton has the right to propose laws, and even individuals can by law 
command a hearing on the part of their legislators. 

The plan of legislation, of course, leaves the conclusion wholly in the 
hands of the individual, trained or untrained. Is it a question whether a 
mass of untrained voters is as fit to pass on a scheme of political economy 
as is the practical statesman and legislator? Can a thousand coal heavers 
and cab drivers pass intelligently on a law regulating education in the 
higher universities? Yet that is what is done in canton Zurich, for the 
democratic law compels the submission of the scheme, and fines the voter 
if he does not vote, whether he has an opinion on the subject or not. 



SWITZERLAND'S MODEL DEMOCRACY 47 

What effect can such law making have on the representative in the 
diet ? Does he enjoy being only a formulator of bills that may, after all 
his toil, be set aside by men who possibly have no conception of their aim ? 
Does the system tend to make wise law-givers and statesmen? Do able 
men care to ask position at such an apparent sacrifice? Be the answer 
what it may, there is not a question but the shrewdest politicians and the 
best lawyers covet a seat in the Swiss parliament. They are not attracted 
by the insignificant salary of a couple of dollars a day. The ablest patriot 
finds duty, honor, and the gratification of ambition in formulating and 
engineering a good law through the assembly. It is in no sense an easy 
labor. The members of the diet are apt to be thoroughly educated men, 
possessed with the knowledge that history teaches, and the conservative 
practices that belong to intellectual men trained to their trade. All Swiss 
laws are enforced ; hence the representative who initiates a law and sees 
it adopted by the people has the satisfaction of knowing that it is a law 
in fact, and not merely the dead proposition, the legal mockery character- 
istic of so many laws of the United States. 

Aside from the remarkable privileges of the referendum, there are 
other features of the Swiss system almost as important, and certainly as 
noticeable. Among them is the government monopoly of certain public 
enterprises. The telegraph and telephone system, for instance, is owned 
and worked by the general government ; and the railroads, though not 
owned, are wholly controlled by it. The telegraph is in universal use in 
the country, owing to the low rates. Ten cents will pay for a dispatch of 
eight words to any point in the country, and yet the government secures 
a profit of forty thousand dollars a year, while ten times as much may be 
saved to the people in lower rates. The telephone system is also in part 
owned and controlled by the government. Schools are free and attend- 
ance compulsory. Every man is a soldier, and the militia law is enforced, 
and of a character that produces a well-equipped, well-trained army of 
two hundred and fifty thousand men, ready for war at a moment's notice. 
The country maintains order, its credit is good, its schools models for the 
world, its armies strong; its citizens intelligent, industrious, and as happy, 
at least, as any people are in the disturbed and unsettled age in which 
we live. A few years since the general debt was only six dollars and fifty 
cents to the poll, while in France it was one hundred and twenty dollars, 
and in Great Britain one hundred and twenty-two dollars. The head of 
a Swiss family paid less than four dollars per year for the army. A Rus- 
sian paid ten dollars for the same thing, a German eight dollars, and a 
Frenchman fifteen dollars. There was little absolute want or distress in 



48 SWITZERLAND'S MODEL DEMOCRACY 

the land. One Swiss in twenty only asked alms, while in France it was 
one in nine, and in England, one in eight. The country pretends, virtu- 
ally at least, to free trade, and, owing to its central location, its people 
must and do compete with the industries of all Europe. The compara- 
tively prosperous and contented condition of the Swiss goes far to prove 
that the political system of the country is a good one ; good, at least, for 
that people. " Governments are like shoes," it has been said ; "they are 
suitable for those whom they fit best." The political shoes of Switzer- 
land fit the Swiss people. 

Reference has been made to that still purer type of Swiss democracy 
practiced in Zurich and a few other cantons. Here every law is sub- 
mitted to the people, and every citizen has the right to enter the legisla- 
tive hall and argue a public proposition, provided as many as twenty-five 
deputies are willing to hear him. Twice a year every law proposed by 
the cantonal council must be printed, and distributed to the voters who 
will pass on it at the ballot box. Here, as in all Switzerland and at all 
times, the ballot is free, and the system of voting the same as our own. 
It is noticeable that all elections are on Sunday, and that the polling urn 
is usually placed in the church just after the service. The elections are 
orderly; the voter quietly passes into one door of the church, casts his 
ballot, passes out an opposite door, and goes quietly home. No loitering 
and no crowds about the polls are permitted, and no electioneering there. 
An honorable candidate would consider such work on the part of his friends 
as contemptible. The Zurich tax law is among the most notable advan- 
tages of its system. It is progressive in character, and doubles up in pro- 
portion to the increase of fortune. It tends to prevent the accumulation 
of colossal fortunes in the hands of single men. The citizen who owns 
but four thousand dollars' worth of property pays taxes only on the half; 
the owner of twenty-five thousand dollars' worth pays taxes on eight- 
tenths ; and the holder of one hundred thousand dollars' worth pays 
taxes on the whole. The income tax is managed on a similar plan ; the 
result is, the burden of taxation falls on the rich man's shoulders. Of 
course the rich man complains, but that would be anticipated. 

In Zurich all office holders are made answerable to the citizen as well 
as to the state for any abuse of power, and no two persons of near blood 
relation are permitted to hold place in the same judicial or legislative 
body. Nepotism is unknown. There is no removal from office except 
for cause. Criminals and alms-takers lose their votes, and even bankrupts 
are frequently disenfranchised. > 

The pastoral government of the little cantons of Glarus, Schwytz, 



SWITZERLAND S MODEL DEMOCRACY 49 

Unterwalden, Appenzell, and Uri, are more curious than useful as a study. 
" Nobody would think of asking their advice about anything," said Napo- 
leon once, on hearing that they all objected to a constitution or to federal 
government. There was a time when the tallest man in the crowd was 
chosen for ruler, just as the one-eyed man became king in the country 
where all were blind. The pastoral systems of these five cantons are 
almost as primitive. Every May-day the citizens of each of these can- 
tons meet, and march to some near meadow, and there pass laws and elect 
officers for the coming year. It is the work of a day. Some of their laws 
have been on their statute books for centuries. No change is needed. 
Their customs, habits, all are of another age. They never heard the 
wheels of progress in their lives, and do not want to. The tallest man 
would still suit them, were it not that there is such a sameness and anti- 
quity of life, habit, and appearance among them all,, that no tallest man 
is to be found. Their tribal form of government answers them. Their 
political shoes are fitted to their political feet. They want no other. 

The real national democracy of Switzerland is still on trial. If it can 
stand the shocks of the socialistic storms of to-day, it can stand any- 
thing; so far, it has stood them. Its tendency has been to check legisla- 
tion rather than to hurry it ; and if the people keep cool, the referendum 
will grow to be a conservative, not a radical power. So far the Swiss 
system, revolutionary as it has been, has not proved a failure. In any 
future event it will remain favorable to popular rights because, while con- 
senting to be governed in part by the few of their choice, the best and 
real rights of the people remain in their own hands. It may be the 
system will prove the forerunner of similar systems, for certainly there is 
a tendency, the world over, on the part of the people to take the sovereign 
power back into their own keeping. The signs are in the air ; universal 
education has made them a certain augury. The ignorant must be gov- 
erned ; the intelligent will govern themselves, and their voice will be, as 
ever, the voice of God. 



St. Gall, Switzerland. 



Vol. XXVIII.-No. 1.-4 



THE MAKING OF A STATE 

DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF KENTUCKY 

The recent celebration in Louisville of the one-hundredth anniversary 
of the admission of Kentucky into the union of states, by the famous 
Filson Club, of which Colonel R. T. Durrett is president, has brought into 
fresh light an epoch full of action. The Kentucky colony had its origin 
at a time of storm and stress, while the quarrel between England and her 
American possessions was ripening into insurrection and war. It is 
instructive to trace the influences which forced over the mountain barriers 
the pioneer hosts, and the effects of that movement upon the history of 
the western part of our continent. The drift of population was the natu- 
ral effect of that unrest which followed the termination of the French and 
Indian wars by the treaty of 1763. Canada having become a British pos- 
session, England no longer needed her American colonies as a buffer to 
French aggression, and entered upon an attempt to saddle upon them the 
burdens under which her people were groaning at home. The colonies, 
on the other hand, no longer needing British protection against an enemy 
on their border, were in no humor to submit to the caprices of the mother 
country, which had afforded them but tardy and indifferent protection in 
time of need. The permanent settlement of Kentucky was contempora- 
neous with the outbreak of that struggle which led to the establishment 
of the greatest republic of the world. 

In his brilliant address on the commemorative occasion, Colonel Dur- 
rett said : " For one hundred and eighty-five years after the first settle- 
ment at Jamestown. Kentucky was a part of Virginia, and during four- 
fifths of this long period was an unknown land. The Virginians along the 
Atlantic slope showed no early disposition to settle beyond the mountains 
that walled them in on the west. They erected their manor houses and 
built their tobacco barns on the rich lands near rivers that flowed from the 
mountains to the sea, and were content. What they had to sell the ocean 
would bear to foreign marts, and what they wanted to buy the same ocean 
would bring to their doors. There were no known inducements in the un- 
known country beyond the mountains to entice them to the dangers and the 
hardships of a wilderness filled with wild animals and still wilder savages. 
But whether the Virginians would go to the discovery of Kentucky or 



THE MAKING OF A STATE 5 1 

not, the region was so located that to remain unknown was impossible. 
The great Mississippi and the beautiful Ohio were upon its border for 
hundreds of miles, while their tributaries penetrated thousands of miles 
within. Upon these rivers hunters and traders and adventurers were to 
paddle their canoes in spite of dangers, and the fair land of Kentucky 
could not indefinitely escape their eyes. 

Two explorers of different nationalities, but in pursuit of the same wild 
hope of a waterway across the continent to the Pacific ocean, discovered 
Kentucky almost at the same time. They were Captain Thomas Batts, a 
Virginian of whom nothing but this discovery is known, and Robert Cava- 
lier de la Salle, a distinguished Frenchman, whose explorations in America 
made him known in both hemispheres. The latter was born in the old 
French city of Rouen in 1643, and at the age of twenty-three came to 
America to devote his great intellect and indomitable energy to the solu- 
tion of the problem of a transcontinental river running toward China. 
Columbus had crossed the Atlantic a century and three-quarters before, 
with the belief that he had found India, and when this delusion had faded 
before the light of actual discovery, the continent of North America was 
still believed to contain a great river running across to the Pacific Ocean. 
La Salle had dreamed of finding this river, and in 1669 some Iroquois 
Indians hastened his plans by assuring him that there was a river which 
rose in their country and wound its way southward and westward to the 
distant sea. This was evidently blending the Allegheny, the Ohio, and 
the Mississippi into one grand river, and it so fired the imagination of La 
Salle that he at once began preparations to explore it. He entered the 
Allegheny by a tributary near its source, and followed it and the Ohio 
through the wild forests along their banks until he reached the falls where 
Louisville now stands. In making this long journey he was the discoverer 
of Kentucky from the Big Sandy to the rapids of the Ohio, and was the 
first white man whose eyes looked eastward from the beautiful river to the 
blue-grass land which forms the garden spot of the state. He had not 
reached China, nor sailed upon a river that would lead thereto, but he had 
discovered a country whose fame in after years would extend even to the 
Celestial Empire. He had made a discovery upon which France would 
found a claim to the valley of the* Mississippi and contend for it against 
England in a mighty war that would not only involve America, but 
Europe as well. 

Other discoveries followed those of La Salle and Batts, but they added 
nothing to the knowledge of the country until towards the middle of the 
eighteenth century. France and England at this time seem to have 



52 THE MAKING OF A STATE 

simultaneously resolved to make a supreme struggle for the sovereignty 
of their discoveries in the Mississippi valley. Both of these great powers 
claimed that their titles were perfect, but neither paid the least regard to 
the claim of the other." 

Colonel Durrett touched upon the slow but picturesque and varied 
process of settlement, telling in a few terse, well-chosen words how " the 
first inhabitants of Kentucky, on account of the hostility of the Indians, 
lived in what were called forts. These structures had little in common 
with those massive piles of stone and earth from which thunder missiles of 
destruction in modern times. They were simply rows of the conventional 
log cabins of the day, built on the four sides of the square or parallelo- 
gram, which remained as a court or open space between them. This open 
space served as a play-ground, a muster-field, a corral for the domestic ani- 
mals, and a storehouse for implements. The cabins which formed the 
fort's walls were the dwelling houses of the people, and contained the 
rudest conveniences of life. The bedstead consisted of forks driven in the 
dirt floor through the prongs of which poles extended to cracks in the 
wall, and over which buffalo skins were spread for a mattress and bear 
skins for covering. The dining table was a broad puncheon, hewed 
smooth with the adze, and set on four legs made of sticks inserted in 
auger holes at the corners. The chairs were three-legged stools made in 
the same way, and the table furniture consisted of wooden plates, trays, 
noggins, bowls, and trenchers, usually turned out of buckeye. A few tin 
cups and pewter plates and delf cups and saucers and two-pronged iron 
forks and pewter spoons were luxuries brought from the old country, and 
not used on ordinary occasions. The fireplace occupied nearly one whole 
side of the house ; the window was a hole covered with paper saturated 
with bear's grease, and the door an opening over which hung a buffalo 
skin. Near the door hung the long-barrel flint-lock rifle on the prongs 
of a buck's horns pinned to the wall, and from which place it was never 
absent except when in use." 

Of the sufferings and bravery of the settlers when attacked by the sav- 
ages, Colonel Durrett has related many thrilling incidents ; as, for instance : 

" When the daughters of Boone and Calloway were captured and taken 
into their canoes on the river near Boonesborough they fought the Indians 
with the paddles until overcome, and while proceeding as captives they 
strewed their way with pieces of their clothing that their trail might be 
followed by those they knew would speedily pursue for their rescue. On 
being ordered to quit this, and threatened with the tomahawk if they per- 
sisted, they defied death and kept on marking their course by dropping 



THE MAKING OF A STATE 53 

bits of their clothing and by bending and breaking twigs along their route. 
The Indians, knowing that a live captive was far more valuable than a 
scalp, and thinking themselves too far in advance to be overtaken, per- 
mitted the girls to thus mark their course rather than kill them. It was 
this marking of their track which enabled Boone and his party to follow 
the route so rapidly as to overtake the Indians within forty miles of 
Boonesborough. " 

All along the years of the century of statehood Colonel Durrett drew 
graphic pictures of progress, and made forcible allusions to the statesmen, 
orators, jurists, poets, and journalists of Kentucky birth whose names 
fame had borne to every portion of the civilized world. He closed with a 
suggestion furnished by the data he had reviewed : 

" With half a dozen millions of inhabitants farming upon our blue-grass 
plains, and mining in our mountains, and raising stock upon our hills, and 
manufacturing in our cities, and cultivating the arts and the sciences every- 
where, Kentuckians of the century to come may rejoice in the blessings 
of a country as far in advance of ours as the one we enjoy is beyond that 
of the pioneers. When that glorious time shall come the centenarians of 
to-day will not be forgotten, but will be remembered as the golden link 
in the chain that binds the Kentucky of 1792 to the Kentucky of 1992." 

From the centennial ballad of Major Henry T. Stanton, we clip the 
following beautiful lines: 

" A hundred years ago, this rich June day, 
Kentucky left her glowing, girlhood way, 
And under boughs of fresh-appearing green 
Put off the Princess and took on the Queen ; 
And on this ground, and to the world unknown, 
She reared the splendor of her golden throne; 
From blood-stained leaves that strewed her forests great 
She wove and wore her purple robes of state, 
And from her vale-ways, under mountain brown, 
She brought the laurels that became her crown. 

A hundred years ago, in that past noon, 
When this Queen rosebud burst upon the June, 
When from the wild, in native splendor drest, 
Uprose the first proud mistress of the west." 



DR. LEWIS F. LINN, OF MISSOURI 

HIS LETTER TO GENERAL HENRY DODGE 

During the first third of this century there was not a more interesting 
character in the west than Dr. Lewis Fields Linn, of Missouri. Not as 
prominent as Thomas H. Benton or General Henry Dodge, he was yet a 
very strong and able man. highly cultured, very handsome in person, and 
possessed of the finest social qualities. He naturally won the unbounded 
confidence of the people of his state, and was respected and beloved 
by all who enjoyed his acquaintance. He was the half-brother of General 
Henry Dodge, who cared for him when he was left an orphan at the age 
of eleven years. The warmest affection existed between these half- 
brothers to the end of their lives. It is a curious fact that they were both 
chosen to the United States senate — Linn from Missouri, and Dodge from 
Wisconsin. General A. C. Dodge, a son of the latter, was also a senator 
from the state of Iowa during several of the years of his father's service 
in that bod}'. This, I believe, is the only instance in which a father and 
son have held seats in the senate at the same time. 

The writer very well remembers seeing them from the gallery of the 
senate, during the short session immediately after the inauguration of 
President Pierce. General Jackson had a high opinion of the military 
genius, courage, judgment, energy, determination, and fertility of re- 
source, of General Henry Dodge. He is reported to have threatened to 
appoint him United States marshal for the state of South Carolina at 
the time Calhoun and his followers threatened " nullification." General 
Dodge was fresh from his triumphs in the Black Hawk war, and, whether 
that was justifiable on the part of the whites or not, he was the hero 
of the hour. Happily, the necessity of sending him to South Carolina did 
not arise. It is to these facts Dr. Linn alludes in the second paragraph 
of his interesting letter to General Henry Dodge, which is here given to 
the readers of the magazine : 

"St. Genevieve, February 15, 1833. 

Dear Brother : I had written you a few days before the reception of 
your letter announcing your arrival at Washington. It is needless for me 
to say how much I was gratified at the friendly and distinguished manner 
of your reception by our honorable and truly great President, so every 



DR. LEWIS F. LINN, OF MISSOURI 55 

way qualified to judge of the relative merits of men. How contemptible 
his revilers must feel, on seeing him every moment growing in greatness 
and increasing in the confidence and affection of the American people. 
Time, you know, is an indolent old fellow, not fond of heavy burthens, 
and as he drifts along the stream into the ocean of Eternity, freighted 
with the reputations of men, is ever and anon engaged in selecting from 
his overloaded bark such as do not deserve immortality, and casting them 
into the waters of oblivion. Among the retained will ever be found the 
name of Andrew Jackson. 

Your chivalrous conduct during the late Indian Black Hawk war has 
truly placed you on elevated ground, from whence you will be enabled to 
catch a glimpse of coming events and turn them to your advantage and to 
that of our common country. It would be a sincere source of regret to find 
in our domestic troubles that you might be compelled to shed American 
blood ; but if stern necessity requires it, I know your valor will be tem- 
pered with humanity. In a government like ours, made by the people and 
for the people, where the public will is the supreme arbiter, when the great 
mass of the community seldom err in judgment, every friend to his coun- 
try, nay, every friend to liberty throughout the world, may still entertain 
a reasonable hope that the difficulty with South Carolina will yet be 
arranged without a resort to force ; but should it be otherwise, I enter- 
tain no fear for the result, and none that you will not conduct yourself (if 
engaged) in such a way as to benefit your country and add to your well- 
earned reputation. 

In accordance with your wish I will write Colonel Buckner, happy if 
any little influence I may possess could be of any service to you ; but I 
doubt much if he has much weight at Washington. You know the 
President, and knowing him, you can judge whether his wavering career 
heretofore is likely to gain him the esteem of General Jackson, whose 
judgment is so unerring as regards men ; in fact, his election was the 
result of a singular combination of circumstances, most of which Colonel 
Buckner is acquainted with. I might have been in his place if I had not 
disdained to be elected by my political opponents: even I was considered 
of sufficient importance to be bid for. I had to choose between him and 
Wells, and I preferred Buckner, knowing that the southern part of the 
state had in some manner been overlooked heretofore. I must say he 
has shown every disposition to befriend me since. His subsequent oppo- 
sition to Colonel Benton is, I presume, part of the price he had to pay 
the Clay men for their support. In this I was completely deceived, or he 
would not have received my vote. 



56 DR. LEWIS F. LINN, OF MISSOURI 

I am aware of the many virtues of General Ashley, of his sterling- 
good sense, and of his sincere, unfeigned friendship for you, but, my dear 
brother, Colonel Benton is the only man Missouri ever had in congress 
whose splendid talent, unwavering purpose of soul, and expanded brain 
entitle him to the character of a great man. It would not surprise me to 
see him President ; at present, I believe Richard M. Johnson is the only 
man that stands between him and Vice-President. In support of him last 
summer patriotism and personal regard were combined to induce me to 
contribute my mite toward his success. He ever to me manifested a 
sincere friendship for you ; and for myself I owe him many acts of kind- 
ness. 

My constitution is much worn out by sickness and an harassing pro- 
fession, my head is tolerably well sprinkled with gray hairs, great muscular 
debility from palpitation of the heart, though I weigh what my father did 
when he died — 180 lbs. I endeavor to fulfil my duties to my profession, 
country, friends, and family, and will try to live without fear and die 
without reproach. After my time as commissioner expires I would be 
pleased to get some appointment for which I might be qualified, that 
would release me from this important profession of mine ; to be looking 
always on man as an object of affection and sorrow, to be compelled to 
examine him by piecemeal, every tendon, muscle, bone, nerve, and organ, 
to analyze his passions and trace them to their source, and then view them 
in their naked deformity — my soul yearns after getting rid of this. I have 
at present three fine children, one boy, two girls; lost two girls dead born 
in twelve months. My wife's health very bad ; our old friend Scott is 
much under the weather; he appears to delight in your brightening pros- 
pects ; sister is as usual happy and cheerful — nothing can crush her forti- 
tude. Mc. as usual improving — our town and section of the country 
looking up. 

That your visit to Washington may be one of pleasure and profit, is 

the sincere wish of your brother, 

L. F. Linn." 

The above letter was recently presented to " the Aldrich Collection," 
in the Iowa State Library, by Rev. Dr. William Salter, of Burlington, the 
well-known biographer of Governor James W. Grimes and Generals 
Henry and Augustus C. Dodge. 



Zu^r tM***. 



Des Moines, Iowa. 



WHAT CONSTITUTES GOOD CITIZENSHIP 

In a republic or free government the following may be enunciated as a 
maxim : " Every citizen must be able to take care of himself, as well as the 
government " ; that is, he must be fully equipped to take up the struggle for 
existence as well as to take active part in public life. In this dual capac- 
ity we have duties more important and serious than many of us seem to 
realize. Again, the maxim, " No one will help you if you do not help 
yourself," will hold equally true under all forms of government and all 
kinds of social organism, yet there is no government or social organism 
under which this maxim finds a more extensive application than under our 
form of government. It shows itself here in its highest development : we 
are not only burdened with the duties we owe to ourselves and toward 
others in the various relations and affairs of life, but we are burdened with 
a higher and more sacred responsibility in the affairs of state. 

Under a government like ours, in which the primary political principles 
and forces stand diametrically opposite each other, and where the tendency 
at times of the one or the other is to assert itself more forcibly than the 
other, it is not only essential but absolutely necessary that every citizen 
should have a thorough knowledge of the history, formation, development, 
and principles of the government. He ought to reason and consider all 
questions that appertain to politics the same as he reasons about his pri- 
vate affairs. He should be able to reduce all issues to principles, and view 
them in the light of party policy. He should, through proper reasoning, 
arrive at conclusions upon which to act. Independent, in its purest and 
noblest sense, he must be. 

James A. Garfield truly said : " In the old world, under the despotism 
of Europe, the masses of ignorant men, mere inert masses, are moved 
upon and controlled by the intelligent and cultivated aristocracy. But in 
this republic, where the government rests upon the will of the people, 
every man has an active power for good and evil, and the great question 
is, will he think rightly or wrongly ? " This implies some standard of think- 
ing, as in all matters of conduct or action some standard must be given 
from which we are to determine the accuracy or correctness of an act to 
be done. The standards by which we are to determine the justness of 
an act are the political principles that form the framework of our govern- 
ment and are embodied in the constitution. Therefore, it is essential that 



$8 WHAT CONSTITUTES GOOD CITIZENSHIP 

every citizen ought to be able to reason upon all political questions him- 
self and form his own convictions, as well as understand thoroughly and 
clearly the scope and nature of the legislation admitted by the principles 
of the government. Extraneous circumstances, such as relationship, 
business relations, social position, ancestral prejudices, and the influence 
of bossism, should not divert him from the path of principle. 

A nation or a people may be subdivided into various groups. These 
may be classified in a most diversified manner, such as the various relig- 
ious denominations, secret societies, social and labor organizations, the 
different social circles ; the multifarious vocations, corporations, combina- 
tions, and trusts of business; the national parties, and the numerous politi- 
cal parties with local issues. They all stand in different relations to each 
other: some fraternize though they have distinct interests, others are 
rivals, and still others are antagonists, though they all form one nation or 
people. Not infrequently they seek to further personal interest at the 
expense of that of the people, and it is here where every citizen should 
first consider the interest of his country before that of himself or the 
organization of which he is a member. All interests, of whatever nature, 
must be subservient to the best interests of the government. No fears 
need be entertained that the limits are too circumscribed, for the frame- 
work of our government is such that it gives a wide range for action of an 
intelligent and reasonable kind. 

Patriotism is the tie that holds these groups together. It is the 
foundation of good citizenship. It inspires one to noble ends. It is like 
the first-born of feelings. It must be tenderly nursed. It must not 
degenerate into self-emulation. It must not become synonymous with 
braggardism. People who parade their patriotism on the outside are 
least patriotic. They, like the men who boast of their honesty, their 
truthfulness, and their fairness, are least to be trusted. To avoid any 
tendency to patriotism of this kind, it is essential in a republic that a high 
moral sentiment pervade the people, and to insure this, every good citi- 
zen should think, reason, and act for himself upon political questions and 
issues ; be honest in sentiment, firm in opinion, and just in patriotism. 




Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 



VIRGINIA'S STATESMEN IN 1788 

Virginia had assembled in her convention of 1788, a remarkable body 
of men, the flower of her statesmen, sages, patriots. It may fairly be 
affirmed that no other commonwealth on the continent could have called 
together as great an array of abilities. And yet Virginia had not ex- 
hausted her resources ; Washington, Jefferson, Richard Henry Lee, were 
not included in this famous convention. William Wirt, in his rhetorical 
manner, has given a characterization of the most conspicuous members. 
There were, among the younger generation, Madison, Marshall, Monroe; 
there were those sages of other days, Pendleton and Wythe ; there was 
seen displayed the Spartan vigor and compactness of George Nicholas ; 
and there shone the radiant genius and sensibility of Grayson ; the 
Roman energy and the Attic wit of George Mason was there, the classic 
taste and harmony of Edward Randolph, " the splendid conflagration " of 
the high-minded Innes, and the matchless eloquence of the immortal 
Henry. 

On the one side were ranged Madison, Marshall, Pendleton, George 
Nicholas, Innes, and Edmund Randolph ; on the other, George Mason, 
Patrick Henry, William Grayson, James Monroe, Benjamin Harrison, and 
John Tyler. " Conspicuous among those who opposed the ratification 
of the constitution," writes Flanders, " were Patrick Henry, George 
Mason, and William Grayson ; a combination of eloquence, vigor, and 
genius, not often surpassed, and seldom equalled." 

The convention met in Richmond on the 2nd of June, at the old 
capitol, and Edmund Pendleton was elected president. A committee of 
privileges and elections being appointed, Benjamin Harrison was named 
chairman, and George Mason came second on the list of members. After 
some preliminary business, Colonel Mason moved an adjournment, the 
convention to meet the next day at the " New Academy." Here it held 
its sessions after the first day, its meetings open to the public, visitors 
coming from all parts of the state. The assemblage was a most imposing 
one, numerically. " It was," says Grisby, " more than four times greater 
than the convention which framed the federal constitution when that body 
was full, as it exceeded it, as it ordinarily was, more than six times." It 
consisted, as this writer adds, " of the public men of three generations." 
—Kate Mason Rowland's Life of George Mason, 1725-1792. 



ONE OF WASHINGTON'S LETTERS 

While the history of a letter is perhaps as difficult to trace as the 
history of a penny, some few facts in rsg&rd to the one here presented will be 
of interest. Until quite recently and for several years this original treasure, 
yellow with age, has been in the possession of Mr. James S. Lyle, the 
superintendent of the poor of Tompkins County, New York, who upon 
being interrogated in regard to it, wrote as follows: "I know compara- 
tively nothing in regard to the Mt. Vernon letter. It came into the pos- 
session of my mother, through my grandmother whose maiden name was 
Meeker, and whose family were among the early settlers of New Jersey. 
My grandmother died in 1 870. Previous to this I never heard anything 
in regard to the letter. After her death ray mother spoke of an ancient 
letter on several occasions, but I never saw it until a later date. I do 
not know by what means it came to them, but it seemed from the impres- 
sions I received from my mother, that it was a veritable heir-loom, and 
something that was very highly prized in the family. I think and am 
quite confident that my mother had the whole of the letter, but in the 
clearing-up of things after her mother's death, the closing portion was 
destroyed. I regret very much that I cannot give you more of its history, 
for I became quite anxious to know who was its author." 

(the letter.) 

Mount Vernon, May 16, 1785. 
Dear Sir : 

In for a penny, in for a pound is an old adage. I am so hackneyed to 
the touches of the Painters pencil, that I am now altogether at their beck 
and sit like patience on a monument while they are delineating the lines 
of my face. 

It is a proof among many others of what habit and custom can effect. 
At first I was as impatient at the request, and as restive under the opera- 
tion, as a colt is of the saddle. The next time I submitted very reluctantly, 
but with less flouncing. Now, no dray moves more readily to the Thill 
than I to the Painters Chair. It may easily be perceived, therefore, that I 
yielded a ready obedience to your request and to the views of Mr. Pine. 
Letters from England recommendatory of this, gentleman, came to my 
hand previous to his arrival in America, not only as an Artist of acknowl- 



ONE OF WASHINGTON'S LETTERS 



6l 



edged eminence, but as one who had discovered a friendly disposition 
towards this country — for which, it seems, he had been marked. 

It gave me pleasure to hear from you — I shall always feel an interest in 
your happiness — and with Mrs. Washing- 
wishes join 








,^/^X^ ^u2f 














FACSIMILE OF THE LETTER AS IT NOW EXISTS. 



Any one familiar with Washington's chirography would at once recog- 
nize it as belonging to him, and while the letter does not contain matter 
of great importance, it is interesting as emanating from the pen of a man 
who played a conspicuous part in the history of our country, and because 



62 one of Washington's letters 

it is written in one of his most characteristic veins. Great playfulness 
and vivacity of style are manifest throughout, and it is especially interest- 
ing to note the contrast between the work actually accomplished by our 
first President and the Presidents of a later period. Even to a public 
official oppressed with many duties and obligations, time was apparently 
forthcoming in which to dispatch innumerable letters to mere acquaint 
antes on other than governmental topics,~ and they were always written 
by the President's own hand, such modern devices as typewriters being 
unheard-of in those early days. 

The whole letter was published in The Writings of Washington, with a 
life, notes, and illustrations, by Jared Sparks, Vol. IX., and the parts which 
are missing in the original, as it now exists, are substituted by Sparks. It 
is addressed to Francis Hopkinson. A portion of the letter, the part 
beginning " It is a proof" and ending " Painters Chair," appears in Wash- 
ington Irving's Life of Washington. A word will not be amiss in regard to 
the painting referred to by Washington. In the Republican Court it is 
stated that " Robert E. Pine, an English artist, a pupil of Reynolds, came 
to America in 1783, and in 1785 spent three weeks at Mount Vernon, and 
painted a picture which is one of the least pleasing of the well-studied 
portraits of Washington, the head being, as Rembrandt Peale said, 'too 
small and badly drawn.' The picture is now in Independence Hall, having 
been left to the city of Philadelphia by Benjamin Moran. Other accounts 
say that it is not now known, though it is supposed to have been in the pos- 
session of the Hopkinson family in Philadelphia. Pine painted at the same 
time a duplicate for himself, and this was bought in 1817 in Montreal by 
Henry Brevoort and now belongs to the estate of his son, the late James 
Carson Brevoort of Brooklyn. This is said to have been retouched from life 
in 1787." It is interesting to note the date of the letter, May 16, 1785. 
What does it not suggest ! It was after the close of the Revolution and 
three years before the states of America became united into a nation. 
Washington was living quietly and contentedly in the home he was so 
deeply attached to, and, to use a favorite image of his own, was "gliding 
gently down the stream of life." 



Ithaca, New York. 



J. *,. ^ 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



[Continued from page 471] 



Alabama, Concluded. 

1865, April 8. Selma captured by 
federals. 

1865, April 9. Capture of Fort 
Blakely by federals. 

April 11. Fort Tracy evacuated by 
confederates. 

Fort Huger evacuated. Confederate 
earthwork, mouth of Tensavv river. 

April 12. Mobile surrenders to 
Major-General E. R. S. Canby, U.S.A. 

April 12. Montgomery captured by 
federals; the confederates, under Gen. 
Wirt Adams, retreat without a fight. 

April 30. The different federal raid- 
ing columns leave Alabama to meet at 
Macon, Ga., leaving desolation and ruin 
behind them, also a general desire for 
peace at any price. 

May 4. Major - General E. R. S. 
Canby receives the surrender of Lieu- 
tenant-General Richard Taylor, C.S.A., 
and Rear-Admiral Thacher, as Farra- 
gut's representative, receives the sur- 
render of the confederate naval force in 
the Tombigbee river. 

May 29. Amnesty proclamation of 
the President. 

June 21. Louis E. Parsons appointed 
provisional governor by the President. 

July 20. Proclamation of provisional 
governor restoring civil code, except as 
regards slavery. 

September 10. State convention at 
Montgomery to restore civil organiza- 



tion. Robert Miller Patton of Lauder- 
dale chosen governor till 1868. Lewis 
E. Parsons and George S. Houston 
chosen senators of United States. 

1866. Right to testify in courts ex- 
tended to the colored race. Population 
by state census: whites, 522,799 ; col- 
ored, 423,445 ; total, 946,244. 

Destitution throughout the state. 
Federal government issued army rations 
to about 22,000 persons a month, two- 
thirds of them being whites. Nearly four 
million rations were issued during year. 

1867, March 2. Congress passed first 
" reconstruction act." Meeting of 
union men at Montgomery, Huntsville, 
and elsewhere to endorse. 

April 2. Major-general Wager 
Swayne, U. S. A., assumes command of 
military district of Alabama. 

May 14. Reconstruction meeting in 
Mobile. 

September 4. Conservative state 
convention at Montgomery. 

October 1, 2, 3. Election under mili- 
tary authority to choose delegates to a 
state convention, with a view to civil 
reorganization. 

November. Meeting of state consti- 
tutional convention at Montgomery. A 
new constitution and various ordinances 
adopted, designed to adjust affairs to 
the new conditions. 

December 28. General Julius Hay- 
den succeeds in command of Alabama, 
by order of the President. 



6 4 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



1868, February 17. Meeting of new 
legislature at Montgomery. 

June 20. Alabama readmitted to 
Union by a vote of both Houses of 
Congress. 

July 9. Ratification of the four- 
teenth amendment to the Constitution of 



the United States, and of the resolu- 
tions abolishing slavery. 

July 14. Reorganization of the state 
officially recognized by General Meade. 

1869. Legislature meets November 
15, and ratifies the fifteenth amendment 
to the United States Constitution. 



Alaska 



Formerly known as Russian America. 
Area, 580,107 square miles ; latitude, 
54 40-72 north ; longitude, 130 - 
190 west. Nickname " Seward's Folly." 
Cause of discovery, a conviction in the 
mind of Peter the Great of Russia 
that land existed to the eastward of 
Siberia. 

1706. Russian Cossacks under Colo- 
nel Atlass reach the shores of Bering 
sea, and hear from the natives of a 
" great land to the eastward." 

17 10. Orders issued to commanders 
of Russian outposts to investigate these 
rumors. 

17 1 1. January. A party of Cossacks 
sent by Matvei' Strebykhin, commander 
of the Russian outpost at Anadirsk, ob- 
tains more definite information. Their 
report is dated September 2, 1711. 

1 7 12. Two unsuccessful attempts 
made to cross the Bering sea. 

1 7 14, May 23. A company of ship 
carpenters reach Okhotsk, and lay the 
keel of a sea-going vessel. 

1 7 15, According to Miiller, a Kam- 
chatkan is found, who gives a somewhat 
detailed account of "Tontoli," the sup- 
posed " Great Land," which he had 
personally visited in a baidare, or skin 
boat. 

1 7 16, June. The vessel begun at 



Okhotsk in 17 14, is finished and sails, 
but only reaches Kamchatka. 

1717, May. The expedition of 1716 
returns to Okhotsk. From this time on, 
intercourse becomes frequent by sea 
between Okhotsk and Kamchatka. 

1 7 19. The Tsar sends two surveyors, 
Ivan Yeoreinof and Fedor Lushin, to 
explore the Kooril islands. 

172 1. Yeoreinof returns to Moscow 
and makes his report to the Tsar, with a 
map of the Kooril islands as far as ex- 
plored. 

1724, November 3. A mass of Cos- 
sacks set out across the frozen sea, with 
sledges, and reach a large island with 
abandoned huts. (His second attempt.) 

1727, August 21. An expedition 
under Captain Vitus Bering, a Dane in 
the Russian service, sails from Okhotsk 
and passes through Bering straits, near 
the Asiatic coast. 

1740, July 15. Land sighted in lati- 
tude 55 21'. 

July r6. Bering discovers land in 
latitude 58 14', near Mt. St. Elias, lands, 
and collects some specimens of native 
work. 

July 17. Dementief, mate of the 
St. Paid, effects a landing with a boat's 
crew in latitude 57 15', but is never 
again heard of. 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



65 



July 21. He sets sail on his return 
voyage. 

July 23. Another boat's crew lands, 
but never comes back. 

September 8. After vexatious delays 
a fleet of four vessels sails from Okhotsk 
with Bering in command. Two of them 
were soon disabled. The others, St. 
Peter and St. Paul, respectively under 
command of Bering and Alexei Ilich 
Chirikof, accidentally separated June 16, 
Chirikof steering eastward. 

1 743-1 749. Emilian Bassof, a ser- 
geant in the Russian service, inaugurates 
fur hunting along the Alaskan coast, but 
makes no discoveries of importance on 
land. 

1745, September 24. Firearms used 
in Alaska for the first time, by a boat's 
crew led by one Nevodchik. An attack 
of natives is repulsed. 

1748, February. First imperial ukase 
issued, granting a charter to an organ- 
ized company to hunt seals. 

1750-1760. Many monopolies granted 
to hunt furs in different islands, the 
native being compelled to pay tribute. 

1760, September 27. First expedi- 
tion under special imperial ukase, 
Andrei Tolstykh, commander. 

1762-1765. Voyage of Stephen 
Glottof. He discovers Kadiak, and 
after fighting the natives, trades with 
them. 

1764-1779. Explorations resumed 
under imperial orders, by government 
officers, but no progress toward perma- 
nent colonization results. 

i773 —1 779- Spain and England send 
vessels to dispute the right of discovery 
with Russia. 

1775. A Spanish expedition under 

Vol. XXVIII.-No. i.— 5 



Lieutenant Juan Francesco de Bodegay 
Cuadra, sails from San Bias March 16. 
Santiago flagship, Sonora tender. The 
last named vessel, alone, makes Alaskan 
discoveries as far north as 56 30', claim- 
ing the land for Spain. 

1778, September and October. Cap- 
tain Cook's visit to the Alaskan islands. 
The American traveler John Ledyard 
was on one of the ships as a corporal of 
marines, and rendered valuable service. 

1783, August 16. Gregor Ivanovich 
Shelikof sails from Okhotsk with 192 
men, and attempts permanent settlement 
at Kadiak. 

1785, August. La Perouse sails from 
Brest, France, with two frigates, Astro- 
labe and Boussole, to explore on behalf 
of France. 

August 8. The empress appoints 
Captain Joseph Billings, an Englishman 
who had voyaged with Cook, to com- 
mand a completely equipped " Secret 
Astronomical and Geographical Expe- 
dition, for navigating the Frozen Sea." 
Shipbuilding at Okhotsk and other 
preparations occupied five years. 

1786. Discovery by Gerassim Pryby- 
lof, a naval officer, of the islands that 
now bear his name — the breeding place 
of the fur seals. 

June 23. La Perouse sights Mt. St. 
Elias. 

August 2. Port des Francais dis- 
covered. Native name, Ltua. 

1 787 -1 788. Russia, Portugal, Eng- 
land, Spain, and France claim different 
points along the coast. 

1788. Confirmation by imperial 
ukase of the Shelikof company, prac- 
tically granting it a monopoly for fur 
hunting. 



66 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



1790, May 1. Billings sets sail, visits 
the Russian settlements, and collects 
valuable information. 

August 18. Shelikof takes Alexander 
Andreivich Baranof into partnership, a 
man destined to exert great influence in 
the development of the country. 

1 791. After wintering, Billings with 
additional men and ships sails on his 
second expedition July 8, and winters in 
Iliulink bay. Almost the sole benefit 
arising from these two voyages was the 
exposure of the abuses practiced by 
traders upon the native. 

Baranof lays the keel of the first ship 
built in Alaska. 

1793. George Vancouver with the 
Discovery flagship, and Chatham tender, 
discovers " Duke of York island.'' 

Ukase by the empress of Russia, 
making Alaska a penal colony, and 
authorizing missions. 

1794. A^ancouver, after wintering at 
Hawaii, claims the land as far north as 
Cape Spencer for the English crown. 

May. Arrival of Shelikof with two 
overseers, eleven monks, and 190 con- 
victs. Joseph, an Augustine friar, in- 
stalled as superintendent. 

August. Baranof s ship is launched, 
and named the Phaznix. She was built 
of spruce, and measured 79 feet over all, 
with 23 feet beam, 13^ feet draft, and 100 
tons capacity. An Englishman, Shields 
by name, superintended the building, 
and finally sailed her to Okhotsk, where 



she was welcomed with salutes of artil- 
lery and the celebration of highmass. 

1795. Reported conversion of 1,200 
natives. 

1796. Father Joseph made bishop by 
imperial decree. Russo-Greek church 
built at Kadiak. Murder of Father 
Juvenal by natives. 

Threatened extermination of the seals 
by reckless hunters. 

1798— 1801. Frequent massacres by 
natives, invariably provoked by aggres- 
sions on the part of settlers. 

1799. Arrival of American ship Caro- 
line, Captain Cleveland, from Boston. 

Bishop Joseph with his clergy lost at 
sea while on his way to the new diocese. 

May 29. Sitka, the capital of Alaska, 
founded by Baranof. 

August 11. The Russian American 
Company chartered by ukase of Paul the 
First, granting a fur hunting monopoly 
to all parts of the territory claimed by 
Russia. Baranof remains manager. 

1800, April 24. Arrival of the Amer- 
ican ship Enterprise from New York, 
John Jacob Astor, owner. She was fol- 
lowed by others who soon absorbed the 
trade. 

1802, about June 24. Sitka destroyed 
and most of the Europeans killed by the 
Kolosh natives. 

1804, October 1. Baranof and Lieu- 
tenant Lisiansky attack the fort at 
Sitka, and are repulsed, but bombard 
and recapture it on October 2. 



^^t^.^V^^ 5 ^^^ /^€TZ^tn^ 



{To be continued) 



MINOR TOPICS 
PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S PORTRAIT 

The face of President Lincoln told the story of his life — a life of sorrow and 
struggle, of deep-seated sadness, of ceaseless endeavor. It would have taken no 
Lavater to interpret the rugged energy stamped on that uncomely plebeian counte- 
nance, with its great crag-like brows and bones, or to read there the deep melan- 
choly that overshadowed every feature of it. Even as President of the United 
States, at a period when the nation's peril invested the holder of the office with 
almost despotic power, there seems to have been in Lincoln's nature a modesty and 
lack of desire to rule which nothing could lessen or efface. Wielding the power of 
king, he retained the modesty of a commoner. 

Those who follow his life must be impressed with the serenity of Lincoln's 
temper in moments of the darkest adversity as in the hours of his greatest triumphs. 
I was struck with the remark of a great captain when, in returning some com- 
pliment about America, I referred to the feats of the armies under his command. 
"I accept your praise of our victories," he rejoined, " but what our armies would 
have been in defeat I cannot say." Lincoln's character was weighed in both 
balances, and it was not found wanting. He was melancholy without being mor- 
bid, a characteristic of men of genuine humor. It was his sense of humor that 
enabled him to seek relief in the most trying situations by recalling some parallel 
incident of a humorous character. 

General Sherman, who, like Caesar, in this as in other respects, enjoyed a joke 
even at his own expense, relates a story that illustrates this peculiarity. Soon 
after the battle of Shiloh the President promoted two officers to major-general- 
ships, and it created much dissatisfaction. Among others who criticised the Pres- 
ident was General Sherman himself, who telegraphed to Washington that if such 
ill-advised promotions continued, the best chance for officers would be to be 
transferred from the front to the rear. This telegram was shown to the President, 
who immediately replied by telegraph to the general that, in the matter of 
appointments, he was necessarily guided by officers whose opinions and knowledge 
he valued and respected. "The two appointments," he added, "referred to in 
your dispatch to a gentleman in Washington, were made at the suggestion of two 
men whose advice and character I prize most highly : I refer to Generals Grant 
and Sherman." 

The oddity of Lincoln's reply is characteristic. General Sherman had for- 
gotten the fact, in the flush of victory, that General Grant and himself had both 
recommended these particular promotions. Lincoln subsequently sent to General 
Sherman the right to promote, at his own choice, eight colonels under his com- 
mand. — Rice's Reminiscences of Abrahajn Lincoln. 



68 MINOR TOPICS 



THE VILLAGE OF DEERFIELD, 1704 

In his recently published work on France and England in North America, the 
eminent historian, Francis Parkman, furnishes a graphic description of the attack 
upon Deerfield, Massachusetts, by the French and Indians on the 28th of February, 
1704. He says : 

" Deerfield stood on a plateau above the river meadows, and the houses — 
forty-one in all — were chiefly along the road towards the villages of Hadley and Hat- 
field, a few miles distant. In the middle of the place, on a rising ground called 
Meeting-house Hill, was a small square meeting-house. This, with about fifteen 
private houses, besides barns and sheds, was enclosed by a fence of palisades eight 
feet high, flanked by ' mounts,' or block-houses, at two or more of the corners. 
The four sides of this palisaded enclosure, which was called the fort, measured in 
all no less than two hundred and two rods, and within it lived some of the principal 
inhabitants of the village, of which it formed the centre or citadel. Chief among 
its inmates was John Williams, the minister, a man of character and education, 
who, after graduating at Harvard, had come to Deerfield when it was still suffering 
under the ruinous effects of King Philip's war, and entered on his ministry with a 
salary of sixty pounds in depreciated New England currency, payable not in money, 
but in wheat, Indian corn, and pork. His parishioners built him a house, he mar- 
ried, and had now eight children, one of whom was absent with friends at Hadley. 
His next neighbor was Benoni Stebbins, sergeant in the county militia, who lived a 
few rods from the meeting-house. About fifty yards distant, and near the north- 
west angle of the enclosure, stood the house of Ensign John Sheldon, a framed 
building, one of the largest in the village, and, like that of Stebbins, made bullet- 
proof by a layer of bricks between the outer and inner sheathing, while its small 
windows and its projecting upper story also helped to make it defensible. 

The space enclosed by the palisade, though much too large for effective de- 
fense, served in time of alarm as an asylum for the inhabitants outside, whose 
houses were scattered, some on the north, towards the hidden enemy, and some 
on the south, towards Hadley and Hatfield. Among those on the south side was 
that of the militia captain, Jonathan Wells, which had a palisade of its own, and, 
like the so-called fort, served as an asylum for the neighbors. 

On the night when Rouville and his band lay hidden among the pines, there 
were in all the settlement a little less than three hundred souls, of whom two 
hundred and sixty-eight were inhabitants, twenty were yeomen soldiers of the gar- 
rison, two were visitors from Hatfield, and three were negro slaves. They were 
of all ages — from the widow Allison, in her eighty-fifth year, to the infant son of 
Deacon French, aged four weeks. 

Heavy snows had lately fallen and buried the clearings, the meadow, and the 
frozen river to the depth of full three feet. . . . Deerfield kept early hours, and 



MINOR TOPICS 69 

it is likely that by nine o'clock all were in their beds. There was a patrol inside the 
palisade, but they grew careless as the frosty night went on ; and it is said that 
towards morning they, like the villagers, betook themselves to their beds. Rou- 
ville and his men, savage with hunger, lay shivering under the pines until about two 
hours before dawn ; then leaving their packs and their snow-shoes behind, they 
moved cautiously towards their prey. There was a crust on the snow strong 
enough to bear their weight, though not to prevent a rustling noise as it crunched 
under the feet of so many men. It is said that from time to time Rouville com- 
manded a halt in order that the sentinels, if such there were, might mistake the 
distant sound for rising and falling gusts of wind. 

In any case, no alarm was given until they had mounted the palisade and 
dropped silently into the unconscious village. Then with one accord they screeched 
the war-whoop and assailed the doors of the houses with axes and hatchets. The 
hideous din started the minister, Williams, from his sleep. Half wakened, he 
sprang out of bed, and saw dimly a crowd of savages bursting through the shat- 
tered door. He shouted to two soldiers who were lodged in the house ; and then, 
with more valor than discretion, snatched a pistol that hung at the head of the bed, 
cocked it, and snapped it at the breast of the foremost Indian, who proved to be a 
Caughnawaga chief. It missed fire, or Williams would no doubt have been killed 
on the spot. Amid the screams of his terrified children, three of the party seized 
him and bound him fast, for they came well provided with cords, since prisoners 
had a market value. Nevertheless, in the first fury of their attack they dragged to 
the door and murdered two of the children and a negro woman called Parthena, 
who was probably their nurse. In an upper room lodged a young man named 
Stoddard, who had time to snatch a cloak, throw himself out of the window, climb 
the palisades, and escape in the darkness. Half naked as he was, he made his way 
over the snow to Hatfield, binding his bare feet with strips torn from the cloak. 

They kept Williams shivering in his shirt for an hour, while a frightful uproar 
of yells, shrieks, and gunshots sounded from without. At length they permitted 
him, his wife and five remaining children to dress themselves. Meanwhile the 
Indians and their allies burst into most of the houses, killed such of the men as 
resisted, butchered some of the women and children, and seized and (bound the 
rest. Some of the villagers escaped in the confusion, like Stoddard, and either 
fled half-dead with cold towards Hatfield, or sought refuge in the fortified house of 
Jonathan Wells. 

The house of Stebbins, the minister's next neighbor, had not been attacked 
as soon as the rest, and the inmates had a little time for preparation. They 
consisted of Stebbins himself, with his wife and five children ; David Hoyt, 
Joseph Catlin, Benjamin Church, a namesake of the old fighter of Philip's war, 
and three other men — probably refugees who had brought their wives and families 
within the enclosure for safety. Thus the house contained seven men, four or five 
women, and a considerable number of children. Though the walls were bullet- 



JO MINOR TOPICS 

proof, it was not built for defense. The men, however, were well supplied with 
guns, powder, and lead, and they seem to have found some means of barricading 
the windows. When the enemy tried to break in they drove them back with loss. 
On this the French and Indians gathered in great numbers before the house, 
showered bullets upon it, and tried to set it on fire. They were again repulsed 
with the loss of several killed and wounded. Still the firing continued. The 
women in the house behaved with great courage, and molded bullets which the 
men shot at the enemy. Stebbins was killed, and Church was wounded, as was 
also the wife of David Hoyt. At length most of the French and Indians, dis- 
gusted with the obstinacy of the defence, turned their attention to other quarters. 

The Indians had some difficulty in mastering the house of Ensign John Shel- 
don, for the door being of thick oak plank, studded with nails of wrought-iron 
and well barred, they could not break it open. After a time, however, they hacked 
a hole in it, through which they fired and killed Mrs. Sheldon, as she sat on the edge 
of a bed in a lower room. Her husband, a man of great resolution, seems to have 
been absent. Their son John, with Hannah his wife, jumped from an upper cham- 
ber window. The young woman sprained her ankle in the fall and lay helpless, but 
begged her husband to run to Hatfield for aid, which he did, while she remained 
a prisoner. The Indians soon got in at the back door, seized Mercy Sheldon, a 
little girl of two years, and dashed out her brains on the door-stone. Her two 
brothers and her sister Mary, a girl of sixteen, were captured. The house was a 
short time used as a depot for prisoners, and here also was brought the French 
officer wounded in the attack on the Stebbins house. 

The sun was scarcely an hour high when the miserable drove of captives were 
conducted across the river to the foot of a mountain or high hill. Williams and 
his family were soon compelled to follow, and his house was set on fire. As they 
led him off he saw that other houses within the palisade were burning, and that 
all were in the power of the enemy except that of his neighbor Stebbins, where 
the gallant defenders still kept their assailants at bay. . . . Early in the attack, 
and while it was yet dark, the light of burning houses reflected from the fields 
of snow had been seen at Hatfield, Hadley, and Northampton. The alarm was 
sounded, and parties of men, mounted on farm-horses, hastened to the rescue. 
When the sun was about two hours high, between thirty and forty of them were 
gathered at the fortified house of Jonathan Wells, at the southern end of the vil- 
lage. The houses of this neighborhood were still standing, and seem not to have 
been attacked, the stubborn defence of the Stebbins house having apparently pre- 
vented the enemy from pushing much beyond the palisaded enclosure. The house 
of Wells was full of refugee families. A few Deerfield men here joined the horse- 
men from the lower towns, as also did four or five of the yeomen soldiers who had 
escaped the fate of most of their comrades. The horsemen left their horses within 
Wells's fence ; he himself took the lead, and the whole party rushed in together at 
the southern gate of the palisaded enclosure, drove out the plunderers, and retook 



MINOR TOPICS 71 

the plunder. Wells and his men drove the flying enemy more than a mile across 
the river meadows. 

The number of English carried off prisoners was one hundred and eleven. 
The house of Sheldon was hastily set on fire by the French and Indians when 
their rear was driven out of the village by Wells and his men ; but the fire was 
extinguished, and " the old Indian house," as it was called, stood till the year 
1849. Its door, deeply scarred with hatchets, and with a hole cut in the middle, 
is still preserved in the Memorial Hall at Deerfield. 

We have seen that the minister with his wife and family were led from their 
burning house across the river to the foot of the mountain, where the crowd of 
terrified and disconsolate captives — friends, neighbors, and relatives — were already 
gathered. Here they presently saw the fight in the meadow, and were told that 
if their countrymen attempted a rescue, they should all be put to death. 
The prisoners were the property of those who had taken them. Williams had 
two masters ; his principal owner was a surly fellow who would not let him 
speak to the other prisoners ; but as he was presently chosen to guard the rear, 
the minister was left in the hands of the other master, who allowed him to walk 
beside his wife and help her on her way. . . . Their intercourse was short. 
The Indian who had gone to the rear of the train soon returned, separated them, 
and ordered Williams to the front. . . . They soon came to Green River, a 
stream then -about knee-deep, and so swift that the water had not frozen. After 
wading it with difficulty, they climbed a snow-covered hill beyond. The minister, 
with strength almost spent, was permitted to rest a few moments at the top ; and 
as the other prisoners passed by in turn, he questioned each for news of his wife. 
He was not left long in suspense. She had fallen from weakness in fording the 
stream, but gained her feet again, and drenched in the icy current, struggled to 
the further bank, when the savage who owned her, finding that she could not 
climb the hill, killed her with one stroke of the hatchet." 



ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN AUTHORS 

A number of well-known authors met at the Berkley Lyceum in New York 
on the 1 8th of May, to form an association of American authors. Colonel 
Thomas W. Higginson presided. The objects of the association, as stated in the 
constitution, are to promote a professional spirit among authors ; to establish bet- 
ter business methods between authors and publishers ; to endeavor to settle dis- 
putes between authors and publishers by arbitration or by an appeal to the courts; 
to maintain, define, and defend literary property ; and, in general, to advance the 
interests of American authors and literature. 



72 MINOR TOPICS 

The officers elected at the meeting were : president, Colonel Thomas W. Hig- 
ginson ; vice-presidents, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, Moncure D. Conway, and Maurice 
Thompson ; treasurer, General James Grant Wilson ; secretary, Charles Burr 
Todd. 

The constitution creates a board of managers, with powers strictly denned, to 
control the affairs of the society in the interval between the meetings. Those 
elected on Wednesday were Charles Dudley Warner, Professor Moses Coit Tyler, 
William Dean Howells, Louise Chandler Moulton, Dr. Titus Munson Coan, Will- 
iam Henry Smith, Horace White, Cynthia Eloise Cleveland, William C. Hudson, 
and George W. Cable. The association numbers some ninety members as incor- 
porators, among them many of the best and strongest men and women in contem- 
porary American letters. 

Among those not mentioned above are Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Thomas 
Bailey Aldrich, Edward F. de Lancy, Julian Hawthorne, Hon. John Bigelow, Dr. S. 
Weir Mitchell, John Albee, Edward Bellamy, James T. Bixby, Marshall H. Bright, 
A. J. Conant, Berthold Fernow, James Lane Allen, Henry T. Finck, Robert Grant, 
Mrs. Celia Thaxter, George W. Cable, Benjamin Hathaway, William F. Horn- 
aday, George Parsons Lathrop, Eugene Lawrence, Mary C. Lockwood, Nora 
Perry, Hezekiah Butterworth, General T. F. Rodenbaugh, of the United States 
army ; Rev. M. J. Savage, Professor N. S. Shaler, Dr. Henry R. Stiles, Mary E. 
Wilkins, Rev. Joseph Cook, Edward W. Bok, Rev. Edward Everett Hale, James 
Jeffrey Roche, William J. Rolfe, Ada J. Todd, Colonel A. K. McClure, Dr. N. P. 
Gilman, General H. V. Boynton, Professor Henry Coppee, President D. C. Gilman, 
of Johns Hopkins University ; Professor Eben V. Horsford, Mrs. Elizabeth Stuart 
Phelps Ward, Brooks Adams, and Thomas W. Knox. The constitution provides 
that all persons engaged in recognized literary pursuits may become members. 
The initiation fee and first year's dues are five dollars ; yearly dues, three dollars. 
Persons may become life members on payment of fifty dollars, and any individual 
giving five hundred dollars or over is to be enrolled as a patron of the society. 
Persons not authors who have performed some signal service to literature may be 
elected honorary members. All surplus money in the treasury, whether accruing 
from bequests, gifts, initiation fees, or dues, is to be invested and held as a fund, 
the interest of which is to be expended in aiding sick, aged, or infirm members 
when necessary, and in paying funeral expenses of deceased indigent members. 

The leaders in the movement consider that the establishment of the pension 
fund, and the plan to secure just returns of sales from publishers, are the most 
important objects of the new association. A second meeting was held at the 
Lyceum on June 3d, at which the organization was perfected and a number of 
candidates were proposed for membership. At this meeting Senator Orville H. 
Piatt and ex-Representative AVilliam E. Simonds, of Connecticut, were elected 
honorary members for " signal service to literature " in securing the passage 
through Congress of the international copyright act. 



NOTES 



73 



NOTES 



Some historical papers — The first 
territorial governor of Kansas was Gov- 
ernor Reeder, and General John A. 
Halderman was his private secretary. 
When Governor Reeder fled from the 
territory he assigned to General Halder- 
man all his private property, which in- 
cluded many legal documents and pa- 
pers to which afterward attached more 
or less historical value. In making re- 
searches into this somewhat musty and 
age-begrimed collection a short time 
since, General Halderman collected 
many of these old papers, and sent them 
to the Kansas Historical Society, of 
which he is a life member. 

In the collection thus donated were 
autograph letters from General John W. 
Whitfield, the first delegate in congress 
from the Kansas territory, and who was 
afterward killed while making a gallant 
fight in the confederate army ; from 
General Powell Clayton, once city engi- 
neer of Leavenworth and later governor 
of Arkansas ; from General Nathaniel 
Lyon, who was killed in a battle at 
Springfield, Missouri, during the late war, 
and on whose staff General Halderman 
served ; also interesting letters from Dr. 
William A. Hammond, surgeon-general 
of the army of the United States, who 
now lives quietly at Washington, D. C. 
There were also certificates of stock 
held by Governor Reeder in the town of 
Pawnee ; an original deed of the town 
association of Leavenworth to Gov- 
ernor Reeder for a number of lots ; 
with divers other papers and receipts 
executed before the days of statehood 
for Kansas. 



THE MICHIGAN CIRCUIT RIDER 

There are some amusing anecdotes told 
by Rev. R. C. Crawford in his " Rem- 
iniscences of the Pioneer Ministers of 
Michigan," published in the seventeenth 
volume of the Michigan Historical 
Collections, one of which, concerning 
an early circuit rider, is as follows : 
" Mr. Gilruth was a man of fine phys- 
ical proportions, and possessed great 
strength, a fact known only to a 
few of his intimate friends. He was 
called to testify in a suit where the 
defendant was charged with having 
knocked the complainant off his feet, 
doing him bodily harm. On cross ex- 
amination by defendant's counsel, he 
was subjected to some annoyance. The 
question was finally asked : ' Mr. Gil- 
ruth, in your direct examination you 
said you saw my client, the defendant 
in this suit, knock the complainant 
down. Will you please tell me how he 
knocked him down ? ' Mr. Gilruth re- 
plied, ' He struck him a hard blow with 
his fist, and he fell to the ground.' 
' But,' said the lawyer, ' I insist that you 
must tell how he did it. ' Mr. Gilrutn 
turning to the Court, inquired if he must 
tell the counsel how it was done, and on 
being assured he must do so, crooked 
his elbow, and, in straightening it, sud- 
denly brought his fist in contact with 
the lawyer's cranium, stretching him at 
full length on the floor, saying, ' That is 
just the way he did it, as near as I can 
recollect.' " 



The sorrows of a discoverer — Ac- 
cording to an American humorist, "it 



74 



NOTES 



would have been money in Christopher 
Columbus's pocket never to have dis- 
covered America." The same failure 
would also have been much for the ben- 
efit of his reputation, if, unlike the client 
of a Scotch lawyer, he was fortunate 
enough to possess any reputation at all. 
The unlucky Columbus is about to have 
a fourth centenary, and he might just as 
wisely have started as a candidate for 
the presidency. There is nothing to 
his discredit that is not said about a per- 
son now so prominent. Some may ex- 
plain this by the theory that the Ameri- 
cans cannot forgive Christopher for not 
having been an American. Mr. Justin 
Windsor [sic] has written a book about 
Columbus, and another author, in one of 
the magazines, writes an essay about his 
"mystery." He is charged with the most 
disagreeable offences. Where did he 
come from ; had he respectable rela- 
tions ? Nobody seems to know, and 
this in itself is suspicious. There were 
pirates called Columbo [sic], and why 
may he not have been connected with 
those bold bad men ? * * * * If 
there are any more continents, or even 
natural forces, to be discovered, people 
will be shy about seeking for them. The 
reward is only labor, disappointment, 
ill-treatment, poverty, chains, and final- 
ly, after four hundred years, a flood of 
critical obloquy. Indeed, it does not 
pay to discover new worlds, it only 
tempts critics to discover disagreeable 
things about the discoverer. Once let it 
be granted that America was discovered 
by an American, and it may be trusted 
that American historians will cease to 
rake up so many disagreeable charges 
about the hero who "could not tell a 



lie," and who may gradually get mixed 
up with Washington and General Jack- 
son in the popular memory. This 
seems the best chance for Columbus. 
Otherwise his reputation is of the most 
dubious and least enviable. — Andrew 
Lang, in London Daily News. 



George r. graham, whose name was 
once known wherever books were read 
in America, and whose intimate rela- 
tions with American literature seemed 
" too intense t' unloose," has quite out- 
lived the memories of his countrymen. 
Few are aware that the generous and 
able publisher who gave employment to 
young James Russell Lowell, who 
awarded the prize for the "Gold Bug " 
to Edgar Allan Poe, and who was 
almost the first to pay American authors 
for their work, is still living in Orange, 
New Jersey. He has outlived health 
and fortune as well as fame. And now, 
rich only in memory, and the precious 
store of reminiscences of nearly four- 
score years, he lies in the Memorial 
Hospital at Orange contentedly await- 
ing the end, neither anxious to go nor 
eager to remain. His few personal 
wants and the necessary comforts of his 
age are fully provided by Mr. George 
W. Childs, whose liberal hand, prompted 
by his generous heart, never wearies in 
doing deeds of generosity. — Philadelphia 
Magazines in the Nineteenth Century 
and their Contributors. By Abert H. 
Smyth. 



Dr. lyman abbott — Dr. Lyman Ab- 
bott has won such favor in Boston by 
reason of his series of lectures on the 



QUERIES — REPLIES 



75 



evolution of Christianity, that a New 
York correspondent of The Transcript 
is impelled to mention this bit of testi- 
mony regarding his efficiency at home, 
derived from an old member of his 
church : " When Mr. Beecher died many 
of us believed that Plymouth Church, 
liable at best to weakness, as Brooklyn 
grows steadily away and leaves it fur- 
ther and further downtown, and identi- 
fied as it has been with a single man, 
would decline both in numbers and 
working force. But Dr. Abbott has 
proved himself the very man for the 
place. As Mr. Beecher had the quali- 



ties that made him a great preacher in 
the days of the anti- slavery agitation 
and of the civil war, so Dr. Abbott has 
the qualities that make him the efficient 
head of our church in a liberalizing and 
organizing time. His sermons help our 
daily lives and clarify our own feeble 
theological speculations, and he has a 
masterly faculty for encouraging our 
laymen and societies to do their very 
best work. And as for numbers, the 
church, big as it is, has been crowded 
many a Sunday this winter, and at the 
beginning of May fifty new members 
were added." — New York Tribune. 



QUERIES 



The tub of diogenes — Editor Mag- Origin of the name cuba — What is 

azine of American History : Will you, the origin of the name Cuba ? It is said 

or some of your readers, explain through that Columbus first called it Juana, in 

the magazine what sort of a tub the honor of Prince John, son of Ferdinand 

famous Greek philosopher, Diogenes, and Isabella, 
lived in, or is the story a myth ? 

M. K. Sinclair 

Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Charleston, South Carolina. 



Milton Ware 



REPLIES 



Great wall in china [xxvii, 476] 
— The query by Webster McCauley can 
be answered in a few words. The Chi- 
nese emperor, Chi-hoang-ti, who reigned 
about two centuries before Christ, 
wished to stop the incursions of the 
Tartars into his dominions, and built the 
great wall, fifteen hundred miles long, 



on the northern frontier. The building 
of the wall occupied ten years and it 
was utterly useless when completed. 
The building of the Erie canal occu- 
pied a period of eight and one-third 
years, and has proved the source of great 

wealth. P. C. VVilberforce 

St. Louis, Missouri. 



7 6 



SOCIETIES 



SOCIETIES 



NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY — 

The stated meeting for June was held 
on Tuesday evening, the 7th instant. 
Hon. John A. King presided. The 
society accepted an invitation from the 
Sons of the Revolution to attend the 
one hundred and sixteenth celebration 
of the adoption of the Declaration of 
Independence by the provincial con- 
gress of New York, at White Plains, 
July 9, 1776. A medallion in marble 
by Verhagen of the late Fordyce Bar- 
ker, M.D., was presented by his son 
Fordyce D. Barker. 

The president, on behalf of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, presented the fol- 
lowing resolutions on the death of 
George Henry Moore, LL.D.: 

Resolved, That in the death of George 
H. Moore, Doctor of Laws, the society 
laments one who for half a century had 
been a cherished and faithful member 
and officer. Upon the executive com- 
mittee for forty-three years he had most 
prominently and ably assisted in the 
administration of its affairs. Chosen 
assistant librarian in 1841, he was in 
1849 advanced to be librarian. After 
twenty-seven years of eminent work he, 
in 1876, asked to be relieved, having 
been called elsewhere to duties of pecul- 
iar and high responsibility. The society, 
reluctantly acquiescing in his request, 
elected him to be the foreign corre- 
sponding secretary. As a member of 
the committees on library and publica- 
tions his services were very valuable. 

Resolved, That the society recognizes 
its own great loss and that of the com- 
munity generally in this sudden and 



unexpected withdrawal from our midst 
of one who was a patient investigator of 
history, an untiring student, a lover of 
art and literature, possessing great and 
critical knowledge of books and their 
contents, of one who was a ripe scholar, 
and a careful and learned author. 

Resolved, That the society, in remem- 
brance of Dr. Moore's long continued 
and arduous labors in its behalf, during 
its years of difficulties equally with those 
of prosperity, and in heartfelt apprecia- 
tion of his scrupulous fidelity in the dis- 
charge of the many honorable trusts 
which, during a busy and most useful 
life, had been confided to him, desires 
to enter upon its records this minute of 
their deep sorrow and regret. 

Resolved, That the society sincerely 
sympathizes with the family of our de- 
parted friend in their great bereavement, 
and orders a copy of these resolutions 
to be duly communicated to them. 

The librarian, Mr. Charles Isham, 
read the paper of the evening on " The 
Diplomacy of France in Relation to her 
Treaty of 1778 with the United States 
of America." The society then ad- 
journed, to meet on the first Tuesday of 
October next. 



THE TRINITY COLLEGE HISTORICAL 

society, North Carolina, at its regular 
meeting in May, listened to papers pre- 
sented by Mr. E. T. Bynum on " The 
Culpeper Rebellion," and by Mr. S. J. 
Durham on " The Fundamental Consti- 
tutions of John Locke." Mr. Bynum 
analyzed the causes of the rebellion 
which broke out in Albemarle in De- 



SOCIETIES 



77 



cember, 1677, due in part to the attempt 
to enforce the fundamental constitu- 
tions, and the general dissatisfaction 
which this attempt produced ; to the bad 
administration of the local officers, and 
also to the attempted enforcement of 
the navigation acts ; from this reason 
it may be called a prototype of the 
American Revolution. Mr. Bynum crit- 
icised the view of this struggle given by 
Dr. Hawks and other historians of the 
state, and showed that many of these 
errors and misconceptions came from 
the account of George Chalmers, who 
warped, perverted, and garbled his ma- 
terials. 

Mr. Durham sketched the early con- 
stitutional life of the colony of Albe- 
marle as it is to be gathered from the 
charters of 1629, 1663, and 1665. He 
showed that under these charters there 
was not the constitutional freedom which 
is usually claimed. He examined also 
the effects of the constitutions on the 
life of the colony. 

The society is intended to do the 
work of a practice course in connection 
with the work of the historical depart- 
ment of the college. 



field monument to the Revolutionary 
soldiers of the Maryland line. One 
plate bears the coat-of-arms of Mary- 
land in relief ; the other contains the 
inscription : " Maryland's tribute to 
her heroic dead. Erected by members 
of the Maryland Historical Society, in 
memory of the soldiers of the Maryland 
line, 1781-1892. No 11 out 11 is nioriar." 
Professor Edward Graham Daves, chair- 
man of committee, reported that the 
monument to be erected on Guilford 
battleground, North Carolina, in honor 
of Maryland's revolutionary heroes, 
would be completed next month ; but, 
in consequence of the heat at that time 
of the year, the committee thought that 
it would be preferable to postpone the 
dedication till about October. 



Maryland historical society — At 
its meeting, May 9th, were exhibited the 
two bronze plates which are to be placed 
upon the sides of the Guilford battle- 



ROCHESTER HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

The May meeting was held at the cham- 
ber of commerce and was largely 
attended. President Fitch made an 
interesting address, full of suggestions 
as to lines of future work. The treas- 
urer made a plea for a future fund, and 
a committee was appointed to devise 
means for securing the same. The 
paper of the evening was by Howard L. 
Osgood, " The Struggle for Monroe 
County," giving a history of the agita- 
tion which, in 1821, resulted in the 
county of Monroe. 



78 



BOOK NOTICES 

BOOK NOTICES 



A HALF CENTURY OF CONFLICT. By 
Francis Parkman. In two volumes. i2mo, 
pp. 333 and 395. Boston : Little, Brown & 
Co. 1892. 

These new volumes of Mr. Parkman render 
the series entitled " France and England in 
North America " a continuous narrative of the 
efforts of France to occupy and control the 
American continent. The period extends from 
1694 to 1750, which forms the theme of this 
work, and it consists of a series of vivid pictures, 
showing the course of the conflict between the 
English and the French in various parts of the 
contested territory and frontiers during the half- 
century illustrated, from the war of the Spanish 
succession to the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. The 
age was one in which nearly all the advantages 
seemed to lie with the French. The English 
colonies were unfitted to cope with an adversary 
who had a clear purpose, united power, harmony 
of action, and a powerful ecclesiastical alliance 
on his side. The eminent historian tells us that 
the mission of France in America was an attempt 
of feudalism, monarchy, and Rome to master a 
continent. Yet what the French soldiers and 
priests conquered proved to be a gain for civili- 
zation and not for France. This ambitious and 
long sustained effort, backed by a warlike popu- 
lation, was a disappointment to its projectors. 
Mr. Parkman says: " The French dominion is a 
memory of the past ; and when we evoke its 
departed shades, they arise upon us from their 
graves in strange, romantic guise. Again their 
ghostly camp-fires seem to burn, and the fitful 
light is cast around on lord and vassal and black- 
robed priest, mingled with wild forms of savage 
warriorsknit in close fellowship on the samestern 
errand. A boundless vision grows upon us ; an 
untamed continent ; vast wastes of forest verd- 
ure ; mountains silent in primeval sleep ; river, 
lake, and glimmering pool ; wilderness oceans 
mingling with the sky — such was the domain 
which France conquered for civilization.'' 

Mr. Parkman fortifies himself with original 
documents, and harnesses himself to indisputa- 
ble facts ; and with his mind filled with the truth 
of history, he tells the story in a style pecul- 
iarly his own — masterly, graceful, picturesque, 
without any over-abundance of words, brilliant 
and fascinating. His readers are legion, and 
every one who reads is instructed. He intro- 
duces just enough of anecdote and descriptive 
episode to invest with life the scenes he attempts 
to portray, with condensed portraiture of leading 
characters in those days of many perils and ro- 
bust adventure. The manuscript material col- 
lected for the preparation of the series now 
complete forms about seventy volumes, most of 



them in folios. This collection was begun forty- 
five years ago, and is now in the library of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. 



FREELAND : A Social Anticipation. By Dr. 

Theodor Hertzka. Translated by Arthur 

Ransom. i2mo. pp. 443. New York : D. 

Appleton & Co. 1891. $1. 

\A ith Mr. Bellamy's remarkable study of 
social problems in mind, it is interesting to read 
an essay somewhat on the same lines, emanating 
from the modern German school. The original 
title, Freiland ; ein Sociales Zuki<nftsbild, is 
well translated in the English title. The 
author. Dr. Hertzka, is a Viennese, a profound 
student of modern economical problems, and 
fully alive to the necessity of presenting his 
solutions thereof in a picturesque form. To 
this end he creates a well-organized party of 
colonists, provided with ample funds, and leads 
them into the interior of Africa, where all go 
to work with admirable unanimity and single- 
ness of purpose to found a virgin empire in the 
heart of the "dark continent." Three editions 
were called for as rapidly as they could be pre- 
pared for publication, and an abridged form, 
published under the author's supervision, had 
an equally enthusiastic welcome. As was the 
case with Looking Backward, the general read- 
ing of the book was followed by the organ- 
ization of bona fide Friedland societies all over 
Germany and Austria, and these were presently 
united under acentral union. Alarge tractof land 
in British East Africa was actually secured last 
year in a provisional way, and it is hoped that 
the plan may be proved by the only practical 
test. To the average reader its success may 
seem somewhat problematical, in view of the 
unquestionable fact that it is the unexpected 
that always happens. Dr. Hertzka's theories in 
regard to currency, labor, and even the tender 
passion itself, have been elaborated after the ex- 
haustive German method, and if they fail of 
realization it will be human nature, not the 
German school of philosophy, that is at fault. 



THE STORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF 

THE NEW WORLD BY COLUMBUS. 

By Frederick Saunders. i2mo. pp. 145. 

New York : Thomas Whittaker. 1892. 

This handsome little volume is an outline 
sketch of the great discoverer, intended for 
the use of busy people who desire the general 
facts without arguments or details. It briefly 
sketches anti-Columbian explorers, gives the 
early life of Columbus, his several voyages, the 



BOOK NOTICES 



79 



close of his career, and estimates of his charac- 
ter. Mr. Saunders says : " Las Casas had a 
much more intimate knowledge of Columbus 
than any modern historian can ever hope to ac- 
quire, and he always speaks of him with warm 
admiration and respect. But how would Las 
Casas ever have respected the feeble, mean- 
spirited driveller whose portrait Mr. Winsor 
asks us to accept as that of the discoverer of 
America?'' The author further says: '"Until 
Columbus had solved the mystery of the dark 
sea, nothing' of great importance had been dis- 
covered in nautical affairs that resulted in any 
practical value to the world." The book is 
pleasantly written, and contains a number of 
fine illustrations, among them a portrait of 
Columbus, Columbus at the convent gate, his 
vessels on their course, his first sight of land, 
his landing at San Salvador, and his monument 
at Genoa. 



lofty spiritual teachings, presented in vigorous 
and attractive style. 



POLITICAL AND JUDICIAL DIVISIONS 
OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF 
GEORGIA. By Charles Edgeworth 
Jones. 8vo, pp. 37. Pamphlet. Atlanta, 
Ga. : Franklin Publishing House. 1892. 
This small publication represents a vast 
amount of careful research, and seems to be re- 
markably free from errors. The earliest division 
of the province of Georgia was in April, 1741, 
into two counties- — Savannah and Frederica. 
Georgia at present consists of one hundred and 
thirty-seven counties, and these are all given in 
alphabetical order, with the date of the estab- 
lishment of each, and much other useful informa- 
tion. The congressional districts, the state 
senatorial districts, and the judicial circuits, 
are treated in a similar manner. It is a hand- 
book of knowledge that will be highly prized. 



OLD WINE : NEW BOTTLES. Some 
Elementary Doctrines in Modern Form. By 
Amory H. Bradford, D.D. New York: 
Fords, Howard & Hulbert. 1892. 
The learned author of this little work does not 
insist on the old bottles of formulation which are 
being rent by the new spirit of inquiry, but 
rather prefers to conserve what he thinks to be 
the beliefs necessary to Christian thought and 
life as found in the Scriptures, by putting them 
into the forms compelled by modern thought 
and the experience of mankind. The four dis- 
courses of which the volume consists, " The 
Living God." "The Holy Trinity," "What 
is Left of the Bible," "The Immortal Life," 
were delivered during Lent and on Easter Sun- 
day, 1892, the topics selected as being essential 
— or, as Dr. Bradford phrases it, elemental — 
in Christianity. These sermons are distin- 
guished for good sense, sound morality, and 



THE COLONIAL ERA. [The American 
History Series.] By George Parker 
Fisher, D.D , LL.D. With maps. 121110, 
pp. 348. New York : Charles Scribner's 
Sons. lSg2. 

This work is the first of a series of four, de- 
signed to furnish in a brief form a connected 
history of the United States from the discovery 
of the continent to the present time These 
volumes are to be distinct in authorship, and 
each complete in itself. The colonial period 
is the theme of the present volume, in which 
Professor Fisher has carefully treated the colo- 
nies one by one as they moved forward to the 
goal of political unity. He writes with great 
clearness and vigor, and the book is readable 
throughout. These colonies in the early period 
were predominately distinct communities ; but 
the English revolution of 1688 and its effect on 
the colonies was so important a landmark, that 
the author has wisely broken his narrative into 
two parts With the year 1756 his volume 
ends, leaving the decisive struggle of France 
and England for dominion in America, and 
the war of the Revolution, forthe second volume, 
which is being prepared by Professor William 
M. Sloane of Princeton. Professor Fisher's 
account of the Carolinas is admirable ; and fol- 
lowing that of Georgia from its settlement to 
1756 is a short chapter on " Literature in the 
Colonies," in which he says : " In the colonial 
period prior to the middle of the last century, 
there were only two authors who rise above a 
merely provincial rank — Benjamin Franklin and 
Jonathan Edwards. They illustrate respectively 
the two sides of New England character ; the 
one its strong understanding and thrift, the 
other its profound religious spirit and the deep 
interest felt in the problems and truths of re- 
ligion. Franklin was bent on improving the 
condition of society on the material side. His 
ethical maxims were prudential. He wrote in 
a simple and engaging style. His essays on 
scientific matters were lauded for their clearness 
and precision. Edwards delighted in exploring 
the most abstruse questions in philosophy and 
theology. He was ;'. most acute disputant, and 
he discoursed from his own enraptured experi- 
ence on the reality of spiritual light. Perhaps 
no other man has so strongly affected American 
religious life." 

LIFE OF PAUL REVERE. By Elbridge 
Henry Goss. With many portraits and other 
illustrations. Two volumes, pp. 689. Bos- 
ton : Joseph George Cupples. 1891. 
Paul Revere was an expert in many trades 



8o 



BOOK NOTICES 



long before Mr. Longfellow made him famous 
through the description of his midnight ride 
in charming verse. He was trained in the busi- 
ness of a goldsmith, practiced copper-plate en- 
graving, learned the process of making gun- 
powder prior to the outbreak of the Revolution, 
was one of the prime movers of the " tea party " 
in Boston harbor, and after the war erected a 
foundry for casting church bells and bronze 
cannon. He was the first in the country to 
smelt copper ore and to refine and roll copper 
into bolts and sheets, and built in 1801 large 
works at Canton, Massachusetts, which are still 
in operation by the Revere Copper Co. As 
grand master of the Masonic fraternity he laid 
the cornerstone of the Boston state house in 
1795. The long and varied life of such a man 
has suggested and given opportunity for these 
excellent biographical volumes, and Mr. Goss 
has performed his task with ability and marked 
success. Revere was of Huguenot origin, the 
name in France being Rivoire. The change of 
name was made by the father of the subject of 
this work, because of the difficulties arising from 
pronouncing " his ancestral family name in the 
English tongue."' He was a gold and silversmith, 
and taught his son Paul the trade, who exhib- 
ited early great skill in design. To illustrate 
this feature of Paul Revere's career, Mr. Goss 
has given numerous facsimiles of his handiwork 
in engraving and caricature, which adds im- 
mensely to the interest of the work. There are 
one hundred and thirty pictures in the two vol- 
umes. The ride to Lexington is described in 
Revere's own language ; the facsimile, indeed, 
of his written account of it appears, and many 
picturesque items of general history are intro- 
duced all through the chapters. As a whole, 
this biographical work is one of unusual value, 
and we heartily commend it to the attention of 
our readers. 



TROY'S ONE HUNDRED YEARS, 1789- 

1889. By Arthur James Weise, A.M. 

Square octavo, pp. 453. Troy, New York : 

William H. Young. 1891. 

The growth and development of an industrial 
city forms a record worthy of closest scrutiny 
and permanent treasure. Troy's early mercan- 



tile life was replete with intelligent forethought. 
The men who were in the front line of progress 
were unselfish and united in their efforts for 
the public good. Churches and schools multi- 
plied in direct ratio with places of business and 
flourishing manufactures. This ably prepared 
work chronicles the various steps through 
which the city reached its present proud posi- 
tion, and is illustrated profusely. An article in 
another part of the Magazine treats of the his- 
toric features of the enterprising city. An excel- 
lent index closes the handsome volume, which 
should go into every library in the land. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON TOMBSTONES in the 
Burying Ground of the First Presbyterian 
Church and St. John's Church, at Elizabeth, 
New Jersey, 1664. 1892. Illustrated by 
maps of both burying grounds, views of the 
Church and many headstones and tablets. 
Prepared by Edmund D. Halsey and Will- 
iam O. Wheeler. 8vo, pp. 325. Levant 
cloth. Privately printed. For sale by Charles 
L. Woodward, New York. Price, $4. 
There is so much historic material in this 
work that it deserves a high place in the New 
Jersey archives. Many of the forefathers of 
the state, and of the country, indeed, have found 
their resting place here, notably the eminent 
ancestors of the Ogden family, Hon. Elias Bou- 
dinot, Rev. James Caldwell, Shepard Kollock, 
and numerous others whose names will be 
quickly recognized in glancing over these pages. 
The first little meeting-house was of wood, 
built soon after the town was settled in 1664 ; 
the second edifice was built in 1724, and was 
burned by the British in 1780; the third was 
constructed between the years 1784 and 1789. 
St. John's Church is nearly as ancient as the 
First Presbyterian, it having been projected in 
1706. The careful copies of the inscriptions on 
the tombstones which the authors of this work 
have had made will be of the greatest service to 
historians and genealogists. The printing is 
in clear type, the paper is excellent, and an 
elaborate index adds greatly to the value of the 
volume. 




DARIUS HEALD, SON OF CAPTAIN NATHAN HEALD. 

[With some Relics from the Chicago Massacre, 1812.] 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 

Vol. XXVIII AUGUST, 1892 No. 2 

THE HISTORIC TEA-PARTY OF EDENTON, 1774 
INCIDENT IN NORTH CAROLINA CONNECTED WITH TAXATION 

TACITUS, appreciating the great value of history to mankind, wrote 
nearly twenty centuries ago that its chief object was " to rescue 
virtuous actions from the oblivion to which the want of records would 
consign them." 

Even in this practical, speculative age there seems to be a tendency 
all over our country to exhume from oblivion the events and traditions 
of our past. This growing reverence for American history is an evidence 
of increasing national intelligence, pride, and dignity. Unfortunately for 
North Carolina, many of her most beautiful traditions have been allowed 
to pass unnoticed, and her glorious deeds regarded as mere ephemera to 
perish with the actors. The establishment of a chair of history at the 
state university and the organization of the historical society will do 
much to develop and preserve our vast and valuable historic material. 
We must confess, with mortification and chagrin, that in order to study 
any subject connected with state history intelligently, we have been 
obliged in the past to refer not only to the historical societies of other 
states, but even to the libraries of Europe. 

It is the object of this paper to bring into the light an exceptionally 
interesting and patriotic incident in North Carolina, hitherto but casually 
noticed by one state historian. A stranger coming to Edenton twenty- 
five years ago was shown an old-fashioned, long wooden house fronting 
directly on the beautiful court-house green ; this historic house has since 
yielded to the ruthless hand of modern vandalism. It was the residence 
of Mrs. Elizabeth King, and under its roof fifty-one patriotic ladies (and 
not fifty-four as stated erroneously by Wheeler) met October 25, 1774, 
and passed resolutions commending the action of the provincial congress. 
Tney also declared they would not conform " to that Pernicious Custom 
of Drinking Tea, or that the aforesaid Ladys would not promote ye wear 
of any manufacture from England " until the tax was repealed. Wheeler, 
in alluding to this incident and to the stormy days closely preceding the 

Vol. XXVIII. -No. 2-6. 



82 THE HISTORIC TEA-PARTY OF EDENTON, 1 774 

Revolution, in his second volume says, " The patriotism of the men was 
even exceeded by that of the women. By some strange freak of circum- 
stance, many years ago, there was found at Gibraltar a beautiful picture 
done in skillful style, enameled on glass, of a ' meeting of the ladies of 
Edenton destroying the tea ' (their favorite beverage) when it was taxed 
by the English parliament. This picture was procured by some of the 
officers of our navy and was sent to Edenton, where I saw it in 1830." 

This is not only erroneous, but Mr. Wheeler has also misquoted the 
reference to the meeting in the American Archives, and there has been 
considerable other misinformation afloat regarding it, all of which I shall 
endeavor to set aright. The following is the correct notice copied directly 
from the American Archives, and occupies but twelve lines: "Association 
Signed by Ladies of Edenton, North Carolina, October 25, 1744. ' As we 
cannot be indifferent on any occasion that appears to affect the peace and 
happiness of our country ; and as it has been thought necessary for the 
publick good to enter into several particular resolves, by meeting of Mem- 
bers of Deputies from the whole province, it is a duty that we owe not 
only to our near and dear relations and connections, but to ourselves, who 
are essentially interested in their welfare, to do everything as far as lies in 
our power to testify our sincere adherence to the same, and we do there- 
fore accordingly subscribe this paper, as a witness of our fixed intention 
and solemn determination to do so.' Signed by fifty-one ladies."* 

Women have always been important factors in all great moral and 
political reformations. The draughting of such resolutions, so directly 
antagonistic to royal authority, required a calmer, far more enviable courage 
than that developed by the fanatic heroism of the crusades or the feverish 
bravery of martial music. The tax upon tea was a direct insult to their 
household gods ; it poisoned every cup of their tea, it affected every hearth- 
stone in the province. In looking back upon our past it should be a 
matter of pride to know that such women helped to form the preface of 
our history — characters which should be held up to our children as worthy 
of emulation. 

" These are deeds which should not pass away, 
And names that must not wither, though the earth 
Forgets her empires with a just decay." 

The account of this tea-party found its way into the London papers of 
that day, and the effect it had there may be noted in the following old 
letter, strongly tinctured with sarcasm. It was written by Arthur Iredell 

* American Archives, fourth series, vol. i. 891. 




MRS. PENELOPE BARKER. 

PRESIDENT OF THE EDENTON TEA-PARTY OF I774. 

{From a portrait in possession 0/ her descendants.} 



84 THE HISTORIC TEA-PARTY OF EDENTON, 1 774 

of London to his brother James Iredell, a distinguished patriot of this place, 
who married Miss Hannah Johnston, a sister of one of the signers of the 
noted document.* 

"London, Queen Square, January 31, 1775. 

Dear Brother: I see by the newspapers the Edenton ladies have signal- 
ized themselves by their protest against tea drinking. The name of 
Johnston I see among others; are any of my sister's relations patriotic 
heroines ? Is there a female congress at Edenton too ? I hope not, for 
we Englishmen are afraid of the male congress, but if the ladies, who have 
ever since the Amazonian era been esteemed the most formidable ene- 
mies, if they, I say, should attack us, the most fatal consequence is to be 
dreaded. So dexterous in the handling of a dart, each wound they give 
is mortal ; whilst we, so unhappily formed by nature, the more we strive 
to conquer them, the more we are conquered. The Edenton ladies, con- 
scious, I suppose, of this superiority on their side, by a former experience, 
are willing, I imagine, to crush us into atoms by their omnipotency ; the 
only security on our side, to prevent the impending ruin, that I can per- 
ceive, is the probability that there are but few places in America which 
possess so much female artillery as Edenton. 

Pray let me know all the particulars when you favor me with a 
letter. . . . 

Your most affectionate friend and brother, 

Arthur Iredell." 

The society of Edenton at this period was charming in its refinement 
and culture; it was at one time the colonial capital, and the social rival 
of Williamsburg, Virginia. Its galaxy of distinguished patriots, both men 
and women, would shine resplendent in any country or in any age. The 
tea-party then as now was one of the most fashionable modes of enter- 
taining. The English were essentially a tea-drinking nation, and conse- 
quently tea became the almost universal drink of the colonies. Dr. 
Johnson declared that " with tea he amused the evening, with tea solaced 
the midnight, and with tea welcomed the morning." Coffee was not 
introduced in Europe until much later, the first cup having been drunk by 
Louis XIV. of France at a cost of twenty-nine dollars per pound. 

The principal variety of tea used by the colonies was the Bohea, or 
black tea, and came from India. It was of the purest quality, the art of 
sophistication and adulteration being unknown at that day. The feeling 
of ease and comfort inspired by an elegant cup of tea, as well as the 

* Life and Correspondence of James Iredell, vol. i. p. 230. 



THE HISTORIC TEA-PARTY OF EDENTON, I 774 85 

exhilaration of the mental faculties which it produced, made it a necessary 
assistant to break the stiffness of those old-fashioned parties. It contains 
an active principle, theine, which when taken in considerable quantity 
produces a species of intoxication. Foreigners who visit China, where tea 
is served upon almost every occasion, become frequently tea-drunk. The 
method of preparing tea by our ancestors was essentially that of the 
wealthy class in China. The tea was brought upon the table in decorated 
china tea-caddies, some of which are still in existence, along with an urn 
of boiling water. The tea-leaves were then placed in the cup of every 
guest, the cup filled with hot water, and the saucer inverted over it for a 
few minutes to retain the aroma. The tea-pot was only used then by 
the rather bourgeoisie. 

The incidents connected with this particular tea-party are especially 
interesting, as they come to us through the blue mist of a century. We can 
easily imagine how they sat around in their low-necked, short-waisted 
gowns, and after they had gossiped sufficiently, " it was resolved that those 
who could spin ought to be employed in that way, and those who could 
not should reel. When the time arrived for drinking tea, Bohea and 
Hyperion were provided, and every one of the ladies judiciously rejected 
the poisonous Bohea, and unanimously, to their very great honor, preferred 
the balsamic Hyperion," which was nothing more than the dried leaves 
of the raspberry vine, a drink, in the writer's opinion, more vile even than 
the much vaunted Yeopon. 

The picture of this patriotic party, incorrectly alluded to by Wheeler, 
has a strange and unique history, and I give it as I have received it from 
the lady into whose possession the picture has now fallen. Lieutenant 
William T. Muse, a United States naval officer who became conspicuous 
during the late war, and whose mother was a Miss Blount of Edenton, 
while on a cruise in the Mediterranean stopped at Port Mahon on the 
island of Minorca, and accidentally saw hanging in a barber's shop there 
a picture representing the Edenton tea-party of 1774. It was purchased 
and brought by him to Edenton in 1830. I have this date from an old 
Bible bearing the date of his return from the cruise. It was first placed 
on exhibition in the court-house, and the representation of the characters 
was so distinct that many of the ladies were easily recognized. It then 
found a resting-place in the old tailor shop of Joseph Manning, an ancestor 
of the late Chief-justice Manning of Louisiana, and finally, in a cracked 
condition, was intrusted to the care of the Collins family, a member of 
which has it still. During the confusion of refugeeing during the civil 
war, it was broken in three pieces. 



86 THE HISTORIC TEA-PARTY OE EDENTON, 1 774 

A very patriotic gentleman is making a praiseworthy effort to have 
this picture reproduced on canvas, to be exhibited at the Columbian 
exposition at Chicago. It is a painting upon glass, twelve by fifteen 
inches. Upon one of the pieces is the declaration set forth by the ladies, 
that they would drink no tea nor wear any stuffs of British manufacture. 
Upon another is the picture of the lady who presided upon that occasion. 
She is seated at a table with a pen in her hand, her maid Amelia standing 
behind her chair. This maid lived for many years after this incident, and 
is still remembered by some of the oldest citizens. By a singular coinci- 
dence her granddaughter is still living upon the very same lot where the 
tea-party was held. Upon the third fragment of this picture in plain 
letters is written, "The Town of Edenton." It is not known how a pic- 
ture of this party was obtained, or how it found its way to Port Mahon 
or even into the barber shop. The printer's name in the corner of the 
picture is said to have been the same one who printed the celebrated 
letters of Junius in the reign of George III. 

Pictures have immortalized many events in history, and it is very prob- 
able that but for this one the pleasing little incident would have been 
lost or forgotten. " Porte Crayon " (General Strother), in his interesting 
article on Edenton and the surroundings, written for Harper 's Magazine 
in 1857, says, " It is to be regretted that Porte Crayon did not get a sight 
of this painting, that the world might have heard more of it, and that the 
patriotism of the ladies of Edenton might have been blazoned beside that 
of the men of Boston, who have figured in so many bad woodcuts." 
None of the names of the fifty-one ladies present at this party have been 
preserved in history, but I have succeeded in rescuing five of their names 
from the local traditions. Mrs. Penelope Barker, whose picture appears 
here, was the president of this party. She was no advocate of celibacy, 
having been married first to a Mr. Hodgson, then to a Mr. Craven, and 
lastly to Mr. Barker, whom she survived. 

At a casual glance one might easily mistake her portrait for that of 
Lady Washington. She was one of those lofty, intrepid, high-born women 
peculiarly fitted by nature to lead ; fear formed no part of her composi- 
tion. Her face bears the expression of sternness without harshness, which 
a cheap novelist would describe as hauteur. She was a brilliant conversa- 
tionalist and a society leader of her day. 

Mr. Thomas Barker, her husband, was a gifted Scotch lawyer, and had 
for his pupil at one time the distinguished governor, Samuel Johnston. 
The attachment of Governor Johnston for Mr. Barker was so great that 
in after years he had him and his more illustrious wife interred in his 



THE HISTORIC TEA-PARTY OF EDENTON, 1 774 87 

private graveyard on his beautiful estate Hayes, where a mossy slab marks 
their last resting-place. Mr. Barker was detained for some time in Lon- 
don during the Revolution, and while there his wife was called upon to 
show some of that pluck and courage she had evinced at the tea-party. 
Being informed by a servant that some British soldiers were taking her 
carriage horses from her stables, she snatched her husband's sword from 
the wall, went out, and with a single blow severed the reins in the officer's 
hands, and drove her horses back into the stables. The British officer 
declared that for such exhibition of bravery she should be allowed to 
keep her horses, and she was never afterward molested. 

Mrs. Sarah Valentine was one of the signers, and her portrait is in 
the possession of her descendants, and her house is still standing on the 
lower end of Main street. Mrs. Elizabeth King was another signer, and 
it was at her house, as before mentioned, that the party was held. She 
was the wife of Thomas King, a prominent merchant of the town. The 
Miss Johnston referred to in the Iredell letter was undoubtedly Miss Isa- 
bella, a sister of Governor Johnston. She was engaged to Joseph Hewes, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence from North Carolina, and died 
just before her marriage was consummated. Hewes, who was a man of great 
wealth and refinement, soon followed her broken-hearted to the grave. 

Mrs. Mary Hoskins, another signer, lived in the country near Edenton, 
and was the wife of Richard Hoskins, one of the signers of the St. Paul's 
Declaration of Independence, antedating the national by two weeks, and 
of which we are justly proud. From the Napoleonic standpoint she was 
the greatest of them all, having given eight sons and eight daughters to her 
country. I extract the following from the first volume (1877) of the Maga- 
zine of American History : 

" Revolutionary Caricature. I send a description of a caricature that 
may interest collectors. It is a mezzotint, fourteen by ten inches, entitled 
A Society of Patriotic Ladies, at Edenton, in North Carolina. London. 
Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, No. 53 in Fleet Street, as the Act directs 
25 March, 1775, Plate V. A group of fifteen figures are around or near 
a table in a room. A female at the table with a gavel is evidently a man, 
probably meant for Lord North. A lady, with pen in hand, is being 
kissed by a gentleman. Another lady, standing, is writing on a large cir- 
cular, which can be read, ' We the Ladys of Edenton do hereby solemnly 
engage not to Conform to that Pernicious Custom of Drinking Tea, or 
that we the aforesaid Ladys will not promote ye wear of any manufacture 
from England, untill such time that all Acts which tend to enslave this 
our Native Country shall be repealed.' The other figures are not close 



88 THE HISTORIC TEA-PARTY OF EDENTON, 1774 

around the table, and are emptying tea-caddies or looking on. A child 
and dog are under the table. Compare Bancroft's United States, vol. 
vii. p. 282. J. C. B." 

This is evidently a caricature of the original picture, probably made by 
some tory of that time. The description of it given above was written 
fifteen years ago, and I have been unable to find any clue to the writer or 
the whereabouts of this caricature. 

It will be remembered that Lord North, referred to in the description, 
was prime minister of England at that time, and the Stamp Act, which 
included a great many articles, had been relieved upon everything except 
tea; this made him especially odious to the ladies of the colonies. A 
writer in alluding to the activity and zeal of the women of the Revolution 
says, " In the lives of those high-mettled dames of the olden time, the 
daughters, wives, and mothers of men, the earnest inquirer might find 
much to elucidate that befogged question of the present day, what are 
the rights of women ? " 

And now my task is ended, let history distill in her great alembic 
whatever is valuable from these pages for posterity. 

*' The torch shall be extinguished which hath lit 
My midnight lamp, and what is writ is writ — 
Would it were worthier !" 



Edenton, North Carolina. 




MASCOUTIN 

A REMINISCENCE OF THE NATION OF FIRE 

Mascoutin, or Muscatine as the spelling and pronunciation now are, is 
the one town of this name in the United States of America. It is situated 
in the state of Iowa, on the Mississippi river, at the vertex of the great 
bend into the state which a glance at the map will show that the river 
makes. High and picturesque bluffs overhang the river, and on these the 
town of Muscatine is built. Southwest of the town is a low, flat, sandy 




WEST SHORE OK MUSCATINE ISLAND, SHOWING BLUFF. 



tract containing nearly forty thousand acres — an island by natural forma- 
tion, being separated from the Illinois shore on the east by the river, and 
from the Iowa shore on the west by a narrow, winding slough. The name 
of this island is also Muscatine ; and it is worthy of remark that it bore 
this name long before the town of Muscatine was founded, and indeed 
from a period altogether remote and indeterminate. 

It has ever been a question of interest for local antiquarians, whence 
the derivation of this name Mascoutin, or Muscatine, and what its mean- 
ing? That it is Indian nobody has doubted; but as to what it means, 



90 MASCOUTIN 

» 

and as to the tribe or band who first applied it to the island under 
consideration, opinions have differed ; indeed, but scant information has 
existed at any time on which to found an intelligent opinion of the ques- 
tion. In 1852 the editor of one of the daily papers printed in Muscatine 
wrote to Antoine le Claire, at Davenport, Iowa, for a definition of the 
word Muscatine. Le Claire was of French-Indian extraction, and in 
pioneer days had been the official interpreter for the United States gov- 
ernment in its dealings with the Indians of eastern Iowa, chiefly the Sac 
and Fox tribes; he was therefore deemed competent to define this word. 
His reply to the question asked was that Muscatine " is a sort of combina- 
tion of an Indian and French word : mus-qno-ta, the Indian word, means 
'prairie;' the French added the termination tine to 1 ims-qno-t a, and the 
compound word musqiw, or musqui-tine, means 'little prairie.' The Indian 
word mcnis means 'island,' aslicota means 'fire,' nmsquaw means 'red.' 
The Indians used to call the island Mus-quo-ta-menis, which means 'prairie 
island.' " 

Le Claire's definition never has been entirely satisfactory to Muscatine 
antiquarians. They have objected to it on poetic grounds among others. 
For years after, as doubtless during an untold period before, the town of 
Muscatine was founded (an event which took place in 1839), immense fires 
would sweep over Muscatine island in the autumn, denuding it of the tall 
grass — grass as tall as a mounted man — with which its soil was covered. 
Now, what more fitting, have contended these antiquarians, than that the 
name Muscatine should signify burning or fire island ? What more likely, 
furthermore, than that the Indians, impressed with the magnificent and 
terrible spectacle of the writhing, sweeping flames, should call the spot 
where these flames were as regularly recurrent as the seasons by some 
name significant of them ? Finally, in addition to all else, say the anti- 
quarians, Antoine le Claire himself, although defining the word Musquota- 
menis as " prairie island," states the meaning of the Indian word ashcota 
to be " fire," and of the word musquaw to be " red." A philological sup- 
port is therefore suggested even by Le Claire for the argument we make 
in favor of the meaning, burning or fire island. One can but be impressed 
with the force of the reasoning. 

But there is a way by which more nearly to reach this problem of the 
meaning of the word Mascoutin, or Muscatine ; and not only so, but the 
no less difficul tquestion as to what tribe or band of Indians gave this 
name originally to the island. In the year 1669 Father Claude Allouez, 
a Jesuit priest, came to Green Bay, in what is now the state of Wisconsin, 
for the purpose of establishing a mission. While there he ascended the 



MASCOUTIN 



91 




MAP SHOWING MUSCATINE ISLAND AND ADJACENT TERRITO-,. 



Fox river, passing through the territory occupied by the Sacs and Foxes, 
and came at length to an Indian town at the west of Lake Winnebago* 
containing a population of some three thousand souls. This town was 
Mascoutin (aboriginal Muscatine), or the village of the Mascoutins— a dis- 
tinct Indian tribe. It was situated, we are told, " on the crown of a hill, 

* In what is now Green Lake county, Wisconsin.— Butterfield's Nicolet, p. 66. 



92 MASCOUTIN 

while all around the prairie stretched beyond the sight, interspersed with 
groves and belts of tall forest." It was, moreover, a palisaded town ; that 
is to say, a town encircled by a row of posts set close together in the ground, 
against which, on the inner side, heavy sheets of bark had been fastened. 
As early as 1615 the tribe of the Mascoutins were inhabitants of the 
country west and southwest of Lake Huron, now southern Michigan, 
where they had some thirty towns. But from this region they were driven 
in 1642 or 1643, by the Neutral Nation so called, their immediate neigh- 
bors on the east, and thereafter were to be found in the Fox river region. 
" Last summer," says the Relation des Hnro?is of 1643, in allusion to the 
expulsion of the Mascoutins from the Lake Huron country, " two thou- 
sand warriors of the Neutral Nation attacked a town of the Nation of 
Fire, well fortified with a palisade, and defended by nine hundred war- 
riors. They took it after a siege of ten days; killed many on the spot, 
and made eight hundred prisoners, men, women, and children. After 
burning seventy of the best warriors, they put out the eyes of the old men, 
and cut away their lips, and then left them to drag out a miserable exist- 
ence." The village of the Mascoutins on Fox river (aboriginal Muscatine) 
was, it may also be remarked, a point of note and importance. Hither 
came Jean Nicolet in 1634, and here he learned from the Mascoutins of 
the existence of " the great water," the Mississippi, which, however, it is 
pretty well established, he did not sec." x " Hither also came the travelers 
Radisson and Groseilliers in 1659; and concerning the Mascoutins Radis- 
son wrote in his journal : " We made acquaintance with another nation 
called Escotecke (Mascoutins), w ch signified fire, a faire, proper nation ; 
they are tall and big and very strong. We came there in the spring. 
When we arrived there were extraordinary banquetts. There they never 
had seen men w th beards, because they pull their haires as soone as it 
comes out ; but much more astonished when they saw our arms, especially 
our guns, w ch they worshiped by blowing smoke of tobacco instead of 
sacrifice." 

Further on, and at a later date, he gives an account of an expedition 
made by himself and his companion to and down a stream which, it seems 
fairly inferable, was the Mississippi. His exact words are: "We weare 
4 moneths in our voyage w th out doeing anything but goe from river 
to river. We mett several sorts of people. . . . By the persuasion of 
some of them we went into ye great river that divides itself in 2. . . . 
It is so called because it has two branches, the one towards the west, the 
other towards the south, w ch we beleive runns towards Mexico, by the 

* Jesuit Rel. 1640, p. 36 ; 1654, p. 30 ; 1670, pp. 99-100. 



MASCOUTIN 



93 




tf^Ta caognne 



franquelin's map, showing location of the muscatins in 1684. 



tokens they gave us." The " branch " spoken of by Radisson as " towards 
the west " is conjectured by the editor of Radisson's journal, as published 
in the Wisconsin Historical Collection, to be the Iowa river. If so, then 
Radisson and Groseilliers at least passed by the site of the present town of 
Muscatine — and this, moreover, as a direct result of information derived 
from the Mascoutin Indians — for the Iowa river enters the Mississippi 
eighteen miles below Muscatine as now located. 



94 MASCOUTIN 

Now it will be observed — coming to one of the main points of our 
investigation — that the name Mascoutin, as applied to the Indian tribe of 
which I have been speaking, is defined by the Relation des Huron of 1634 
and by Radisson's journal of 1659 as fire nation. To this it may be added 
that the map of La Salle's colony, finished in 1684 by Jean Baptiste 
Franquelin, fixes the location of the Mascoutins as on Fox river, and at 
the same time designates them as Mascoutins, Nation du Feu. But Charle- 
voix says that the true name of the Mascoutins was Mascoutenec, signify- 
ing an open country. He explains the name Mascoutin as a mispronun- 
ciation of Mascoutenec by the Pottawottamies, which was taken up and 
perpetuated by the French. That there was a word Mascoutin, or some- 
thing very like it, which meant fire in the Pottawottamie tongue, Charle- 
voix, however, admits. 

So here arises again the old dispute. On the one side, contending for 
the meaning fire nation, we have the early discoverers Radisson, Allouez, 
Marquette,* and La Salle, together with Sagard and Champlain ; while on 
the other we are confronted by Dablon,f Charlevoix, Schoolcraft, and 
(doubtfully) Parkman. % And what, by a sort of amusing perversity, is 
more perplexing still, the name Mascoutin, as applied to the island in the 
Mississippi below the present town of Muscatine, is equally pertinent and 
apropos, be the meaning thereof fire island or prairie island ; for, besides 
being the flattest and nakedest of prairies, it was wont in Indian times 
to be swept yearly by fierce conflagrations. 

But what connection is there (coming now to the other leading point 
of our investigation) between the Mascoutin tribe of Indians on Fox river 
in what is now the state of Wisconsin, and Mascoutin, or Muscatine, 
island in the state of Iowa? How is it even known that Muscatine island 
was originally Mascoutin island? Answering the last question first, let me 

* Jes. Rel. 1670-71. Marquette: "'We entered into the river which leads to the Mach- 
koutenech (Mascoutins), called Fire Nation. This is a very beautiful river, without rapids or 
portages ; it flows to the southwest. Along this river are numerous nations : Oumami (Miami), 
Kikabou (Kickapoo), Machkouteng (Mascoutins), &c. These people are established in a very fine 
place, where we see beautiful plains, and level country as far as the eye reaches. Their river 
leads into a great river called Mississippi." 

f Dablon : " It is beyond this great river that are placed the Illinois, of whom we speak, and 
from whom are detached those who dwell here with the Fire Nation— Mascoutins. The Fire Nation 
bears this name erroneously (?) calling themselves Machkoutenech, which signifies 'a land bare 
of trees ' (Muscutah — prairie), such as that which this people inhabit ; but because by the change 
of a few letters (namely scuta, which means fire) from thence it has come that they are called 
the Fire Nation." 

% Wisconsin Historical Collection, vol. iii. pp. 1 31-132. Parkman's Jes. in North America, 
p. 436, note. 



MASCOUTIN 95 

quote from the diary of Major Thomas Forsyth of the United States 
army, kept by him while on a voyage up the Mississippi from St. Louis to 
the Falls of St. Anthony, made in the year 1819: 

" Sunday, June 20th. Weather still very warm ; had the sail up and 
down several times. Met Mr. Davenport's men returning home to St. 
Louis. Met the Black Thunder and some followers, all Foxes, going down 
to St. Louis in their canoes; they immediately returned when they met 
me. Encamped a little above the Iowa river ; eighteen miles was this 
day's progress. Monday, 21st. We were off by time this morning; three 
Saukies overtook us on their way from hunting, bound up to their village 
on Rocky river; current strong to-day, made only twenty-four miles; 
encamped at upper end of Grand Mascoutin." On the day following 
he reached Fort Armstrong on Rock island, having come, he tells us, 
"twenty-seven miles" from his last stop. Now, the fact is, that the dis- 
tance from the mouth of the Iowa river to the town of Muscatine, Iowa, 
is by river at least twenty miles — very near what Major Forsyth guessed to 
be the distance therefrom to the upper end of the Grand Mascoutin; and, 
furthermore, the fact is, that from Muscatine to Rock island is by river 
twenty-eight miles — just one mile farther than Major Forsyth guessed it to 
be. It seems plain, therefore, that Muscatine island was known by the 
name Mascoutin as early at least as 18 19. 

In answer to the first question regarding the connection between the 
Mascoutin Indians and Mascoutin island, the following may be said : The 
Sac and Fox (or, more correctly, the Sauk and Nusquakie) Indians, as is 
well known, had inhabited what is now eastern Iowa and western Illinois, 
near the mouth of Rock river, from seventy to one hundred years before 
the Black Hawk war of 1832-33. It is furthermore known that early in 
the eighteenth century the Sac and Fox tribes were denizens of the Fox 
river region, where were also at that time the Mascoutins. From this 
region they (the Sacs and Foxes) had migrated to the Rock river region. 
Is it probable that the Mascoutins, or some of the Mascoutins, migrated 
with them ? I think it is. To begin with, the accomplished Indian his- 
torian John Gilmary Shea makes the suggestion that the name Musquakie, 
by which the Fox Indians called themselves, means red land and may be 
a corruption of Mashkooteaki — fire land. If so, Shea thinks that the 
Foxes comprised the remnant and bore the name of the Mascoutins. 
That the Foxes, or Sacs and Foxes, by the time of their migration to the 
Rock river region, had absorbed the Mascoutins — not then a numerous 
people — I think is highly probable. That they comprised them — were in 
fact the remnant of them, I think highly improbable. The Foxes were 



96 MASCOUTIN 

a distinct tribe and had borne the name of Musquakie long prior to 
their hegira southward. But they could readily have absorbed the Mas- 
coutins : for, first, they were more numerous ; second, they spoke the same 
tongue ; * third, they had always had the Mascoutins for close neighbors 
and allies ; f and, fourth, the Mascoutins dropped entirely out of history 
in the fore part of the eighteenth century. ^ Assuming, then, that 
some of the Mascoutin tribe accompanied the Sacs and Foxes to the 
mouth of Rock river, they would have been within twenty-eight miles 
of the island called Grand Mascoutin by Major Forsyth in 1 8 19, and 
to-day called Muscatine by everybody. That this island, so near to the 
new abiding-place of the Mascoutins, should in some way, by more or 
less permanent occupation, perhaps have derived its name from them 
is a reasonable supposition. But whether Mascoutin means fire nation 
or prairie nation, it is now impossible absolutely to determine. A 
feather's weight is thrown into the balances in favor of the meaning fire 
nation or fire land by Shea's statement that Mashkooteaki means fire 
land ; for it will be remembered that Radisson in his journal gives the 
name Mascoutin as Escotecke — a very successful phonetic reproduction 
of Mashkooteaki. § 

The spot on Iowa soil now occupied by the town of Muscatine is not, it 
may fittingly be remarked in conclusion, without other historic associations 
than such as arise from the probable connection therewith of some rem- 
nant of the Mascoutin tribe. 

Here was the favorite hunting-ground of the great Sac chief Maka- 
taimishekiakiak, or Black (sparrow) Hawk. Here doubtless on many occa- 
sions has he stood upon the commanding heights overlooking Mascoutin 
island and the Mississippi river, and gazed with awe upon the magnifi- 
cent and extended prospect ; for Black Hawk was an admirer of bold 

* Parkman'sy^. in North Am., p. 436, note. 

\ Memoir concerning the peace made by Monsieur de Signery with the chiefs of the Foxes, etc., 
June 7, 1726. Wis. Hist. Col., vol. iii. p. 149. 

\ Parkman's_/t\r. in North Am., p. 436, note. Shea says that the Mascoutins disappeared 
from the Fox river region about 1720. Wis. Hist. Col., vol. iii. p. 131 ; see also Wis. Col., vol. 
iii. p. 106. Parkman says in his La Salle, p. 36, " The Mascoutins, Fire Nation, or Nation of 
the Prairie, are extinct or merged in other tribes.'''' 

% The following is suggested as the possible derivation of the word Mascoutin : (1) Escotecke 
(Radisson) or Mashkooteaki (Shea) or Mashkootenki (Allouez and Marquette, by prefixing the 
article 'M, and affixing the ending enk, to the word skoote or ashkoote ; this word meaning, by 
definition of all, fire land or fire nation). (2) Machkouteng {Jes. Rel. 1669-70). (3) Machkoutens 
(Jes. Rel. 1670-1). (4) Maskoutens or Mascoutins (Charlevoix). The meaning " prairie nation," 
to which later writers have inclined, is obtained, according to Shea, by deriving the word Mas- 
coutin from Muskortenec or Muscutah — "prairie." 



MASCOUTIN 97 

scenery, as he has been careful to tell us in his Autobiography when 
describing the position of and view from Black Hawk's Watch Tower on 
Rock river. Here also used to hunt and dwell the eloquent and wily 
Keokuk, also a Sac chief, the name Keokuk lake still serving to desig- 
nate an expansion at one point of the waters of Muscatine slough. At 
Muscatine island stopped Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike, from whom was 
afterward named Pike's Peak, Colorado, on his voyage of exploration up 
the " great water " (missi, Algonquin for great ; sepe, Algonquin for 
water) in 1805. Up past Muscatine island sailed the expedition sent out 
in 1814 by Governor William Clark of Missouri to seize and fortify Prairie 
du Chien. Down past this island, likewise in 1814, swept the disabled 
boats of Lieutenants Rector and Riggs, after the bloody repulse at Rock 
island by the Indians under Black Hawk, of Captain John Campbell's 
expedition for the relief of the post at Prairie du Chien — then beleaguered 
by the British. Down past this island the next year came — in retreat but 
not in disorder — the large boats in which Major Zachary Taylor had in 
vain, after some fierce cannonading, attempted to dislodge the British 
and Indians from their Rock island stronghold. And finally, in 1816, up 
past Muscatine island and the future site of the town of Muscatine, sailed 
General Thomas A. Smith of the American army, on his way to establish 
the military trading post, Fort Armstrong, on the lower end of Rock 
island, and the similar post, Fort Snelling, near the Falls of St. Anthony. 
No scene of blood has, so far as known, ever been enacted on the imme- 
diate spot where Muscatine stands. The most thrilling picture possible 
for the imagination to paint, in intimate connection therewith, is that of a 
billowy mass of flames sweeping for miles the surface of a low, level island 
and bringing into sharp relief against the sky the form of some Indian 
watcher upon the lonely hills. 



Muscatine, Iowa. 



Vol. XXVIII.— No. 2.-7 




THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 

HOW THEY DIFFER AND HOW THEY BLEND 

" Grandma told me all about it, 
Told me so I couldn't doubt it, 
How she danced — my grandma danced, 
Long ago." 

How long " long ago " seems depends upon one's standpoint. Half 
a century appears endless at the age " when the years are all summers," 
but the lady who had reached nearly fourscore said of a contemporary: 
" She isn't very old, she isn't more than eighty ! " In sympathy with our 
century, which, following the habit of man, in its ripe age fondly contem- 
plates its youth, we too look back to its " yesterday ; " and the grand- 
father's clocks and grandmother's china, having been brought out of attic 
chambers and dark closets, are with infinite pride set in goodly array in 
prominent places. We build our houses on "colonial" lines and furnish 
them with antiques; or, if not so fortunate in our possessions, with "re- 
productions " which are, as the salesman in Punch said of the sofa, " Not 
exactly Chippendale, madam, but there's a great deal of Chippendale 
feeling in it." 

We delight in old models in silver, talk learnedly of hall-marks, and 
are rapturous over "sprig" china and willow pattern. Again tooters 
mount the tally-ho, and sunbeams light up furnishings, and costumes in 
" old blue " and "old pink " and the intense greens considered " impos- 
sible " a decade ago are welcomed. Electric lights gleam on the beauties 
of to-day in Gainsborough hats, Directoire gowns, and leg-of-mutton 
sleeves, and what seemed the fantasies of the past have become the 
realities of the present. It is a pure case of atavism, and the century is 
comple*" : ng its cycle — the ends are being brought together. 

The " letter " and the " spirit " may differ. We may have one as in 
the old days, and not the other. The "small clothes" of the past find 
their reproduction in the letter, but a gentleman of the old school who 
believed with Emerson, " Life is not so short but that there is always 
time for courtesy," would fail to recognize his nether garments on a 
bicycle whose warning bell bids all to " clear the way," irrespective of age 
or sex. None the less might he find his young representative true to the 



THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 99 

" spirit " in another way. The old watches had double cases, the outer 
one — one-half of it being merely a wide rim that edged the crystal — 
always being removed for the daily winding with a key. The watch- 
makers and menders were wont to put in the back of the outside case 
sundry round papers bearing their names and addresses, their advertising 
cards in fact, to prevent the rubbing of the inner case on the outer ; and 
it was also the wont of young ladies to paint flowery and sentimental 
designs on small rounds of paper to be put over or under those of the 
watchmaker. To paint a watch paper for a young man meant as much — 
or as little — as it does now for a girl to give him her photograph, which 
depends upon the girl; but before the camera had made it possible for a 
youth to carry in his watch the likeness of — -one may quote Browning — 
" my own best girl," the watch paper did duty. 

How " Lucy Locket lost her pocket " puzzled many a middle century 
child who could conceive of a " pocket " only as one firmly sewed in a 
garment. But let a woman's frock of the 'teens and twenties be held up 
before the mind's eye, and the impossibility of a pocket being any part of 
the short-waisted, skimpy-skirted thing is at once evident. Like the 
chatelaine bag of to-day, an outside pocket was worn, being tied about the 
waist by a tape that the wide belt-ribbon covered. This old-time pocket 
of most generous dimensions, often nearly half a yard deep, was called a 
"housewife," contracted generally to "huzzif" or " huzzy," which name 
was also applied to a workbag. 

The pocket-handkerchief of the day was three-quarters of a yard 
square ; among elderly people a snuff-box still found favor, and a little box 
of horn or metal, or a flat round cushion for pins had a place in the 
" huzzif." Strange contents they would be in our silver-mounted mono- 
gramed bags. For street costume this house-pocket gave place to a bag, 
hanging from the wrist, of silk or satin or velvet, until the bead-bags, the 
pride of our grandmothers' hearts, were evolved, and they have swung 
into fashion again. 

We are much given to preening our literary plumage, and surely have 
believed that book and reading clubs are a development of late genera- 
tions. But it was quite common in the last century, in small towns, for 
several persons to unite in purchasing a set of books — sermons largely — 
and thus having common right in them, dividing them later by lot or 
choice. Before 1810, in a quiet Connecticut village, eight young women 
just out of boarding-schools formed a reading club whose " articles " have 
come down to us : 

" We the undersigned do agree to form ourselves into a society for the 



100 THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 

purpose of doing ourselves and each other good. We do each of us agree 
to observe and abide by the rules and regulations that upon consideration 
shall be adopted." 

(Here follow the names.) 

" Rule I. To meet every Tuesday evening. 2. Each contribute a cent 
every evening, and if absent bring it next time. 3. Begin the meeting 

f & 

The Attendance of f{ 

yj M#./?^^Jtt£&7Z0i#/&l^$ REQUESTED jjft 

U at Booth's ASSEMBLY HALL, 

THURSC,'ii\EVE:MNG, 6 ©'CLUCK., 



E.'Bro;json ? I J. S. Edwards 

CrCtfAUMCEY, JUO. J S. T.WlMt'KCt 



fc"<>' 




YALE COLLEGE COMMENCEMENT BALL, I797. 

\_Facsimile of invitation, in possession 0/ the azithor.] 

with prayer, read a chapter in the Bible, as many chapters in the Spectator 
as there are members present, then proceed to any well-chosen book. 
The meeting to close with prayer. 4. Where a mistake is observed in 
reading, any one of the members may correct it. 5. No one shall join the 
club unless she agrees to the above." 

We learn also that the real civilities of life change but little, though 
the art of the stationer has developed many " effects." An invitation to 
the commencement ball of Yale college in 1797 is very unique; and 
nearly twenty years later, a ticket for a ball in 181 5 is scarcely less inter- 
esting. But there was a charm about the old word " compliments " that 
we lose in its relinquishing. " Mrs. C's compliments to Mr. and Mrs. D, 
and requests the favor of their company at tea this evening." Or " Miss 
Susan : With my compliments I send you an invitation to take a sleigh- 
ride this afternoon," etc. 

Such notes were written on small pieces of paper, parts of large sheets, 
as note-paper proper did not come in till the century was near its first 
quarter. It is difficult to say when visiting cards were first used, but as 
in the seventeenth century playing cards cut into quarters and indorsed 



THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 



IOI 



by the proper officials served for paper currency in Canada, so they did 
double duty in social life ; and it is hardly fifty years since, that on remov- 
ing a marble chimney-piece in the drawing-room of a house in Dean street, 
Soho, four or five visiting-cards were found, one with the name of Isaac 
Newton on it. The cards were common playing-cards with the names 
written on the back. In one of the scenes in Hogarth's Marriage a la 
Mode, several are lying on the floor in a corner, and one is inscribed : 
"Count Basset begs to no how Lade Squander sleapt last nite." 

Very early in our century, at least something better was realized, and 
they have come to our hands. Small, white and tinted, plain and 
enameled, often with an embossed border, the name written by pen or 
pencil. Engraved cards and envelopes appeared during the thirties. The 
first envelopes for social use were very small, white-leaded, with silver or 
gilt borders, and fanciful bow-knots to serve for seals, a seal or a wafer 
being sometimes counted out of place. One may wonder how many 
students in the art schools have a realizing sense of what Turner did when 
wishing to try the effect for a setting sun of a certain blending of red and 
yellow, he placed a large wafer on the canvas, and was so much pleased 
with the result that he left it there. To the young people of to-day, a 
" wafer " means only something edible. 

Even the most economical householder who has a periodical " differ- 
ence " regarding his gas bill would not, it is supposed, be willing to avoid 
the de'sagretncnt by returning to " the 
light of other days," the dips and 
snuffers and smoking lamps ; and he 
who has come to consider a Turkish 
bath more than a luxury — a necessity 
— would accept that modern cruci- 
form inscription known as a plumb- 
er's bill without a shudder rather 
than resign himself to the limited 
conveniences New York offered in 
1819. 

Electricity, our most powerful and mysterious motor, is rapidly making 
its way in domestic life. Ere long to " press the button " may produce 
almost any result, but one can imagine that the heavy brass lion-head 
knocker of the past would look upon the diminutive bit of ivory with as 
much scorn as Dr. Johnson would upon a modern " literary trifler," or the 
"heroic" dose upon the " infinitesimal." Before the century had passed 
its first score, door-bells had come into use in cities, but rural towns kept 




FACSIMILE OF BATH TICKET IN 1819. 



102 THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 

to the old ways much longer, and the sounding-brass announced a 
guest. Again we give the old knockers fitting and honorable place on 
the doors of our summer homes, and hail with delight the classic " double- 
knock." 

A New Yorker going to Paris in 1830 would stop on the boulevard 
and look at the throng of people, wondering where they all came from. 
New York, in ordinary life, had then no throng, and a ferry worked by 
two horses, " tread-power," sufficed between it and the opposite shores. 
Statistics are unsatisfactory in accounting for the great increase in two 
generations. Since 1801 the population of the world has multiplied four 
and one-half times, but that fact is utterly inadequate as an explanation of 
the crowds in all directions. One may sympathize with the old darkey 
from the country who said, after a recent visit to the metropolis : " Noo 
Yawk's too smart a place fur me. Yer don' wan' ter stop an' argue wid 
any one, yer jes' wan' er go right erlong." The unrest is all-pervading. It 
seems impossible to find a place removed from the madding crowd. In 
the deepest recesses of caves, on the loftiest heights of mountains, at the 
remotest shores of the ocean, "where'er the foot of man hath trod," the 
surging waves of humanity sweep ceaselessly. 

The busy thoroughfares seem immeasurably removed from primitive 
life, whether that of the pilgrim or the Indian. But the average man of 
the year 1800 was much nearer that life than his great-grandson. Not 
merely a hundred years nearer, but nearer in thought, in habit, in feeling. 
One hundred years back of him wampum had hardly gone out of use as 
legal tender, and though he might realize that this young nation was well 
out of swaddling clothes and able to stand on its feet, still the red man's 
tradition remained, especially with those who lived close to nature. It was 
he who taught the New England colonist to put a fish in each corn-hill at 
planting as a fertilizer, and well into our century came this saying among 
others : " When the pappoose puts out its fingers it is time to plant 
corn ; " which being interpreted is : When the compound leaf of the hick- 
ory, neatly plaited in the leaf-bud, bursts the sheath, and the five divisions 
spread themselves to sun and air, it suggests a baby's hand. To-day one 
reads the weather report and scientific prognostications of an early or a 
late season. It is the thermometer-bulb versus the imaginative Indian. 
" The weather report ! " What could it mean to those men of the year 
1800? They could imagine it as referring only to what had been — a 
report of yesterday, not for to-morrow. The latter would have savored 
of sacrilege. 

Whether Mother Shipton's prophecy was the product of the eighteenth 





THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 103 

century, or of one earlier, matters little when considered in regard to 
imagination or prediction ; and its most remarkable lines — 
" Round the world thought shall fly 
In the twinkling of an eye," 

have more than met their fulfillment. Speech, ever slower than thought, 
has taken on the magic of the period, and there seems no limit to the 

BALL. 

IN COMMEMORATION OF THE RETURN OF PEACE 
AND COMMERCE. 

Company is requested at the Assembly-Room, on 
Wednesday, March 1st, at 6 o'clock, p. m. 

MANAGERS. 
G. PECK, W. M'CRACKAN, 

S. P. STAPLES, C. K. SHIPMAN, 

J. H. JACOCKS, J. DAGGETT, 

J. H. LYiXDE, R. S. BALDWIN. 

New-Haven, February, 1815. 

FACSIMILE OF INVITATION TO THE BALL, IN POSSESSION OF THE AUTHOR. 

reach of the long distance telephone. It adds another labor-saving wheel 
to the machine that we call " life," and not only business methods, but 
our private affairs, social and domestic, profit by it. " Hello " may prelude 
an informal invitation to dinner, or the daily order to butcher and baker 
and candlestick-maker. 

Although the conundrum assures us that the nation which produces 
the most marriages is fasci — nation, still the " why " and the " how " of a 
marriage never lose interest. " Would that I could read the story of the 
loves of my ancestors ! " says one. Humanity bears the same likeness 
through all the ages, and many a mother of sons to-day echoes from her 
heart the plaint of Rebekah : " I am weary of my life because of the 
daughters of Heth." But every age has its habits of expression, and the 
gush and slang of to-day are far removed from the extreme formality that 
still obtained in the first years of the century. The reserve of the early 
colonial days had not then worn away, and a young wife considered that 
she made known the fullness of her joy when she wrote : " If you would 



104 THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 

know what true happiness is, follow the example of your friend." Love- 
letters did not then abound in superlatives, and the note — " the sweet, sen- 
timental note of the early, innocent, Victorian age " — had not been struck; 
but the old signature, " Your friend and lover," has the ring of true metal. 
Human expression, like human nature, runs up and down the gamut ; 
it is always the same tune " with variations." 

Three stories of courtship will prove that even in those old days there 
were marriages in which the little blind god seemed to play as small a part 
as in some others. A shy youth frequently visited a house where there 
were several young sisters. He was badly hit by an arrow from Cupid's 
quiver, but his shyness prevented any expression of preference, save that 
on leaving he always said: "Good-night, all; good-night, Miss Becky." 
Becky thought she could " read the weather signs of love," and was not 
entirely unresponsive ; but as time went on and the youth made no further 
effort as a wooer, she, concluding that it was taking too much to herself, 
permitted a more venturesome swain to win the day. The shy one was 
cut to the heart, and disclosed his grief to one of her sympathetic sisters, 
who endeavored to make him understand that he had never given Becky 
cause to realize his aspirations : " But / did," he replied ; " / always said,- 
'good-night, Miss Becky 1 " Alas for the via media! Too little — or too 
much — either may be a losing quantity. 

Infinitely more assurance had a certain parson who, desiring to bring his 
term of widowerhood to a close, cast about mentally for a fitting consort, and, 
having decided, mounted his horse and went to court. The "fair one," being 
fond of her garden, was often busy in it, and as the intending wooer 
approached her house he saw her there; so with slight ceremony he turned 
his horse's head to the fence, and without dismounting addressed her, and 
blandly stated his errand. She did not exactly decline, but hesitated how 
best to word her refusal to such a dignitary, which he prevented by saying, 
" Think of it, think of it," and whipped up his horse and rode on. About 
a month later finding her again in the garden, over the fence and from 
the throne of his saddle he once more asked her to unite her life to his own. 
Again confused by the abruptness of the proposal she hesitated in form- 
ing her respectful refusal, and again he prevented the decisive negative 
by saying, " Think of it, think of it," and whipped up his horse and rode on. 
A third time the scene opened with the persistent wooer in the saddle and 
the lady beyond the fence. But the finale changed. " Thinking of it " 
had done its work, and this time consent was obtained. The moral is 
easily read : Persistence versus hesitation leaves little doubt as to the 
result. 



THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 1 05 

A stranger story of the fruit of second thought is of another parson, a 
man advanced in years and in the odor of sanctity. He had known a cer- 
tain woman when the wife of one of his brethren of the cloth, and knew 
also that after a term of widowhood she had become the wife of a godly 
deacon ; he, too, had gone the way of all flesh, and she, alone and child- 
less, having gone to live with a married sister, was a member of the flock 

of a certain dear brother in the faith, the Rev. Dr. . Desiring to 

marry again, the memory of this good woman, still fresh " in the middle 
stage of middle age," was pleasant to him. But she was a long day's 
journey by horse from him, and his children, of mature years, but possi- 
bly indiscreet in their inquisitiveness, must not know anything — yet. So 

he addressed a letter to the Rev. Dr. , telling him of his desire to 

marry and his admiration for this certain woman, but, as the distance was 
great and he did not wish his children to guess his intention while the 
result was uncertain, would his dear and reverend brother " be so kind as 
to call upon the lady, state the case to her, and report her reply? But," he 
added, " as my children sometimes open my letters, in your reply please 
refer to the matter as a book ; tell me that the book may or may not be 

obtained." The Rev. Dr. , nothing loth to exert himself to procure 

for his friend so worthy a wife, and for the lady so estimable a husband, 
made the proposed visit, and did all that lay in his power for his friend's 
cause. But the lady quite decidedly said she did not intend to marry 
again, and the good doctor wrote his friend: "The book is not in the mar- 
ket." Then practical second thought asserted itself, and the widow, tak- 
ing advantage of woman's prerogative, changed her mind. So she called 
upon the reverend doctor one "Sabbath," after "meeting," and told him 
she " had been thinking that matter over, and tJwaglit better of it. 7 ' Where- 
upon the doctor wrote his friend : " I think the book is now to be had, but 
if you want it you must draw it quickly." And at the wedding the doctor 
told the story. 

In the early colonial days in New England a minister was not allowed 
to perform the rite of marriage, only the magistrate could do so; and pos- 
sibly that was the reason why, in more recent times, in the smaller country 
towns, a justice of the peace was as often sought to tie the knot as the 
parson. These justices were not always fluent of tongue, and if unwilling 
to use the prayer-book service might find it embarrassing. On one occa- 
sion the justice, waiting with the assembled guests for the bridal couple, 
found himself when they stood before him rather unequal to the occasion ; 
but with a mighty effort he gathered his few wits, and said : " Mr. Bride- 
man, take the bride by the right hand. I pronounce you man and wife." 



106 THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 

It was legal at least, and it is hoped the following would stand a test 
of court. Two couples went to a minister to be married. They were 
somewhat shy, and he was very arbitrary, insisting on placing them in 
accordance with his own ideas, nor would he admit of any intervention 
from them. It may be presumed that the service did not require an 
audible exchange of vows, as he gave no one any liberty of speech, but 
when it was finished the bridegrooms told him he had married them to the 
wrong women. He replied: " You are all married. Sort yourselves to suit 
yourselves." 

Parsons and justices both received odd fees, and history repeats itself 
more frequently in the story of marriage than in any other. A man with 
whom dollars were few, agreed to lay two rods of stone wall for the justice 
in lieu of money ; but a year had not passed ere he offered to lay four 
rods of wall if the justice would undo the marriage. 

Early in the century the range of vehicles was limited. Coaches, 
public and private, " shays," and farm-wagons about complete the list, and 
the Darby and Joan effect was still seen in the country as saddle and 
pillion were slowly relinquished. That the old-time equipment even of a 
coach was not exactly ours is realized by this advertisement from Gali- 
gnani's Messenger of March 30, 1831 : " Elegant new coach to be sold, 
painted fashionable blue, lined with crimson silk, has a barouche driving- 
seat, and hind rumble-tumble on cee-springs, and has only performed the 
journey from London to Paris." 

Life offers no greater enigma than the human conscience. Whether 
we regard the individual or the epoch, the puzzle continually confronts 
us. It is like an india-rubber ball, sometimes so filled with the air of self- 
complacency that no outside force makes any impression ; again it yields 
to the lightest touch. Ir. the " former years " New England followed the 
lead of Old England in the slave-trade (after landing the Pilgrim Fathers 
the Mayflower s next voyage was to take a cargo of slaves from Africa to 
the West Indies), and it was not considered " out of the way " for any 
individual, no matter what his or her standing, to " adventure " something 
in the traffic. It is recorded in Mr. Weedon's Social and Economic History 
of New England, that a " respectable elder," who sent ventures to the 
coast with uniform success, always returned thanks on the Sunday after a 
" slaver " arrived in Newport, " that an over-ruling Providence had been 
pleased to bring to this land of freedom another cargo of benighted 
heathen to enjoy the blessing of a gospel dispensation." That was in the 
last century; but well into this the trade was followed by vessels from our 
eastern coast, though their cargoes were discharged at the West Indies, it 



THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY IOJ 

being no longer lawful to bring them to this " land of freedom." The 
slaves were allowed to be on deck during the day, and as they outnum- 
bered officers and crew there was sometimes fear of mutiny. One captain, 
at least, used this precaution: When the slaves were on deck a man was 
always in the rigging with a supply of heavy-headed, sharp-pointed tacks, 
and if difficulty arose he had but to let them fall on the deck, the large 
heavy heads insuring their falling with the points up, and so forming an 
impassable barrier to the bare black feet. 

It is useless to question if the men of those generations were better 
than we. There is sin enough in every age, and we must believe all have 
their measure of virtue ; but what would that " respectable elder " have 
thought of our " religious newspapers," with their prominent advertise- 
ments of soaps and baking-powders and mortgage bonds? We can hardly 
imagine his horror at the Sunday editions of the " dailies," and their allur- 
ing columns on finance, and the state of trade, and every subject of " secu- 
lar " interest. There is no greater change in this century than in the 
thought and habit about Sunday. The Puritans built up a column of blue 
laws, whose shadow fell far into the future, and the feeling that a Sunday 
walk can only be taken to a " grave-yard " may not be wholly extinct. The 
letter of the law was with them most strictly observed, and we are a 
"Sunday-keeping" nation still, as the closed business houses prove; but 
there are doubtless always many who merit the denunciation of the 
prophet Amos, and cry, "When will the new moon be gone that we may 
sell corn ? and the Sabbath that we may set forth wheat, making the 
ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit ?" 

As the eighteenth century was the first period when " trade was gradu- 
ally supplanting plunder," when " commerce and its dependent industries 
shaped the destinies of mankind," so the nineteenth has been the one when 
the hand of man has given place to the tool of iron, the machine-made 
gradually supplanting the hand-made, and it in its turn " shaped the des- 
tinies of mankind." Those important " trifles " — -friction matches — were 
first made in 1829, but there is no better example of the change than in 
the manufacture of pins. In 1830 a young physician of New York, Dr. 
John Ireland Howe, was visiting surgeon at the almshouse. There he 
found children making pins by hand. Having great mechanical genius he 
conceived the idea of making them by a machine, in place of the slow 
process of holding each pin against a grindstone to make the point, and 
the still slower one of sticking them in rows on the papers with no power 
beyond that in the ball of the thumb. He invented a machine that would 
greatly lessen the labor, although the head of the pin was still not " solid," 



108 THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 

but a fine wire wound on. With this he went to England to Mr. Kirby, 
the chief of the great establishment there, then making them by hand, and 
desired to sell him the machine. After looking it over Mr. Kirby said : 
" It would make a pretty plaything for my children, and I will give you a 
guinea for it," having no faith in its practicality. The young inventor, 
however, had faith, and the result was his beginning the manufacture of 
pins by machinery, and inventing machine after machine, thus entirely 
revolutionizing the industry. 

Scientists compute with great accuracy the impetus gained on a down 
grade, or lost by the resistance of the atmosphere, but the centuries roll- 
ing through time develop their power so irregularly that it passes the 
measure of any scale of man's invention. To what force the impetus is 
due cannot be told, but the fact remains that this century surpasses all 
others in the speed of its material progress. There is said to be more 
difference between Napoleon's day and ours than between Napoleon's and 
Julius Caesar's. One century against eighteen ! When Napoleon went 
down into Egypt, he found the stony records of past ages still holding 
their majesty, but he could not have imagined that it would be given to 
men of almost the next generation to look upon the faces of Pharaoh and 
all his host. Much less would he have dreamed it possible in this near 
future that that intangible thing, the voice of man, might be imprisoned on 
a little cylinder, to be reproduced at the will of his successors. The Rosetta 
stone sinks into insignificance when cne realizes that a tri-lingual record, 
with the sounds it represents, can be safely placed in the hermetically 
sealed case, that marks the modern, for the ages when the modern shall 
have become the ancient. It is bidding defiance to the silence of the 
grave. 

Victor Hugo said : "This is the woman's century," and when women 
like Dorothea Dix and Amelia B. Edwards lead, no one need hesitate to 
fall into line. It is also that in which all countries " that call themselves 
Christian" have abolished slavery, and in nearly all these countries the 
Jew has been admitted to civil rights. Although it is the century of 
unparalleled worship at the shrine of mammon, when " if money lies 
before, all ways do lie open," it is also that of large benevolence, of mis- 
sions, of innumerable and wide-spread charities. 

It is the century of mechanical progress, when the factors of steam 
and electricity have almost annihilated time and space; and of scientific 
research regarding all things " in the heaven above, or in the earth beneath, 
or in the waters under the earth ; " of all things near or remote in point of 
space or of time. And not only is it the century when in response to the 



THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 109 

labor of man the rocks and the soil have yielded immeasurable wealth, 
but also when the past has begun to open to the present its treasures. 
Across the millenniums its voices call to us and tell us from their lips of clay 
and stone that they were such manner of men as ourselves. We rebuild 
their houses and their temples ; we read their laws, their creeds, and their 
poems ; we replace their gods on their pedestals, and we even trifle with 
their children's toys. 

This is the century of outward expression, in all lines of art, with tool 
and brush and pen ; of all phases of thought when every opinion, belief, or 
theory has its " organ ; " even of all the feelings that dwell in the human 
heart ; for the public press not only delights to voice " good-will to men," 
and " to give honor where honor is due," but also — and " pity 'tis 'tis true " 
— to lend itself to "envy, hatred, and malice, and all uncharitableness." 

.It is the century of fiction, and also the century not of the mystical, 
but of the material. It has gathered to itself so much that is new, so 
much that is old, and the forces of the seen and the unseen ; the extraor- 
dinary has become the ordinary ; the marvelous, the common-place ; and 
we are so accustomed to surprising developments that we heed not a query 
of " What next ? " 

One might think the century would be weary with its weight of years 
and labors and honors, but not only is age " a matter of feeling," but " old 
age " is entirely out of fashion. Only those who can prove beyond ques- 
tion that they were members of George Washington's household indulge 
in the pride of a long-ago nativity, and the "patriarch" is no more seen 
on our streets. " Four-score," with close-cut hair and beard, buttons up 
his overcoat and dons the hat of the season with the air of his grand- 
son ; then, swinging a light stick, steps off to his club as briskly as though 
he counted his decades on the fingers of one hand. But it was not so 
when the century " sailed into longitude 50 ." A certain old lady of that 
period, who had been important in social circles, and was still fond of the 
vanities of life, was remonstrated with for wearing bright colors as not 
being in accordance with her years. She, anticipating the spirit of this 
generation, replied : " As long as apple-trees bear pink blossoms, I shall 
wear pink ribbons in my caps." And this famous old century of ours 
spreads itself with an air of youth to the beneficent influences of sun and 
shower, and, as the breezes sweep, it sends us a whisper that it has both a 
rain-maker and a "flying machine" nestled in the top branches, waiting 
for their wings to grow, and that next spring it will put forth a finer show 
of blossoms than ever has been seen, even the great World's Fair of 1893. 

Verily the century grows younger as it grows older. It has learned a 



HO THE ENDS OF THE CENTURY 

lesson from that elderly person who, when asked why the years left so few 
traces, replied : " I learn a new language every ten years." And the cen- 
tury has been learning the a-b-c of steam and gas and electricity and auto- 
matic mechanisms until, though fairly in the nineties, it is fresh as a four- 
year-old. A wise man is he who can predict what the next few years 
hold for us, and a wiser one he who predicts what they do not. 
To us Americans, we of 

" The land of the free, 
And the home of the brave," 

this is peculiarly our century. The seed planted by the signing of the 
declaration of independence, and watered by the blood of patriots and 
the tears of those who gave their dearest for freedom's cause, sent up its 
tiny sprout at last. The cold winds of lawlessness and discontent threat- 
ened it, but by the protecting care of Washington and Jefferson and Ham- 
ilton, and the members of the early congresses, it was enabled to spread 
its young leaves with more and more surety, until when the year i8oowas 
marked on time's calendar it showed genuine sturdiness, and in 1812 its 
shadow fell on the mighty deep itself. And it grew stronger and taller, 
and spread itself farther and farther, till the sparkle of the Pacific was 
seen through its branches. But the blossoming could not be till again it 
had received a baptism of blood and tears, till tradition and the institu- 
tions of the past had yielded before the present cry for humanity ; but 
finally from sea to sea, from the tip of Maine to the border of Mexico, 
from the seal islands of Alaska to the coral reefs of Florida, is the flower- 
ing of liberty overspread. And as our century overlaps that of time, we 
may surely trust that in the few years that remain ere the next long page 
is turned, the " great Father " and those who fulfill his behests, will prove 
that for the red man as well as for the black and the white is the hearth- 
stone free, and the plant of our century, will remain in perennial bloom. 



;7^z 



/S&<^<-. £&L. -3<?Z^^- 



THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN 1812 

The garrison at Fort Dearborn, at the mouth of the Chicago river, 
together with the few civilians of the neighborhood — men, women, and 
children — left the place for a long overland march of three hundred miles 
through the woods of Michigan, on August 15, 1812. The ill-starred Gen- 
eral Hull was in command at Detroit, expecting a battle with the British 
force, and he had sent orders by an Indian runner to the commander at 
Fort Dearborn, to move his command to Detroit, after disposing of the 
government stores and property as he thought fit. 

The senior officer at Fort Dearborn was Captain Nathan Heald of the 
First Infantry, and his force consisted of about seventy regulars (of whom 
only fifty-six were effective) and twelve militia. The civilians at the place 
were Mrs. Heald, wife of the captain ; Mrs. Helm, wife of the first lieuten- 
ant ; and various women, wives of soldiers, etc., with their children, to the 
number of eleven or twelve. There were also living within musket-shot 
of the fort the celebrated Indian trader, pioneer, and interpreter, John 
Kinzie, with his wife and four young children — all of whom lived to grow 
up and take a notable part in the founding of Chicago. These, with two 
or three families of humbler rank, formed the entire white population of 
the place. The band which set forth on that sunny August morning 
numbered about one hundred, and with the garrison train and a few 
wagon-loads of household stuff — the pitiful accumulations of nine years of 
their frontier life since the fort was built — they started southward along 
the sandy shore of Lake Michigan, whereof they must round the southern 
end before striking eastward for Detroit. 

Captain William Wells, Chicago's first hero and martyr, was a white man 
who had been stolen by Indians when a boy from his parents near the 
falls of the Ohio (Louisville), and had grown up among his captors and 
taken to wife a daughter of the celebrated chief, Little Turtle — Me-che- 
kan-nah-qua — who became, after the treaty of Greenville (1795), the friend 
of Washington, Madison, Monroe, and Harrison. Wells had fought for 
the Indians in youth, but later had returned to his own kindred and ren- 
dered manful service on the white man's side with General Wayne. His 
niece Rebekah, the daughter of his brother Samuel, was the young wife 
of Captain Heald, commander at Fort Dearborn ; and, moved by this 
thought, or other kindly impulse, the brave captain, on hearing that the 



112 THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN l8l2 

garrison was to be called in, had volunteered to go with a band of the 
Ohio Miamis and act as escort on the perilous trip. 

The short story of what followed is well known — or was, for it is 
already half-forgotten. The goods in the government store were divided 
among the friendly Indians, except the spare arms, ammunition, and 
liquor, all of which were destroyed. The expedition set out, and, when 
only about two miles advanced on the way, was attacked by an over- 
whelming force of savages and nearly annihilated. Captain William Wells 
was among the slain, together with two-thirds of the regulars and all the 
militia, and nearly every soul among the women and children. Eleven 
helpless little ones, in one wagon, were brained by one Indian brave. The 
Kinzies, favored by the Indians, were spared. 

Up to the present writing, 1892, the only known narrative of the disas- 
trous event has been that written about thirty years later by the accom- 
plished Mrs. John H. Kinzie, daughter-in-law of John Kinzie before 
mentioned, who took her story from the lips of her aunt, Mrs. Helm. 
The latter, with her husband, Lieutenant Helm, was present at the mas- 
sacre. The story forms part of Mrs. (Julia Magill) Kinzie's delightful 
book, Wau-Bun, a narrative of her personal adventures after her marriage 
with John H. Kinzie, about 1831, including what she learned of the history 
of things which had happened in previous years. 

Mrs. Helm entertained, and imparted to Mrs. Kinzie, ideas unfavora- 
ble to the wisdom and discretion of Captain Heald, though not impugning 
his courage or loyalty. She said that there was ample warning of the 
disaster impending, and that, because of this, there was dissatisfaction, 
amounting almost to mutiny, among officers and soldiers, especially the 
third officer, Ensign Ronan, they insisting that the only proper course 
was to hold the fort at all hazards until help should arrive to make its 
safe evacuation possible. The event showed that this view was the true 
one ; but it has always been said by the Healds that it was not held or 
urged by Captain Heald's subordinates. 

Now, eighty years after the occurrence, and forty years after the first 
and only narrative of it was given to the world, in writing my Story of 
Chicago, I come upon the fact that a son of Captain Heald is living in the 
neighboring state of Missouri, and that he cherishes the feeling that 
injustice has been done to the memory of his father. I also learn that he 
has received from his mother (herself, like her husband, wounded almost 
to the death in the dreadful fight) a true and circumstantial account of the 
occurrence, with much that preceded and followed it. It seems a simple 
matter of right and justice that this view should be given to the world, 



THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN l8l2 113 

and a matter of duty that such a bit of almost literally original testimony 
should not be allowed to die out from history. Therefore the following 
narrative has been taken down in shorthand from the lips of Mr. Darius 
Heald, and is here for the first time printed. 

Mrs. Heald, formerly Miss Rebekah Wells, daughter of Samuel Wells, 
and niece of William Wells, as has been stated, lived for many years after 
the massacre, in fact, up to her death in 1856, with her son, Darius Heald, 
near O'Fallon, in St. Charles county, Missouri. She was fond of telling 
the story of her life, and her children and friends were never tired of 
listening to it. Her son thinks he has heard her tell it a hundred times. 
She would begin away back in her girlhood spent in the country about 
Louisville, Kentucky, when her father, Colonel Samuel Wells, was living 
there, and tell how they all wanted uncle William Wells, whom they 
called their " Indian uncle," to leave the Indians who had stolen him in 
his boyhood, and come home and belong to his white relations. He hung 
back for years, and even at last, when he agreed to visit them, made the 
proviso that he should be allowed to bring along an Indian escort with 
him, so that he should not be compelled to stay with them if he did not 
want to. -, 

Young Rebekah Wells was the one who had been chosen to go to the 
Indian council with her father, and persuade her uncle William to come 
and visit his old home ; she being a girl, had, very likely, more influence 
with him than any of the men could have had. William Wells was at 
that time living a wild, Indian life, roving up and down the Wabash river 
and between the lakes and the Ohio. Probably the place where the battle 
of Tippecanoe was fought, in 181 1, near the present site of La Fayette, 
Indiana, was pretty near the centre of his regular stamping ground. 

After much hesitation he consented to get together a party of braves, 
somewhere from seventy-five to a hundred, and visit his relatives. Little 
Turtle, whose daughter he had married, was along, very likely command- 
ing the escort. They went down to the falls of the Ohio river, about 
opposite Louisville, and camped, while William Wells, with a picked band 
of twenty-five, crossed the river and met with his own people. Then the 
question arose as to whether he really was the brother of Colonel Samuel 
Wells, and he asked to be taken to the place where he was said to have 
been captured, to see if he could remember the circumstances. When he 
reached there, he looked about and pointed in a certain direction and 
asked if there was a pond there ; and they said, " Well, let's go and see." 
So they went in the direction indicated, and to be sure, they saw the pond ; 
and he said that he could remember that pond. Then he saw a younger 

Vol. XXVIII.-No. 2.-8 



114 THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN l8l2 

brother present whom he had accidentally wounded in the head with a 
stone as a child; and he said to this brother, " Now, if you are my brother, 
there ought to be a mark on the back of your head where I hit you with a 
stone one day ; " and the brother held up his head, and William lifted the 
hair and found the scar, and he said, " Yes, I am your brother." 

William was now convinced for the first time that he was the brother 
of Colonel Samuel Wells, but he went back with his Indian friends, his 
father-in-law Little Turtle, and the rest, and it was not until some time 
later that he told Little Turtle that although he had fought for his Indian 
friends all his life, the time had now come when he was going home to 
fight for his own flesh and blood. It was under a big tree on the banks of 
the Miami that they had this talk, and he pointed to the sun and said: 
" Till the sun goes up to the middle of the sky we are friends ; after that, 
you can kill me if you want to." Still they always remained friends, and 
agreed that in war, if one could find out on which side of the army the 
other was put, he would change position so as not to be likely to meet 
the other in battle ; and if one recognized the other while fighting, he 
would never aim to hit him. They also had the privilege of meeting and 
talking with each other, it being understood that nothing was to be said 
about the opposing numbers or their arms. They were not to act as spies, 
but simply to see each other as friends. 

William Wells took his niece Rebekah to Fort Wayne on a visit and 
she spent the summer there, probably the summer of 1810, during which 
time she made the acquaintance of young Captain Nathan Heald, and they 
very likely then fixed it up to be married at the first convenient season ; 
and in the summer of 181 1, Captain Heald, then in command of Fort 
Dearborn at Chicago, got leave of absence to go down to Louisville to be 
married. He went on horseback alone, travelling by compass. 

They were married, and the day after the wedding started north on 
horseback for Fort Dearborn. There were four horses, two for the bride 
and groom, one for the packs of blankets, and one for a little negro slave 
girl named Cicely. This girl had begged so hard to be brought along that 
they could not refuse her request, although it was, as the captain said, 
adding one more to the difficulties of making the long, lonesome, toilsome 
trip on horseback. They travelled by compass as before. The horses were 
good ones and not Indian ponies. Those that the captain and his bride 
rode were thoroughbreds, as was the one ridden by the slave girl ; and 
they had also a good one to carry the pack, so that they made the trip in 
about a week's time, starting on Thursday, and reaching Fort Dearborn on 
the following Wednesday night, making about fifty miles a day. Nothing 



THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN l8l2 I 1 5 

of importance occurred on the bridal trip, and they arrived safe, and the 
garrison turned out to receive them with all the honors of war, the bride 
being quite an addition to the little company. 

Rebekah was much pleased with her reception and found everything 
bright and cheerful. She liked the wild place, the wild lake, the wild In- 
dians, and everything suited her ways and disposition, " being on the wild 
order herself " as she said, and life went on very pleasantly. Among other 
gayeties there was skating, in winter, up and down the frozen river, and 
Ensign Ronan was a famous skater. Sometimes he would take an Indian 
squaw by the hands, she holding her feet still, and swing her back and 
forth, from side to side of the little stream, until he came to a point where 
there was a deep snow-drift on the bank, when he would (accidentally, of 
course) lose his grip on her hands, and she would fly off into the snow-drift 
and be buried clear out of sight. 

It is all false" about any quarrel between Ronan and Captain Heald. 
The ensign thought the world of the captain, and gave him a big book 
with their two names written in it. Among the property recovered after 
the massacre was this book which the Indians thought was the Bible. 
They would pass their hands across the pages and point significantly 
heavenward ; but, in fact, the book was a dictionary, and it is still in the 
possession of the family, having been bound in buckskin to preserve such 
part as has not already succumbed to its many vicissitudes. Occasionally 
Indians would come and steal horses when the men were some distance 
away cutting hay for the winter's supplies, and they were apt to try to get 
the scalp of any white person against whom they had any hard feeling. 

Mrs. Heald remembers a particular case where a soldier, a great stam- 
merer, was out on picket, and, from the block-house window, she saw an 
Indian try to get between him and the fort. To attract the soldier's atten- 
tion, Captain Heald had a gun fired, and the man, when he saw his peril, 
started homeward, the Indian, at the same time, starting to cut him off. 
The soldier was the best runner, and when the Indian called out to him 
some taunting expression, he looked over his shoulder and tried to shout 
out a retort, but his stuttering tongue made this take so long that he came 
very near losing his life, though at last he got in safely. 

General Hull had sent orders to Captain Heald to evacuate the fort 
and come to Detroit, where he (Hull) was in command and preparing for a 
battle. The messenger arrived at Fort Dearborn about August 10. The 
evacuation took place August 15, 1812. The dispatch was brought by an 
Indian, and the date of the order showed that the fellow was a little too 
long in making the trip. He gave some excuse for this when the captain 



Il6 THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN l8l2 

read the dispatch. He had gotten lame, or his moccasins had worn out, or 
something had occurred which made him a little late. But after Wells 
arrived — he came about the 12th or 13th, accompanied by thirty mounted 
Miamis — they talked the matter over, and Wells said to Captain Heald, 
" Captain, that red rascal, somehow or other, was a long time getting 
here. I fear he has notified the Indians along the way that the things 
will probably be distributed here, and there may be considerable of a 
crowd. I don't fear anything serious, but I had much rather the Indian 
had come right straight here. He had no right to know, unless he was 
told, what the order was, but he got posted somehow as to what his 
business was about." 

At the time Wells arrived there were a few Indians there who had found 
out that the fort was to be vacated, and by the time they left there was a 
considerable party of them collected, all seemingly friendly with Captain 
Heald. Wells had very little idea there was going to be a fight on the 
way, yet " smelt something in the air." But Captain Heald's orders were 
to vacate, and he must obey them unless something turned up that he 
could see was not right. They, however, discussed the possibilities of a 
siege. They had but few provisions and but little ammunition, and thought 
there was but very little risk in going. Heald's orders were to dispose of 
things as he thought best. There was but little whiskey. He thought that 
what they had (one barrel) ought not to go into the hands of the Indians, 
nor should the munitions of war, and they took the whiskey to a well that 
was inside the enclosure and poured it in, and what little arms and ammu- 
nition was left, besides what they took with them, was also thrown in. 

John Kinzie, the trader at the post, objected to .their going away, say- 
ing that his business would be interfered with — perhaps ruined. Captain 
Heald said he was sorry for that, but that he had to obey orders unless 
there was something objectionable to keep him from it. He advised Kin- 
zie, however, not to allow the Indians to get at his alcohol, of which he 
had a considerable quantity — to pour it on the ground, or in the river, or 
do something to dispose of it ; that it would be unsafe, under the circum- 
stances, to let the Indians have it. Mr. Kinzie suggested that the govern- 
ment might make this loss good, but this Captain Heald could not vouch 
for. The spirits were destroyed. 

The fort was vacated quietly, not a cross word being passed between 
soldiers and Indians, and good-bys were exchanged. Not an officer 
objected to leaving. Nobody objected but Kinzie, who did so for per- 
sonal reasons. Everything left was divided among the Indians who were 
there, and a party of them escorted the whites out of the fort, these 



THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN l8l2 117 

Indians being the ones who took no interest in the fight, although they 
may have known something about it. The general impression among the 
officers was (and this was Captain Heald's idea also) that the Indians who 
took their share when the things were divided at the fort had no part in 
the massacre. The fight lasted but a few minutes — fifteen or twenty — - 
not as long as halt an hour. 

Captain Wells' escort was mounted on Indian ponies. Captain Wells 
himself was mounted on a thoroughbred. Mrs. Heald and Mrs. Helm 
were also on horseback, the former on her own beloved Kentucky horse. 
The Miamis scattered far and wide at the first fire and gave no help in 
the fight. They advanced, Wells and his escort getting about a quarter 
or half a mile ahead, and were jogging along quietly, when all at once 
they halted, and he turned back and got down pretty close to Captain 
Heald — perhaps half the distance. He pulled off his hat and swung it 
around his head once or twice, making a circle. As soon as he saw Wells 
coming back. Captain Heald said to his wife: "Uncle sees something 
ahead of him there. There is something wrong." And when he made 
this circle around his head, Mrs. Heald understood the sign " We are 
surrounded by Indians." Captain Wells soon got close enough to shout 
" We are surrounded by Indians. March up on the sand ridges. There 
are sand ridges we ought to get in behind, and where we can stand half 
up and not be seen." Then she saw the Indians' heads " sticking up and 
down again, here and there, like turtles out of the water." They marched 
up on the sand ridges, the wagons being put back next to the lake, and 
the men taking position in front of them. Captain Wells shouted to 
Captain Heald, " Charge them ! " and then led on and broke the ranks of 
the Indians, who scattered right and left. He then whirled around and 
charged to the left. This move brought them well out into the country, 
and they marched onward and took position about two or three hundred 
yards in front of the wagons and a like distance from the Indians. Captain 
Heald rather gave way to Captain Wells, knowing his superior experience 
in Indian warfare, Wells having been trained from childhood by such 
warriors as Little Turtle, Tecumseh, and Black Hawk, especially by the 
first two. 

Another charge was made which enabled Captain Wells to get a little 
closer to the Indians. He had two revolvers and a small gun. Hts bullets 
and powder were kept in shoulder-belts hung at convenient places, and he 
generally had an extra bullet in his mouth, which helped him to load fast 
when necessary. He could pour in a little powder, wad it down, "blow 
in " the bullet, prime and fire more quickly than one can tell the facts. 



Il8 THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN l8l2 

The Indians broke from him right and left. The hottest part of the battle 
lasted but a few minutes, but Captain Heald's little band was cut down. 
He gave the signal of surrender; the chiefs came together and they made 
a compromise. 

Afterwards, in talking the matter over, Captain Heald said that he had 
no confidence in the Indians, but that he had done the best he could do ; 
that in fifteen minutes more the last man would have been killed, that 
they had no chance at all ; his men were falling rapidly and he himself 
was wounded in the hip by a one-ounce ball. That ball was never 
extracted, and caused his death twenty years afterward. After the fight- 
ing commenced, Mrs. Heald turned back and ascended a little elevation 
between the army and the wagons. She saw a young, fine-looking officer 
fall, and thought it was her husband, and was under this impression until 
after the fight was over. Just before the surrender, she got up in range 
of the bullets coming from Indians on both sides of her. She did not 
know whether the Indians aimed at her or not, but was wounded in six 
places, one hand being rendered -helpless, the ball passing between the two 
bones of her arm. Her son has seen the scar a thousand times. After 
the surrender, the Indians crowded around the prisoners and she was 
unable to get to them. Captain Wells, who was shot through the lungs, 
rode up and took her hand, saying : " Farewell, my child." Mrs. Heald 
said to him: "Why, uncle, I hope you will get over this." "No, my 
child," he said, " I cannot." He told her he was shot through the lungs, 
and she saw the blood oozing through his nose and mouth. He still held 
her hand and talked to her, saying that he could not last five minutes 
longer. He said : "Tell my wife — if you live to get. there, but 1 think it 
doubtful if a single one gets there— tell her I died at my post doing the 
best I could. There are seven red devils over there that I have killed." 
His horse, which had been shot just behind the girth, then fell and caught 
Captain Wells' leg under him. As he did so, Captain Wells turned and 
saw six or seven Indians approaching them. He took aim and fired, kill- 
ing one of them. They approached still closer, and Mrs. Heald said to 
him : " Uncle, there is an Indian pointing right at the back of your head." 
Captain Wells put his hand back and held up his head that better aim 
might be taken, and then cried : " Shoot away." The Indian fired, the 
shot being fatal. They then pulled him out from under his horse (Mrs. 
Heald still seated on her horse near by), and cut his body open, the 
gashes being in the shape of a cross. They took out his heart, placed it 
on a gun stick, and whirled it around and around, yelling like fiends. The 
noise drew other Indians to the spot, and they then commenced cutting up 



THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN l8l2 1 19 

the heart and eating it. They crowded around, and the bleeding heart 
was thrust forward at one after another. 

Finally an Indian cut off a piece, held it up to Mrs. Heald and insisted 
on her eating it. She shook her head. He then daubed her face with it. 
She shook her fist at him. They then called her " Epeconier! Epeconier! " 
this being their name for Captain Wells, and thus signifying that she was 
also a Wells — a person full of pluck and bravery. In the meantime her 
horse, which had become excited during the tumult and by the smell of 
blood, commenced prancing around, and an Indian took him by the bit 
and led him down to the corral or Indian camp near the fort. Approach- 
ing them, an Indian squaw caught sight of the bright red blanket which 
was girted on over Mrs. Heald's saddle for camping purposes, and imme- 
diately attempted to take it for her own. This Mrs. Heald resisted vigor- 
ously, and although one hand was entirely useless and the other badly 
injured, she took her switch and with it struck the squaw such hard blows 
that " white welts were raised on her red hide." After this exhibition of 
spirit, the Indian who had hold of the horse's bit again shouted "Epeco- 
nier! Epeconier! " and it is probably this display of daring which saved 
Mrs. Heald's life, and perhaps her husband's also. 

When she was brought in, after being captured and led down among 
the Indians, she was stripped of her jewelry, ring, breastpin, earrings, and 
comb. She was badly wounded, and was cared for that night (the fifteenth) 
as tenderly as a sister by two or three squaws and one French woman, who 
did everything in their power to relieve her. She saw nothing more of 
her jewelry until the next morning, when a brave made his appearance and 
pranced around, taking great pains to show her that he was wearing her 
comb in his scalp-lock, a performance fraught with difficulties, as he had 
hardly enough hair to keep it in, and found it necessary to push it back 
from time to time to prevent its falling to the ground. Poor black Cicely 
she never saw again. She had perished with the rest. Her horse, too, 
was gone forever. 

It turned out afterwards that the Indians took their booty down the 
river, probably to Peoria, to sell and " trade " for whiskey, and it found 
its way quickly to St. Louis, where Colonel O'Fallon recognized a great 
deal as belonging to the Healds, and redeemed it and sent it to Colonel 
Samuel Wells at the falls of the Ohio, as a memento of the brother and 
his daughter, both supposed to be killed. It reached there before the 
Healds did, and the following articles are now in possession of the fam- 
ily: Captain Heald's sword. A shawl pin he wore, which, when recovered, 
had been bent to serve as a nose-ring. Part of his uniform coat, which 



120 THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN l8l2 

seemed to have been divided among the captors. Six silver table-spoons 
and one soup-ladle, each marked " N. R. H.," doubtless the wedding pres- 
ent made by Colonel Samuel Wells to Nathan and Rebekah Heald. A 
hair brooch marked "S. W.," supposed to contain the hair of Samuel 
Wells. A finger-ring marked " R. W." A fine tortoise-shell comb cut 
somewhat in the shape of an eagle's beak and having silver ornaments 
representing the bird's eye, nostril, etc. Most of these things are in the 
possession of Darius Heald, and are shown in our frontispiece. 

The Indian who led Captain Heald down to the camp and claimed him 
as his prisoner was a half-breed named Chandonnias. He afterward found 
that Mrs. Heald was still alive and, it is supposed, ransomed the latter 
from her captor ; for on the morning of the sixteenth, he brought the hus- 
band and wife together. He seems then to have connived at the escape of 
both ; for they found the matter wonderfully easy, boat and escort at hand 
and all oversight withdrawn. Years afterward, in 1831, Chandonnias 
visited the Healds at their home near O'Fallon, Missouri, and Darius Heald 
remembers seeing him meeting and greeting the two whom he had so 
nobly rescued. 

It is thought that the Indians went off down the lake to have a " gen- 
eral frolic," in other words, to torture to death the wounded prisoners. 
On the night of the sixteenth, Captain and Mrs. Heald accompanied by 
an Indian boy named Robinson (probably a son of Chief Robinson), em- 
barked in a canoe, and, unmolested, commenced their journey to Mackinaw. 
Chandonnais' friendship was no half-way matter. They traveled all 
that night and all next day until late in the evening, when they saw a 
young deer coming down to the water in a little clump of bushes to get a 
drink. They drew as near the shore as possible and the Indian lad stepped 
out and waded to shore, slipped down the bank behind the deer and shot 
it. They then pitched camp, dressed the deer, using the hide as a knead- 
ing-board whereon Mrs. Heald stirred up some flour, they having brought 
a little in a leather bag from the fort, into a stiff paste, which she wound 
around sticks and toasted over the fire; and this Captain Heald afterwards 
declared to be the finest bread he ever ate. 

They pushed on to Mackinaw, as Captain Heald said he had no chance 
of getting clear excepting by going to a British officer, and it was here 
that his parole was taken. It happened that Captain Heald and the offi- 
cer in command at Mackinaw were both Free Masons, and Mrs. Heald 
says they went off into a room by themselves, and that Captain Heald 
told his story and asked for help. He said that the Indians would pursue 
them, would not be more than twenty-four hours behind, and that a body 



THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN 1 8 12 121 

would overtake them, and asked the British officer if he could protect 
them. The officer said it would be a very hard matter in the fix they 
were in. If the Indians came down, they might be overpowered ; but 
that he would do this : he had a little " sailer " (a sailing-boat), and he 
would put Captain Heald and his wife in that and anchor it near the shore, 
and as soon as there were signs of the Indians, would signal them to start. 
He then took out his pocketbook and told Captain Heald to help himself. 
" But," said Captain Heald, " we may never meet again." " That," said 
the officer, " makes no difference. You have a wife, and I have nobody 
on whom to spend my money. I can do without it. You take it and use 
it, and if it is ever convenient to send it back, you may do so." Mrs. 
Heald says that she never knew why this officer should have been so kind 
to them, but laid it to the fact of their both being Masons ; but said she 
•'could never get anything out of him" (Captain Heald) "although she 
tried more than once, and that she never expected to get to know Masonic 
secrets." 

However, Captain Heald did not take the money of the noble and 
generous enemy, for he had at that moment some two hundred dollars, 
probably in gold, which his provident wife had sewn in the cuffs of his 
undershirt, a circumstance which would indicate that she at least foresaw 
possible tribulation before they left the fort. The Indians came in sight, 
looking one hundred strong, and the British officer gave the sign for the 
little boat to move on. They went down to Detroit, and thence to Buf- 
falo, whence they crossed to Pittsburg, and went down the Ohio river, 
having procured, through an officer, some conveyance in which to go down 
the river, and they then drifted down by boat, and part of the way by 
raft, and in this way reached Kentucky soil. They reached Mrs. Heald's 
old home in the night, past midnight, and rapped for admittance. Colonel 
Samuel Wells asked, " Who's there ? " "A friend," said Captain Heald. 
" Well, who are you ?" " Well, I am a friend." " Mrs. Heald then spoke 
up and said, " Yes, two friends." Colonel Wells thought he recognized a 
woman's voice and came to the door and opened it, and found himself 
face to face with his daughter whom he had not seen for two years, whom 
he supposed to be dead, who left him as a bride, and returned a wounded 
prisoner. They had been two months on the way from Fort Dearborn to 
Kentucky. 

Before her death, in 1856, Mrs. Heald had dictated to Mrs. Kerr, a niece 
of Mrs. Heald, a large number of facts connected with Mrs. Heald's life. 
The manuscript was foolscap and contained, Mr. Heald thinks, some hun- 
dreds of pages. It was in existence up to the time of the Union war, 



122 THE CHICAGO MASSACRE IN l8l2 

and he remembers seeing it wrapped up in newspaper and tied with twine 
at the Heald residence in St. Charles county, Missouri, near the town of 
O'Fallon. During one of the incursions of Union soldiers,* the house was 
ransacked from top to botton. Captain Heald's sword was taken away, 
and, greatest loss of all, that manuscript then disappeared, Mr. Heald 
thinks probably destroyed — burned among other papers supposed to be 
of no value. 

A negro boy who had been raised by Mr. Heald received word that 
that sword had been left somewhere not very far from home, and was 
then being used as a corn-knife, and he obtained it and brought it back to 
Mr. Heald, who recognized it as what there was left of his father's old 
sword ; but, alas ! the manuscript has never been heard of — probably 
never will be. This is the nearest approach now possible to a reproduc- 
tion of the facts it contained. 



Chicago, Illinois. 



jmfik ICU/hL^ji 



* Mr. Heald thinks they were the Hecker German regiment of Chicago volunteers, but is 
not certain. 



THE OLD DOMINION 

It is certain that Virginia remained true to Charles I. and the monar- 
chy during the civil war, which resulted in their overthrow and in the 
capital execution of the king on the 30th of January, 1649. 

She remained also true to Charles II. while he was an outlaw and 
fugitive flying from his enemies of the English parliament and common- 
wealth. He had too few real friends to forget at that time Sir William 
Berkeley and the faithful colony. From his slender court at Breda in the 
Netherlands, he sent to Berkeley a new commission confirming the powers 
granted by his father, and expressing a sense of his gratitude for the 
loyalty shown by Virginia. It has even been intimated that the queen 
mother, Henrietta Maria, had formed a project to transport with the aid 
of France a large body of her retainers to Virginia, and to continue in the 
New World the monarchy so fatally arrested in England. 

It was at this time (and not after his restoration, when he gave few 
favorable thoughts to Virginia) that Charles devised the addition en dat 
Virginia qnintam to the motto of the English coat-of-arms. The five ele- 
ments of his monarchy alluded to were England, France, Scotland, Ireland, 
and Virginia. A large number of loyal families left England during the 
civil war and commonwealth and came to Virginia. Sir William Berke- 
ley's house was always open to such, and the hospitable owners of lands 
on the rivers gladly furnished them homes. All these causes contributed 
to give this colony the title of the " Old Dominion." The origin gener- 
ally assigned for this title involves a grave historical error, as we shall see. 

Meanwhile a commonwealth had been established in England, and 
Oliver Cromwell was at its head as protector. He made his country formid- 
able to her enemies and respectable to all the world. He had no policy 
of harshness or revenge toward the Virginia colony, yet he could not be 
expected to connive at her position. In 165 1 he sent a powerful fleet 
carrying, besides its proper crews, a large land force, all under command 
of Sir George Ayscue, with directions to subdue the islands of the West 
Indies, and to reduce all refractory colonies to subjection. The orders of 
parliament were stern and decided. 

Ayscue reduced Antigua and Barbadoes to subjection, and sent Cap- 
tain Dennis with what he deemed an adequate force to Virginia. 
Governor Berkeley prepared for vigorous resistance. His military force 



124 THE OLD DOMINION 

was small but efficient. Jamestown was armed and guarded at all 
points. Muskets were distributed; cannon mounted. A number of 
Dutch ships were lying in the river, and as their captains and crews had 
nothing to expect from the commonwealth's forces except captivity and 
confiscation, they willingly united with Berkeley's forces. Their cargoes 
were carried ashore; a select crew was assigned each ship; their guns 
were heavily charged, and they were moored in a circular line so as to 
cover by their fire every point of approach. 

Dennis was brought to a stand. He seems at once to have abandoned 
all thought of a violent attack, the result of which would have been 
doubtful. He resorted to negotiations for peace, and was aided by the 
fact that aboard his ships a large quantity of goods, wares, and merchan- 
dise had been brought to Virginia. But whatever may have been the mix- 
ture of the motives, the result was in the highest degree creditable to the 
colony. The treaty agreed upon was in every important respect favorable 
to her, and secured her cherished freedom. Even in the matter of religion, 
it was agreed that the Book of Common Prayer should be continued for a 
year in those parishes which desired it, provided only that the parts recog- 
nizing the king and the royal government should not be publicly used. 

If the colony was conquered, never did a conquered province obtain 
terms more favorable to her privileges, her liberties, and her honor. Vir- 
ginia went on her way growing and prospering. Sir William Berkeley 
retired to his estate, where he remained unmolested. The general assem- 
blies elected in succession three provincial governors, Richard Bennet in 
1653, Edward Digges in 1656, and Samuel Matthews in 1658. 

So complete was the political and personal freedom enjoyed, that the 
house of burgesses, in a slight contest of powers with the aged Governor 
Matthews, voted that it was the right of the hour to discuss, first and 
alone, any measure proposed for enactment. 

It has been common for compilers of history to state that Charles II. 
was proclaimed king by the Virginia colony before he was restored to the 
throne of England, and that thus originated the title of " The Old Domin- 
ion." This is not true. When Samuel Matthews died in 1660 the ques- 
tion simply was who should be his successor. The assembly elected Sir 
William Berkeley governor by a decisive vote on the 13th day of March, 
1660. He accepted the office without condition or compromise. He re- 
quired no oath of allegiance to the king; and it was not until the 29th of 
April, 1660, that Charles II. ascended the throne. 

Robert Reid Howison's History of the United States. 






RETURN JONATHAN MEIGS, 1801-1891 

The subject of this sketch was born near Winchester, Clark county, 
Kentucky, April 14, 1801. His early youth was passed in the household 
of his uncle, James Lamme, in Bourbon county, where he worked on the 
farm when not at school. Afterward he was a pupil of Mr. George Wil- 
son, a celebrated classical scholar. Here Mr. Meigs imbibed his love of 
the classics, which never deserted him during his entire life. Mr. Wilson 
was a South Carolinian, who had been induced by Colonel Gist to remove 
to Kentucky and try his fortunes there as a teacher. Mr. Wilson's school 
was located in Jessamine, about ten miles from Lexington, and some 
twenty-five miles from where Mr. Meigs resided. At the second session 
of the school Mr. Wilson invited Mr. Meigs to remain at his house, as a 
member of his family. While here he dived deeply into the Greek and 
Latin classics, and he and his teacher read aloud to each other and com- 
mented on the texts of their favorite authors. He here became a student 
of law under the tutelage of the eminent Judge Bledsoe, and was admitted 
as a practitioner at the Frankfort bar in 1822. 

In 1822 he left Kentucky, riding on horseback to the Hiawassa garrison 
in East Tennessee, where his grandfather, Colonel Return J. Meigs, was 
located as the government agent of the Cherokee Indians. He entered 
actively into practice, the Hiawassa agency being his home, riding the 
circuit to all the surrounding courts, as was the custom in those days, and 
getting a very reasonable share of the practice. His uncle died soon after 
his joining him, in the eighty-third year of his age. He was called by 
the Indians "White Path" on account of his strict integrity and his 
kindness. 

Mr. Meigs continued his practice in East Tennessee for several years. 
One of his stopping places was at the house of John Love, whose daughter 
afterward became his wife. His marriage occurred November I, 1825. 
Subsequently he removed to Athens, Tennessee, where he continued to 
reside until October, 1835, when he removed to Nashville. After taking 
up his residence in Nashville, at the instance of his friends, he was 
announced the candidate for delegate to the constitutional convention of 
Tennessee in 1836, but was defeated by one vote. It is interesting to 
know that his object in becoming a candidate was for the purpose, if 
elected, of offering an amendment for the abolition of slavery in Tennessee. 



126 RETURN JONATHAN MEIGS, 180I-189I 

He was defeated, as before mentioned, by one vote, and by action of the 
convention slavery was retained. 

In 1838 he was made attorney-general of the state, and he wrote and 
published Meigs Reports of the decisions of the supreme court of Ten- 
nessee. He was elected a member of the state senate in 1843, ar >d relin- 
quished his law practice so as to give his entire time to his legislative 
duties. 

He was a thoroughly trained lawyer, not only in the common law of 
England and the practice in Tennessee courts, but he had studied with 
great assiduity the Code Napoleon and the Spanish laws, as applicable to 
this country. He had also given great study to the patent laws, at a time 
when little was known of these laws by the generality of lawyers. He was 
regarded as a great advocate, and specially distinguished himself in defense 
of the negro slave Jake Bradford, who was indicted for killing his master. 

In politics he was a Henry Clay whig, and a frequent contributor to 
the columns of the leading whig papers of Nashville, The Nashville Whig 
and Nashville Banner. Later he allied himself with the republican party, 
as he was an avowed and outspoken Unionist. 

In 1848, after spending years in digesting the twenty-seven volumes 
of Tennessee reports and examining the citation of over three thousand 
cases, he published his Digest of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of Ten- 
nessee. This work met at once with the hearty approval of the bar of 
Tennessee, and soon became popular all over the country as a standard 
work, a position it still retains, and in the courts of Tennessee its phrase- 
ology is quoted instead of that used in the reports. 

In 1853, in connection with Hon. VV. F. Cooper, he prepared and pub- 
lished a code of Tennessee law, which is still regarded as the best of its 
kind in the state. He was at all times an active worker and coadjutor in 
anything looking to the moral, intellectual, or physical advancement of Ten- 
nessee. He was one of the earliest advocates for the building of the fine 
system of macadamized turnpikes in middle Tennessee, which has given 
to that section the finest roads in the whole country. He advocated at 
an early time the building of railroads, and was one of the projectors of 
the scheme by which the state contributed ten thousand dollars a mile to 
the superstructure of the splendid railway system which has added so 
much to its wealth, population, and general prosperity. 

For many years he was a trustee of the state university, and founded 
there the nucleus for a fine classical library. He was one of the board of 
commissioners for the building of what was then the finest state capitol 
in the United States, and trustee of the common school system of the 



RETURN JONATHAN MEIGS, 180I-189I \2J 

city of Nashville, which is one of the most thorough systems in the 
country. He was appointed librarian of the state library, and succeeded 
in collecting twenty-five or thirty thousand volumes of the most carefully 
selected and valuable books of any library in the country. His own library 
was the largest and most valuable of any in Tennessee, apart from his law- 
library, which was very extensive. 

As a lawyer he always advised his clients to compromise rather than 
engage in expensive litigation. His fees were moderate, and small cases 
brought to him he generally turned over to worthy young lawyers, whom 
he advised and counseled in the conduct of their cases. He was greatly 
depressed by the death of his wife, which occurred in 1858. The breaking 
out of the civil war in 1861 gave him much trouble. He was sincerely 
and devotedly attached to the people of Nashville, among whom he had 
so long resided, and his attachment extended to the whole people of Ten- 
nessee. He was an unalterable Union man, and deplored the action of 
his friends and neighbors in favoring secession ; and as he could not agree 
with them and was unwilling to quarrel with them, he removed with his 
family to Staten Island, New York, in May, 1861, whence, after a desul- 
tory business of two years, he removed to Washington, D. C. President 
Lincoln soon offered him the appointment to codify the laws of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and subsequently tendered him the appointment of 
clerk of the supreme court of the District of Columbia, which he accepted 
in May, 1863. 

On assuming charge of the office, Mr. Meigs found the rules and gen- 
eral conditions of the court in a rather chaotic condition. With his usual 
energy he at once went to work and formulated a new system of rules and 
practice for this court, which was at once adopted and has ever since been 
maintained. His position as clerk of this court was an anomalous and 
somewhat delicate one. Mr. Meigs had a national reputation as a lawyer, 
and perhaps was an abler lawyer than any man on the bench of the court 
of which he became clerk. The judges, however, fully accorded this to 
him, and both bench and bar took advantage of his great legal acumen 
and attainments to consult him on difficult points, and always received 
from him a ready and cordial response. He was specially kind in advising 
young lawyers, and many now who have made renown in their professions 
speak gratefully of the kind counsel given them in trying times by Mr. 
Meigs. 

In his personal intercourse with his family and friends he was totally 
unaffected and cordial. He had a vast fund of information on all sub- 
jects, and his recollections of "old times" was such as to make an hour 



128 RETURN JONATHAN MEIGS, 180I-189I 

spent with him one that the visitor would not be likely to forget. The 
writer bears in fond remembrance an evening spent with him in his hospi- 
table home in Washington, a few years before his death. On the 19th of 
October, 1891, after a few hours' illness, he passed away, having lived to 
be ninety-one years old. 

His genealogy may be briefly stated. Vincent Meigs, from Devonshire, 
England, landed at Hammonassett in 1637 with his family, consisting of 

John, born ; Janna, born 1672 ; Return, born 1708 (first descent). 

Colonel Return Jonathan, son of Return, born 1740, was colonel of the 
sixth regiment of the continental line, was at the storming of Stony 
Point, on the expedition to Quebec, and captured the British forces at 
Sag Harbor, destroying their vessels; John, the son of Return Jonathan, 
born in 1771, married Parthenia Clendennin — died July 4, 1807, aged 
thirty-six. 

In the sketch of Colonel Return Jonathan Meigs, in Appleton's Cyclo- 
pedia of American Biograpliy, occurs this statement: "The origin of his 
name is of peculiar interest. His father when a young man was very 
attentive to a fair quakeress, who resided in the vicinity of Middletown, 
Connecticut, but he was unsuccessful in his suit, and she repeatedly rejected 
him with, '"Nay, Jonathan, I respect thee much, but I cannot marry thee.' 
But on his last visit, as he slowly mounted his horse, the relenting lady 
beckoned him to stop, saying, ' Return, Jonathan ; return, Jonathan.' 
These, the happiest words he had ever heard, he gave as a name to his 
firstborn." 

This is a very pretty story, and it seems a pity to spoil it. But as there 
was a Return Meigs born in 1708, and several previous to that date, the 
origin as given must go the way of many pretty stories which are only 
legendary and cannot stand the test of cold history. 

The Return Jonathan of this sketch was the son of John, and grand- 
son of Colonel Return Jonathan of Revolutionary memory. He made his 
mark, and left a record of which his children may well be proud, and an 
example which the rising generation will do well to emulate. 



,y\Au3-wt*<^-S^/ki /v * — /^*— — » 



Washington, D. C. 



THE UNITED STATES AND JAPAN 

Editor of Magazine of American History : 

As a supplement to Dr. William Elliot Griffis's interesting and valua- 
ble contribution to your June number on the " Relations between the 
United States and Japan," kindly allow me to offer a short letter on the 
same topic. This letter was originally written by " T. A." (presumably a 
Japanese) for the columns of the Nichi Nichi SJiimbun (or Daily News) of 
Tokyo, and was translated into the Japan Mail of Yokohama- It was 
addressed to the Hon. Frank M. Coombs, the new United States minister 
to Japan, and reads as follows : 

" Hoping to see an increase of the friendly relations that already exist 
between Japan and the United States, we have long been waiting for the 
arrival of his excellency Mr. F. M. Coombs, American envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary. After a safe voyage for twenty days 
he reached Japan on the 30th ult. While expressing our delight at his 
safe arrival and congratulating him on his good health, we desire to say a 
few words for his consideration. They refer to the maintenance of the 
relations existing between Japan and America — relations that affect both 
the moral and the material aspects of the two countries' intercourse. 
What country was it that returned an indemnity of seven hundred thou- 
sand yen, received from our government in the sequel of the Shimonoseki 
affair, which happened at the commencement of Meiji era? It was 
America. What country was it that first agreed to abolish extra territori- 
ality in the negotiations for treaty revision ? It was America again. 
What country was it that, with the consent of congress, disbursed a 
sum of five thousand dollars from the treasury for the relief of persons 
shipwrecked in the Cashmere, which was wrecked off Taneko Island in 
1885? Again it was America. Such is the kindly feeling of America 
towards Japan, and the Japanese are very grateful to her. But lately 
there have been some painful rumors in circulation. Disquieting state- 
ments are made about Japanese emigrants to America, and news has been 
received of the expulsion of some Japanese by the officials at San Fran- 
cisco, when the emigrants arrived by the Belgic. If the circumstances as 
related in these affairs are correct, they are likely to give rise to much 
unfriendly feeling on the part of Japanese generally. From olden times 
disputes have often arisen out of conditions not thoroughly understood 

Vol. XXVIII.— No. 2.-9 



130 THE UNITED STATES AND JAPAN 

by each side. Therefore, the things which we have mentioned may be 
capable of easy explanation when the parties concerned talk them over. 
They may even become subjects of jest. But the masses are always easily 
misled. Therefore we hope his excellency will consider the present situa- 
tion, and take steps to smooth the relations between the two countries. 
This is our sincere desire." 

The editor of the Japan Mail, in commenting on this open letter, says: 
" America's policy as to immigration is destined, we fear, to affect her 
relations with Japan sooner or later. It cannot be reasonably hoped that 
a distinction will be made between Chinese and Japanese, when both alike 
present themselves to the American laboring man under the same aspect; 
namely, that of outsiders willing to work for wages which, in the case of 
American citizens themselves, would be regarded with contempt. With a 
nation so sensitive as to its honor as the Japanese are, it is easy to predict 
the excitement that will arise should America's attitude of exclusiveness 
be extended so as to embrace Japanese." 

It is sincerely to be hoped that the people of the United States will 
never assume toward the Japanese the attitude they now maintain against 
the Chinese, for we are bound by many strong ties to our antipodal neigh- 
bors across the Pacific. 



Chicago, July i, 1892. 



v??*wi */y v f *• \* £« ***+'*'*^/\* , 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

'• HORSE SHOE ROBINSON " 

About the year 1836 a novel in two volumes was issued by a Phila- 
delphia publisher, which found such ready sale that three editions were 
quickly exhausted. It was considered the most successful novel of that 
period. The author was Mark Littleton, and the work was entitled 
Horse Shoe Robinson. Its historic features were its chief charm, for it 
represented careful study of the events of the Revolution at the south, 
and unfolded a vast amount of information concerning the temper and 
character of the people in the districts of central Virginia and the mount- 
ainous regions of the Carolinas. A copy of the first edition of this rare 
work has been brought to the attention of the writer, and as an example 
of the novel-writing of fifty-six years ago it is unique and worthy of a brief 
summary of its interesting contents. 

The chief figure in the story is Galbraith Robinson, who, having been 
a blacksmith at the outbreak of the Revolutionary war, was widely known 
as Horse Shoe Robinson. He was gigantic in size, with massive features 
rendered pleasing by clear, penetrating, intelligent eyes ; his monster 
frame seemed bullet-proof, as if made of iron, and his movements indi- 
cated enormous physical strength. He had a keen sense of humor and 
much homely wisdom, and was at all times shrewd, cautious, and far- 
seeing. 

He was one of two mounted travelers — when the story opens — canter- 
ing along the dusty road in Virginia to the south of Monticello, his com- 
panion, Captain Butler of the continental army, being in the costume of 
an ordinary country gentleman, and Horse Shoe in the garb of a servant. 
It was shortly after General Gates had passed southward to take command 
of the army that was to act against Cornwallis — in July, 1780. While 
pausing to take some refreshments by the roadside a conversation ensued 
between the travelers, in which Horse Shoe gave a graphic account of the 
capture of his regiment by the British, and his subsequent escape from 
imprisonment at the south. 

" I shouldn't have minded it much," he said ; " it was the fortune of war. 
But they insulted us as soon as they got our arms from us. It was a 
blasted cowardly trick in them to endeavor to win us from our cause, 



132 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

which they tried every day. First they told us that Colonel Pinckney 
and some other officers had gone over ; but that was too onprobable a 
piece of rascality — we didn't believe a word on't. So one morning Colonel 
Pinckney axed that we mought be drawed up in a line in front of the 
barracks, and there he made us a speech. We were as silent as so many 
men on a surprise party. The colonel said — yes, sir, and right in their 
very teeth — that it was an infamious and audacious calumny ; that when- 
ever he deserted the cause of liberty, he hoped they would take him, as 
they had done some Roman officer or other, and tie his limbs to wild 
horses, and set them adrift, at full speed, taking all his joints apart, so that 
not one traitorous limb should be left to keep company with the other. 
The British officers began to frown, and I saw one chap put his hand upon 
his sword. It would have done you good to witness the look the colonel 
gave him, as he put his own hand to his thigh to feel if his sword was 
there — he so naturally forgot he was a prisoner. They made him stop 
speaking, however, because they called it perditious language : so they 
dismissed us, but we let them have three cheers to show that we were in 
heart. Colonel Charles Cotesworth Pinckney's voice that day was sweeter 
than shawns and trumpets, as the preacher says, and bugles to boot. He 
put a stop to all this parleying with our poor fellows ; and knowing you 
was likely to be coming this way he axed me if I thought I could give the 
guard the slip and make off with a letter to meet you. Well, I studied 
over the thing for awhile, then told him a neck was but a neck anyhow, 
and that I could try — and so when this letter was ready, he gave it to me, 
telling me to hide it so that if I was s'arched they could not find it on my 
person. Do you see that foot ? " added Horse Shoe, smiling. " It isn't so 
small but that I could put a letter between the inside sole and the out — 
longways, or even crossways, for the matter of that — and without so much 
as turning down a corner. Accordingly we stitched it in. The colonel 
then told me to watch my chance and make off to you in the Jarseys as 
fast as I could. He told me, besides, that I was to stay with you, because 
you was likely to have business for me to do. 

There came on a darkish, drizzly evening ; and a little before roll-call, 
at sunset, I borrowed an old forage cloak from Corporal Green — you mought 
have remembered him — and out I went towards the lines, and sauntered 
along the edge of the town till I came to one of your pipe-smoking, gin- 
drinking Hessians keeping centry near the road that leads out towards 
Ashley ferry ; a fellow that had no more watch in him than a duck on a 
rainy day. So said I, coming up boldly to him, ' Hans, wie geht es.' 'Geh 
zum teufel,' says he, laughing — for he knowed me. That was all the 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 1 33 

Dutch I could speak, except I was able to say it was going to rain, so I 
told him, ' es will regnen,' which he knowed as well as I did, for it was 
raining all the time. I had a little more palaver with Hans ; and at last 
he got upon his feet and set to walking up and down. By this time the 
drum beat for evening quarters and I bid Hans good night ; but instead of 
going away I squatted behind the Dutchman's centry-box ; and presently 
the rain came down by the bucket-full ; it got very dark and Hans was 
snugly under cover. The grand rounds was coming, I could hear the tramp 
of feet, and I made a long step and a short story of it by just slipping over 
the lines and setting out to seek my fortune. As the prime file leader of mis- 
chief would have it, outside of the lines I meets a cart with a man to drive it, 
and two soldiers on foot by way of guard. The first I was aware of it was 
a hallo — and then a bagnet to my breast. I did not ask for countersigns, 
for I didn't mean to trade in words that night ; but just seizing the muzzle 
of the piece, I twisted it out of the fellow's hand, and made him a present 
of the butt-end across his pate. I didn't want to hurt him, you see, for it 
wasn't his fault that he stopped me. A back-hander brought down the 
other; and the third man drove off his cart, as if he had some suspicion 
that his comrades were on their backs in the mud. I didn't mean to 
trouble a peaceable man with my compliments, but on the contrary I went 
on my way rejoicing. 

I was afraid to keep up the Neck road, on account of the sodgers there, 
so I determined to cross the Ashley, but when I came to the ferry I was 
dubious about taking one of the skiffs for fear of making a noise, so I 
slipped off my shoe, that had your letter, and put it betwixt my teeth and 
swum the river. For the first three or four days the chances were all against 
me. The whole country was full of tories and it wasn't safe to meet a man 
upon the road. I durstn't show my face in daytime at all, but lay close in 
the swamps. I commoply about dark crept as near some farmhouse as I 
mought venture to go, and putting on a poor mouth told the folks I had 
a touch of the small-pox, and was dying for a little food. They were 
generally Christians enough to give me a dish of bread and milk, or some- 
thing of that sort, and cowards enough to keep so much out of my way as 
not to get a chance to look me in the face. They laid provisions on the 
ground and then walked away while I came up to get them. 

Well, after this, I had like to lost all by another mishap. My course 
was for the upper country, because the nearer I got to my own home the 
better I was acquainted with the people. That scrummaging character, 
Tarleton, you may have hearn, scampered off as soon as ever Charleston 
was taken, after Colonel Abraham Buford, who was on his way down to 



134 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

the city when the news was fotch him of our surrender. Buford accord- 
ingly came to the right about, to get out of harm's way as fast as he could, 
and Tarleton followed close at his heels. When nobody thought it any- 
thing more than a brag, sure enough, he overhauls Buford yonder at the 
Waxhaws — onawares — and there he tore him all to pieces. It so hap- 
pened that as I was making along towards Catawba, who should I come 
plump upon but Tarleton and his lads, with their prisoners, all halting 
beside a little run to get water. I was pretty near nonplussed, but 1 
thought of a stratagem. I let fall my under jaw and sot my eyes as wild 
as a madman, and twisted my whole face out of joint, and began to clap 
my hands and hurra for the red-coats like a natural fool. So when 
Tarleton and two or three of his people came to take notice of me they 
put me down for a poor idiot that had been turned adrift. Just to try me 
they flogged me with the flats of their swords, but I laughed and made 
merry when they hurt me the worst, and told them I thanked them for 
their politeness. There were some of our men among the prisoners whom 
I knew, and I was mortally afraid they would let on — but they didn't. 
Especially there was Seth Cuthbert, from Tryon, who had both of his 
hands chopped off in the fray at the Waxhaws ; he was riding double 
behind a trooper, and he held up the stumps just to let me see how bar- 
barously he had been mangled. I was dubious they would see that he 
knowed me, but he took care of that — he saw my drift in the first shot of 
his eye. Thinking they mought take it into their noddles to carry me 
along with them, I played the quarest trick that I suppose a man ever 
thought of — it makes me laugh now to tell it ; I made a spring that fetched 
me right upon the crupper of Tarleton's horse, which sot him to kicking 
and flirting at a merry rate ; and while the creature was floundering as if a 
hornet had stung him, I took the colonel's cap and put it on my own head, 
and gave him mine. After I had vagaried in this sort of way for a little 
while I let the horse fling me to the ground. You would have thought the 
devils would have died a laughing. And the colonel himself, although at 
first very angry, couldn't help laughing likewise. He said I was as strange 
a fool as he ever saw, and that it would be a pity to hurt me. So he threw 
me a shilling, and whilst they were all in good humor I trudged away." 

Colonel Butler had been apprised by Colonel Pinckney of the condition 
of affairs in the region to which he was journeying, and his business was 
to co-operate in a bold undertaking that had been planned to dislodge the 
red-coats from their strongholds. But the tories swarmed the country 
like the locusts of Egypt, and it was necessary to proceed with great cau- 
tion. The romance of the story clusters about the meeting of Captain 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 1 35 

Butler with Mildred, the beautiful daughter of Philip Lindsay, one of the 
most opulent old-school gentlemen of Virginia, residing at the foot of the 
Blue Ridge on the Rockfish river. Captain Butler went out of his way 
somewhat for this interview, which was brought about through the tact and 
diplomacy of Mildred's young brother, Henry, who, under the pretense of 
hunting, had been several days watching the roads for Butler's approach. 
Philip Lindsay was a man of refinement and taste, and in his lazy life and 
charming seclusion had hoped to escape the complications which the war 
entailed upon his neighbors. But his reputation for wealth had brought 
the tory leaders to his house, and his relations to the English government 
had ied him into a distrust of revolutionary principles. As the crisis be- 
came more momentous he was shocked at finding Mildred's predilections 
running on the side of American independence. Butler was a native of 
one of the lower districts of South Carolina, and the possessor of a hand- 
some fortune. He first met Mildred, with her parents, at Annapolis, when 
that city was the seat of learning and fashion, and was subsequently a fre- 
quent guest at the picturesque home of the Lindsays. The young people 
were lovers, but the course of their true love did not run smoothly. Mil- 
dred's mother was averse to the marriage for political reasons, and on her 
death-bed admonished her husband in the most emphatic terms to prevent 
the alliance. Butler was denied the house, and since then had only seen 
Mildred by stealth. There was a confidant in all their intercourse — Mil- 
dred's young brother Henry, who thought his father was on the wrong 
side in this love affair as well as in politics. 

At the very hour when the lovers were discussing the perplexed and 
tangled riddle of the future under the thick foliage of a large beech-tree, a 
certain Mr. Tyrrel was at the Dove Cote, on his third visit to Philip Lind- 
say, endeavoring to persuade him to join the British army, and also to 
give him (Tyrrel) his 'daughter Mildred's hand in marriage. The shrewd 
Horse Shoe Robinson discovers that James Curry, one of the white servants 
of Tyrrel, is staying at Mistress Dimock's inn — where he has obtained 
quarters for Captain Butler and himself — and ere long is convinced that 
the man is acting the part of a spy. Horse Shoe therefore steps out upon 
the porch in front of the house, and in a tone half-way between jest and 
greeting, says to the man : " A word in your ear. Von are not safe, 
friend, if you are cotch again peeping through the chinks of the window, 
or sneaking upon the dark side of the doorway to pick up a crumb of talk 
from people that are not axing your company." 

The retort was swift and sharp, but Horse Shoe only replied, " Be quiet 
and easy, good man. No flusterifications here! If you come of decent 



136 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

and honest people you will take my advice. Good-night, I have business 
at the stable." The man strode after him to discover if possible his busi- 
ness, and after exchanging a few curt remarks, Horse Shoe asked with pre- 
tended gravity, " Where mought you be from ? " and the other with 
saucy emphasis said, " I'll answer your question when you tell me what 
mought be your right to know." 

" It is the custom of our country," replied Horse Shoe — " I don't know 
what it may be in yourn — to larn a little about the business of every man 
we meet ; but we do it by fair, out-and-out question and answer — all above 
board ; and we hold in despise all sorts of contwistifications either by lay- 
ing of tongue-traps, or listening under eaves of houses." " My country!" 
exclaimed the other, " I'd have you to understand — " " Tut, man — it 
arn't worth the trouble of talking about it. You are an Englishman, and 
a red-coat into the bargain, as we call them in these parts. You have 
been a sodger. Now, never bounce at that, man ! There's no great harm 
in belonging to that craft. They listed you, likely as not, when you was 
flusticated with liquor — and you took your pay; there was a bargain, and 
it was your business to stand it. But I have got a piece of wisdom to 
whisper to you ; insomuch as you are not in the most agreeablest part of 
the world to men of your colors, it would be best to be a little more shy 
about giving offense. You said some saucy things to me just now — but 
I don't grudge your talking, because, you see, I am an onaccountable hard 
sort of a person to be instigated by speeching." Curry replied, " Verily 
you are a most comical piece of dullness. In what school did you learn 
your philosophy, friend ? You have been brought up to the wholesome 
tail of the plow, I should say — an ancient and reputable occupation." 

" When I observed just now," said Horse Shoe, sternly, ' ' that I couldn't 
be instigated, I meant to be comprehended as laying down a kind of 
general doctrine that I was not a man given to quarrels ; but still if I sus- 
picioned a bamboozlement, which I am not far from at this present speak- 
ing, if it come up to the conflagrating of only the tenth part of the wink of 
an eye, in a project to play me off, 'fore God, I confess myself to be as weak 
in the flesh as e'er a rumbunctious fellow you might meet on the road." 

" I do not understand your lingo," said Curry. " It has a most clodpol- 
ish smack ; it is neither grammar, English, nor sense." " Then you are 
a damned, onmannerly rascal," exclaimed Horse Shoe, with fire in his eyes, 
" and that is grammar, English, and sense, all three." " Ha ! now my lub- 
berly booby, I understand you," returned Curry, springing to his feet. 
" Do you know to whom you are speaking ? " " Yes, better than you 
think for," and Horse Shoe straightened himself for an expected assault. 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 1 37 

" I know you, and guess your arrand here." " You do ? You have been 
juggling with me, sir ! You are not the gudgeon I took you for. It has 
suited your purpose to play the clown, eh ? Well, sir, and pray what do 
you guess ? " Horse Shoe smiled as he said, " Nothing good of you, con- 
sidering how things go here. Suppose I was to say you was, at this self- 
same identical time, a sodger of the king's? I have you there ! " 

The fellow turned on his heel, and retreated a few steps, evidently 
puzzled concerning the man he had taken for a mere simpleton ; then re- 
turning to the fray of words, he said, " Well, and if I were ? It is a character 
of which I should have no reason to be ashamed." " That's well said ; up 
and speak out and never be above owning the truth," responded Horse 
Shoe. " Although it mought be somewhat dangerous, just hereabouts, to 
confess yourself a sodger of King George — let me tell you that, being 
against you, I am not the person to mislest you by setting a few dozen of 
whigs on your scent, which is a thing easily done. If you don't let your 
tongue brawl against quiet and orderly people, you are free to come and 
go for me." " Thank you, sir, " said Curry. " But, look you, it isn't my 
way to answer questions about my own business, and I scorn to ask any 
man's leave to come and go where and when my occasions shall call me." 
"Ah," said Horse Shoe, " if it isn't your way to answer questions about 
your own business, it oughtn't to be your way to ax them about other 
people's. But that don't disturb me ; it is the rule of war to question all 
comers and goers that we happen to fall in with — specially when there is a set 
of your devils scampering and raging about in Carolina, burning houses and 
killing cattle and turning everything topsy turvy." " You are a stranger 
to me," said Curry, " but let me tell you without circumlocution or peri- 
phrase, I am a free-born subject of the king, and I see no reason why 
because some of his people have turned rebels a man should be obliged to 
give an account of himself to every inquisitive fellow who chooses to chal- 
lenge it. Suppose I tell you that you meddle with matters that don't con- 
cern you ? " " Then you mought chance to get your head in your hand — 
that's all. And hark you — if it warn't that I am ruther good-natered I 
mought happen to handle you a little rough for that nicknaming of the 
friends of liberty, by calling of them rebels." "Well, egad ! " exclaimed 
Curry, suddenly changing his mood and resorting to his free and easy ad- 
dress, " you are a fine, bold fellow ; you suit these times devilish well. But 
now tell me, how do you know I am not one of these very rebels myself ? " 
" For two good reasons. First, you daren't deny that you have pocketed 
the king's money and wore his coat ; and second, you are now under the 
orders of one of his officers." 



138 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

The Briton's voice had weakened somewhat when he replied, " You 
are mistaken. I am in the service of a gentleman who is in this part of 
the province on private affairs of his own — " " I am not mistaken," inter- 
rupted Horse Shoe. " You come from the south. I can tell men's fort- 
unes without looking into the palms of their hands." "You are wrong," 
said Curry, tartly; "I come from the north." "That's true and false 
both," retorted Horse Shoe ; " from the north I grant you ; to the south 
with Sir Henry; from the south up here." "The devil take your conjur- 
ing," said Curry, as he bit his lip and strode backward and forward, while 
Horse Shoe burst into a hoarse laugh, saying : " It wa'n't worth your while 
to try to deceive me. I knowed you by manifold and simultaneous signs. 
Him that sets about scouting after other people's secrets ought to be 
warry enough to l'arn to keep his own. But don't take it so to heart, neigh- 
bor ; there is no occasion for oneasiness ; I have no mind to harm you." 
" Master Bully," said Curry, planting himself directly in front of Horse 
Shoe, " in England, where I was bred, we play at cudgels, and sometimes 
give broken heads ; and some of us are gifted with heavy fists, wherewith 
we occasionally contrive to box a rude fellow who prys too much into our 
affairs." Said Horse Shoe : " In our country we generally like to get a 
share of whatever news is stirring, and though we do not practise much 
with cudgels, yet to sarve a turn, we do now and then break a head or so; 
and consarning that fist work, we have no condesentious scruples against 
a fair rap or two over the knowledge box and the tripping up of a frac- 
tious chap's heels, in the way of a sort of rough-and-tumble, which maybe 
you understand." 

The Briton did understand, and remarked with as much composure as 
Horse Shoe : " Then it is likely it would please you to have a chance at 
such a game?" " To be sure I would, rather than disappoint you in any 
reasonable longing," said Horse Shoe. " We may readily find a piece of 
ground at hand," said Curry. " It is good moonlight play, and we may 
not be interrupted if we get a fair distance off before the negro comes 
back. Toe to toe, and face to face, suits me best with both friend and 
foe." " Well, a mule to drive and a fool to hold back are two of the con- 
trariest things I know," said Horse Shoe; "and, seein' you are in arnest 
about it, let us go at it without more ado upon the first good bit of grass 
we can find along the river." 

In this temper the two antagonists left the vicinity of the stable and 
walked some one hundred paces down along the bank of the stream. The 
Briton was square-shouldered, erect, and muscular, and the firmness of his 
gait, his long and easy stride, and the free swing of his arm convinced 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 139 

Horse Shoo that he had no ordinary adversary; and at the same time the 
moonlight disclosed the brawny proportions of Horse Shoe to his com- 
panion. " Here," said Horse Shoe, " is as pretty a spot as we mought find 
on the river, so get ready, friend, as soon as you can. Before we begin I 
have a word to say. This 'ere bout is none of my seeking, because I don't 
want to do you no harm ; and I take it as downright tom-foolery for grown- 
up men to set about hammering and thumping each other upon account 
of a brag of who's best man. I look upon this 'ere coming out to fight as 
a bit of arrant nonsense; but as you will have it, it's no consarn of mine to 
stop you." ''You are welcome to do your worst," said the Briton, "and 
the less preaching you make of it the more saving of time." " My worst," 
said Horse Shoe, " is almost more than I have the conscience to do to 
any man who isn't a downright flagratious enemy ; and once more I advise 
you to think before you draw me into a fray; you are flustrated and sot 
upon a quarrel, and may think that you'll get the advantage of an old 
sodger over me by drawing me out from behind my retrenchments (my 
good nature), and forcing me to deploy into line in open field ; but there, 
Mr. Dragoon, you are mistaken. In close garrison or open field, in siege 
or sally, crossing a defile or reconnoitering on a broad road, I am not apt 
to lose my temper, or strike without seeing where my blow is to hit ; now 
that is all I have to say, so come on." " In the devil's name, who are 
you ? " asked Curry. " My name is Brimstone ; I am first cousin to Beelze- 
bub." " You have served ? " " I have." " And belong to the army yet ? " 
" I do, and I am as tough a sodger, and maybe I mought say as old a 
sodger, as yourself." The face of Curry again brightened. " Your hand, 
fellow soldier. I mistook you from the beginning. You continentals — 
that's the new-fangled word, I believe — are stout fellows, and have a good 
knack at the trick of war, though you wear rough coats and are savagely 
unrudimental in polite learning. As you say, most sapient Brimstone, we 
are not much better than a pair of fools for this conspiracy to knock about 
each other's pates here at midnight, but you have my pledge to it, and so 
we will go at it, if only to win a relish for our beds. I will teach you 
to-night some skill in the art of mensuration. You shall measure two full 
ells upon this green sod." Said Horse Shoe : " There is my hand ; now if 
I am flung I promise you I won't be angry. If I sarve you in same fash- 
ion you must l'arn to bear it." "With all my heart," said Curry. " So 
here I stand upon my guard. Begin." Horse Shoe laughed. " Let me 
feel your weight," and he put one hand on his adversary's shoulder and the 
other against his side. " Hark you, I feel something hard here about your 
ribs ; you have pistols under your coat. For the sake of fair play you had 



IzJ-O THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

best lay them aside before we strike. Anger comes up onawares." " I 
never part with my weapons," said Curry. " We are strangers ; I must 
know the company I am in before I dismiss such old cronies : they have 
got me out of a scrape before this." 

Horse Shoe replied angrily : " We took hands just now. When I give 
my hand it is tantamount to a book oath that I mean fair, round dealing 
with the man who takes it. I told you, besides, I was a sodger — that 
ought to have contented you — and you mought sarch my breast inside 
and out, you'd see in it nothing but honest meanings. There is something 
of a susceptible rascality, after that, in talking about pistols hid under the 
flaps of the coat. It's altogether onmanful, and what's more, onsodgerly. 
You are a deceit, and an astonishment, and a hissing, all three, James 
Curry, and no better to my comprehension than a coward. I know you 
of old — though, mayhap, you may disremember me. I have hearn said by 
more than one that you was a double-faced, savage-hearted, disregardless 
beast, that snashed his teeth where he darstn't bite, and bullied them that 
hadn't the heart to fight — I have hearn that of you, and, as I live, I believe 
it ! Now, look out for your bull head, for, by the soul of my father, I will 
cuff you in spite of your pistols!" With these words Horse Shoe gave 
Curry some half a dozen overpowering blows, in such quick succession as 
utterly defied and broke down his guard, and then seizing him by the 
breast threw his tall stalwart form at full length upon the ground. 
"There's your two ells for you! There's the art of menstirration — you 
disgrace to the tail of a drum — you heathen Turk ! " exclaimed Horse 
Shoe with increasing wrath, as the prostrate man tried to extricate himself 
from the lion grasp that held him, and made unsuccessful attempts to get his 
hand upon his pistol. "James Curry, you shall never touch your fire-arms 
while I have the handling of you," said Horse Shoe. " Give them up, you riot- 
ous, twisting prevaricator — give them up, you disgracer of powder and lead 
— and l'arn this from a rebel, that I don't blow out your brains only because 
I wouldn't accommodate the devil by flinging such a lump of petrafaction 
into his clutches. There, man," he added, as he threw the pistols into the 
river, " get upon your feet, and go hunt for your cronies in yonder running 
stream. You may count it a marcy that I haven't tossed you after them 
to wash the cowardly blood off your face." With a fearful oath Curry 
said : " I will seek a time to right myself with your heart's blood." 
" Pshaw, man ! don't talk about heart's blood. The next time we come 
into a field together ax for Horse Shoe Robinson. Find me out, that's 
all. We may take a frolic together. If it should so turn out, James, that 
you and me are to work through a campaign in the same quarter of the 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 141 

world — as we have done afore — I'll take the chance of some holy day to 
make my respects to you. I won't trouble you to ride far to find me ; 
and then it may be broadsword or pistol, rifle or bagnet, I am not over- 
scrumptious which. Only promise I shall see you when I send for you." 
Curry, who had been assisted to his feet by Horse Shoe, answered gruffly: 
" It's a bargain ! Strong as you think yourself in your cursed rough-and- 
tumble horse-play, I am soldier enough for you any day." " Now, friend 
Curry," exclaimed Horse Shoe, " good-night. Go look for your pop-guns 
in the river, and if you find them hold them as a keepsake to remember 
Horse Shoe Robinson. Good-night." 

When Horse Shoe returned to the inn he found the landlady awaiting 
him, somewhat nervous lest he had got into trouble with her lodger ; but 
he quieted her fears and went directly to Captain Butler's room, and in 
answer to the young officer's earnest inquiry, said : " We must be more 
circumscriptious against scouts and spies and stratagems. When I was a 
prisoner at Charleston there was along with the Earl of Caithness, him 
that was aidegong to Sir Henry Clinton, a sort of 'rithmetical account 
keeper, and letter scribbler, who had a bad name — they do sade that he 
wa'n't above anything rascally. That identical, same, particular man was 
him who was looking through the porch window at us to-night, and trying 
to hear what we said. I knowed him the minute I clapped eyes on him." 
Horse Shoe then proceeded to give an account of his combat, which 
greatly diverted his audience of one. 

An incident of the next morning was the rapid ride of James Curry 
toward the Dove Cote, meeting Mr. Tyrrel on the road and communicat- 
ing to him the fact that Captain Butler spent the night at Mrs. Dimock's 
inn ; and the sudden departure of Philip Lindsay's guest without waiting 
for breakfast. Captain Butler and Horse Shoe resumed their journey at 
early dawn, and proceeded toward the upland country of South Carolina. 
Butler's instructions required that he should report himself to General 
Gates, and, unless detained for more pressing duty, to proceed with all 
circumspection which the enterprise might require to Colonel Clarke, who 
was raising troops to act against Augusta and other British posts. He 
reached the headquarters of General Gates in about a week, and after a 
brief delay proceeded on his route. Horse Shoe was acquainted with this 
region, and Butler was under his entire guidance. The disaffected were 
everywhere, and a prevailing spirit of distrust and treachery marked the 
times. Strangers did not know how far they might trust to the hospitali- 
ties that were extended. The enemy wore no colors and was not to be 
distinguished from friends either by outward guise or speech. Horse Shoe 



142 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

conducted Butler to his own little dwelling a short distance above the 
Waxhaws. This was safely accomplished the day after they left Gates. 
Here Butler changed his dress for one of more rustic character. Horse 
Shoe chose, henceforward, the most circuitous and unfrequented paths, 
as likely to be least infested by tories and scouts of the enemy. It was 
impossible to avoid them altogether, and on one occasion Horse Shoe, who 
was recognized by some of the roughs, with infinite tact represented Butler 
as a young clergyman whom he was conducting to a small parish in the 
backwoods, and then with difficulty prevented the calling of him out to 
preach a short sermon. 

He thought to get a night's rest at the habitation of a well-known woods- 
man, Wat Adair, and when Butler complained of riding up perpendicular 
hills and through perilous swamps, Horse Shoe explained, " The road we 
disvoid comes up through Winnsborough, which is one of the randyvoos 
of the tories in these parts, and I thought we mought better keep our 
heads out of a hornet's nest." But they entered what might have been 
well termed " a hornet's nest" when they obtained lodging for the night 
at this same Wat Adair's. The story is a long one and we can only touch 
it briefly here. The house was conspicuous for its spacious kitchen with an 
enormous fireplace, and the most commonplace of furniture, such as de- 
noted the dwelling of a hunter who subsisted on the wild animals found in 
the wilderness about him. Mrs. Adair was an untidy woman of middle 
age, busy at work, with care-worn, surly, discontented features, and five or 
six children about her all below three feet in stature. An aged woman of 
eighty or more, hollow-eyed and attenuated, sat in a low elbow-chair in 
the corner, smoking a short pipe, and muttered, as if to herself, " We are 
all tories here." A pretty rosebud of a girl, with a round, active, and 
graceful figure — apparently not more than seventeen — rose from her work 
of carding wool as the strangers appeared, and with manners very differ- 
ent from the mistress of the house, courtesied with modest grace and 
placed chairs for the strangers. This was Mary Musgrove, a niece of Mrs. 
Adair, whose home was some thirty miles distant, and who was staying here 
for a time, and taking an active part in the concerns of the family. It 
was this girl who arranged a broad table and directed the domestics in the 
disposition of sundry dishes of venison, corn-bread, and bacon ; and who in 
a few minutes' conversation with Butler on the doorstep after the meal 
revealed to Butler the startling fact that while he had stooped to pick up 
his knife, which fell from the table, she had seen a blue ribbon about his 
neck with a gold picture hanging from it ! Butler was troubled and told 
her " to keep this to herself." " Never fear," returned the maid. " I would 






THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 143 

not let on to any one in this house for the world. I am for General Wash- 
ington and the congress — which is more than I can say for the people 
here." " Indeed !" muttered Butler, scarcely above his breath. "Yes," 
continued the girl, " the English officers are not far off, and they take this 
house and use it as they please. And almost all the people around us are 
tories, and we are afraid of our lives if we do not say whatever they say." 
" But how comes it that you are a friend of General Washington ? " asked 
Butler, curiously. " Oh, he is a good man ; and 1 have a better reason 
still to be on his side," said she, with her head averted. " What reason?" 
asked Butler. " John Ramsay, sir." " Indeed ! and how is that ? " he asked. 
"We have a liking, sir. He is for Washington ; he is a trooper, out with 
General Sumpter, and we are to be married when the war is over," she 
remarked, with innocent frankness. 

Horse Shoe was welcomed with gushing cordiality by the master of the 
house, but there were persons about who did not seem so friendly. But- 
ler thought the woodsman double-faced, and whispered to Horse Shoe as 
he was going to the stable, " Keep your eyes about you ; take our weap- 
ons to our chamber ; I would not trust these people too far." " Wat Adair 
would not venture to play us a trick ; he knows I would shake the life out 
of him," replied Horse Shoe. " But it is a part of my discipline to be 
always ready for stolen marches. As you say, we will stack our arms 
where we sleep. There is no trust in this dubious country." 

Butler returned to the kitchen, where Wat Adair and his crony, Michael 
Lynch, were in close conference as they smoked their pipes, amid the 
combined din of romping children and the noise of Mrs. Adair's spinning- 
wheel. He drew a chair near them, and was quickly asked, " How far do 
you expect to travel to-morrow ? " " That will depend very much upon the 
advice you give us," said Butler. " You wish to get across into Georgia ? ,r 
continued his interrogator. " Yes, by the route least liable to molesta- 
tion." " Well, let me see, Grindall's ford is the best point to make ; then 
there's Crystie's about three miles beyont." " Just so," said Lynch ; " that 
will make about twenty-seven and three are thirty miles — an easy day's 
journey." " In that case," said Adair, " if you know the road — doesn't 
Horse Shoe know it?" " I rather think not," answered Butler. " Well, 
it is a little tangled, to be sure ; but if you will wait in the morning until 
I look at my wolf-trap, only a step off, I will go with you a part of the 
way, just to see you through one or two cross-paths ; after that, all is clear 
enough. You will have a long day before you, and with good horses not 
much to do." 

(To be continued.) . 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



[Continued -from page 66] 



Alaska — Concluded. 

1804. Rezanof, an imperial ambassa- 
dor, reaches the colony, reports various 
abuses, and takes charge of affairs. 

1806. Ship-building inaugurated at 
New Archangel. 

1809-1812. Baranof, on behalf of 
Russian American Company, makes 
contracts with American shipmasters. 

1 S 10-1820. Attempts at colonization ; 
disputes over unsettled boundaries. 

1810, June 10. Arrival at Sitka of 
Russian sloop-of-war Diana, Captain 
Golofnin, and priest. Baranof, governor. 

1816. Arrival of Father Solokoff 
from Moscow. He takes charge of 
ecclesiastical affairs. 

1819. Hagemeister supersedes Bara- 
nof as manager of the Russian Ameri- 
can Company. 

1819. Death of Governor Baranof. 

1819, April 16. Baranof dies at sea 
on his homeward voyage, after forty 
years' absence from Russia, and con- 
spicuous services in the new territory. 

1823. Arrival of Father Mordoffski. 

1824. Arrival at Onolaska of Father 
Innocentius Veniaminoff, the founder of 
Christianity in Alaska. 

1825. February. Convention between 
Russia and England, fixing international 
boundaries nearly as now exist. 



1839. Voyage of Contre-admiral von 
Wrangel. By K. E. von Baer, 1839. 

1842. Father Veniaminoff becomes a 
bishop by the Tsar's decree, and re- 
doubles his missionary efforts, establish- 
ing a theological school at Sitka. 

1842-1866. Third renewal of Rus- 
sian American Company's charter. 

1842-1867. A Lutheran mission 
maintained at Sitka by Russia. 

1859— 1861. Preliminary discussion 
of purchase by the United States. 

1867, May 28. Alaska purchased 
by the United States for $7,200,000. 

1868. Bishop John succeeds Inno- 
cent, who becomes patriarch of Moscow. 

1877. Presbyterian missionaries ar- 
rive at Fort AVrangel from United 
States (Rev. Sheldon Jackson and Mrs. 
McFarland). 

1879. Bishop Nestor succeeds John, 
but dies in 1880. 

1879. Erection of mission buildings 
at Fort Wrangel, and a Presbyterian 
church established. 

1879. A Roman Catholic mission 
established at Fort Wrangel. 

1886. Education in Alaska. Report 
by the Rev. Sheldon Jackson. Govern- 
ment printing office, Washington, 1886. 

1889. Investigation of the fur seal 
and other fisheries of Alaska. 



^u^^^^^^i^^d- /^n^r^ r 



{To be continued) 



MINOR TOPICS 
SABBATH-BREAKING AND THE CLASH OF THEOLOGICAL STEEL 

TRAVELING ACROSS KANSAS TERRITORY TO THE LAND OF GOLD, 1 849 

One party had procured mules and the other oxen for motive power. The 
experiences in hitching up, starting, and driving these wild animals afforded much 
amusement as well as many hard knocks, mingled with the western vernacular 
which was learned and adopted by the drivers with remarkable alacrity. As the 
steers had no Yankee schooling, and had not learned the definitions of the terms 
whoa, haw, and gee, the members of the party marched in irregular order on both 
sides of the teams, thus guiding them in the way they should go. At the short 
turns in the road, and the crossing of creeks and ravines, there was usually a revolt 
that sometimes lasted half a day. At night the steers would be unhitched from 
the wagons, but not unyoked, as to unyoke and yoke these teams on the open 
prairie at first would require twenty out of the twenty-four hours, leaving but four 
hours in which to eat and sleep, and no time for travel. On the first Saturday of 
the journey (from Kansas City) darkness came on before reaching water, and the 
party camped on a high prairie. The next morning, on investigation, it was found 
that the Wakarosa creek was some two or three miles away, and the teams must 
be hitched up and driven that distance, at least, although it was Sunday. So much 
was a work of necessity, and the strictest Puritan in the party acquiesced. But 
after reaching the creek and watering the stock the question arose, shall the party 
go farther ? Here was the first clash of Yankee theological steel. The discussion 
was, however, brief, and a vote of the party settled the question in favor of farther 
travel. But the triumph of the Sunday travelers was brief, as going through a 
depression near the place where the town of Franklin was afterward located, the 
chain between the cattle became slackened and twisted about a steer's leg. When 
the chain was straightened it gave such a twist to the leg as to disable it. Here 
was a judgment of God for breaking the sabbath. No further progress could be 
made that day, except in theological discussion. One party claimed that it was 
a direct interposition to punish sabbath breaking, while the other put the accident 
to the account of too long coupling-chains and bad driving. One party appealed 
to the Decalogue, and the other called for its reading. When it was found that 
the seventh day instead of the first was enjoined to be observed and that for a 
special reason which applied only to the Jews, an appeal was made to the New 
Testament, where it was claimed the command was made applicable to the first 
day of the week. The discussion was closed on one side by offering a dollar for 

Vol. XXVIII- No. 2.-19 



146 MINOR TOPICS 

every word in the New Testament enjoining the observance of any day as sabbath, 
and on the other by devoting the remainder of the day in searching the Testament. 
No claim was ever made for the prize money, and these sticklers for sabbath 
observance were afterward seen betting at monte in Sacramento, having evidently 
lost their Puritanic scruples. 

Governor Robinson's The Kansas Conflict. 



PROFESSOR THEODORE W. DWIGHT 

In the death of Professor Theodore W. Dwight the Magazine of American 
History has lost a firm friend, and its readers a contributor whose writings were of 
the first moment and value. He long since made a reputation as one of the most 
successful living teachers of law. He was born in Catskill, New York, in 1822, 
and was graduated from Hamilton college in 1840. He was a son of Dr. Benjamin 
W. Dwight, grandson of the late Timothy Dwight seventh president of Yale col- 
lege, and a cousin of Theodore Woolsey ex-president, and Timothy Dwight now 
president of Yale. He studied law at the Yale law school two years, and returned 
to Hamilton college as a tutor. In 1846 he was made professor, and then started 
the Hamilton law school, over which he presided until 1858. In the latter year he 
came to New York and established the Columbia law school, and was its sole 
instructor until 1873 when the faculty was enlarged. 

In 1 891 Professor Dwight retired from the law school and was made professor 
emeritus. In the thirty-three years that he was at the head of the school over ten 
thousand students were under his instruction, and many of the most prominent 
members of the New York bar were his pupils. He was a member of the Century 
club and the Bar Association, a trustee of Hamilton college and the American 
Geographical Society, and had been first president of the University Club, besides 
being vice-president of the board of state charities and for many years president 
of the New York Prison Association for helping discharged convicts. He had been 
also a member of the committee of Seventy, and for some time chairman of its 
committee on legislation. He had delivered many literary addresses and was 
master of the Greek, Latin, German, and Italian languages. The Dante club, 
organized a few years ago, chose him as its first president. He was an active 
member of the Madison Square Presbyterian church and liberal in subscribing to 
its charities. 

A man of wonderful capacity for work and most methodical in his habits, he 
had been counsel and referee in a large number of important cases and was a valu- 
able contributor to legal literature, being the author of several legal works which 
are in constant use, especially in suits involving charitable uses and trusts. At one 



MINOR TOPICS 147 

time he was one of the state commissioners of appeals and had held other appoint- 
ments of great responsibility. He was a Christian gentleman of many gifts and 
graces, and commanded to an almost unlimited extent the confidence and affec- 
tion of all with whom he came in contact, and his pupils and clients became his 
loval and devoted friends. 



THE CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR CONVENTION, 1892 

New York awoke one midsummer morning to find her streets and avenues, her 
hotels and boarding-houses, her great audience halls and churches, filled with a 
host of bright, cheerful-looking young men and women wearing badges ! " What 
is all this — where did all these people come from — what are they doing here ? " 
asked a sporting man of his companion as they sauntered along Fifth avenue. " I 
cannot exactly explain," was the reply, " but it is a lot of Christians from every- 
where on the continent, and some from Europe, who are here to pray for us, I am 
told," and the two men looked at each other with curiously expressive faces. The 
first speaker, after thinking a moment, remarked : " Well, really, if that is true I 
am glad of it, and I wish they would come often — I wish they would stay alto- 
gether." 

These forty-five thousand delegates, more or less, came into New York so 
suddenly and with so little heralding that few of the citizens realized the fact of 
their presence until they pervaded the whole length and breadth of the metropolis. 
Thirty-eight states were represented by their delegates, and never before in the 
history of conventions did an invading army of enlightened people make them- 
selves more thoroughly welcome. They were gentle-mannered, moving about 
with the confident air of those who believe in something, who know they are en- 
gaged in good work, and intensely earnest in its prosecution. They hurried to the 
morning prayer-meetings with the early dawn, they attended religious services at 
nearly every hour of the day and evening, they marched in and out of the hotels 
singing sweet hymns, they astonished and held passengers spell-bound in the street- 
cars in Broadway with " Nearer, my God, to Thee." and " Blessed Assurance, Jesus 
is mine," and there was no pushing or crowding or complaint in any of the emer- 
gencies where positive discomfort was encountered. 

The meetings in the Garden embraced not less than fourteen thousand dele- 
gates at every regular session, and overflow meetings were held simultaneously in 
various churches, in the Carnegie Music Hall, in the Metropolitan Opera House, 
and at other convenient places. Large numbers stood on the sidewalks and streets 
at the entrances to the Garden through every service, hoping apparently to get in, 
and singing meanwhile. Notwithstanding the fatigue of Thursday, Friday, and 
Saturday, the meetings on Sunday exceeded all others in numbers and in en- 
thusiasm. 



148 MINOR TOPICS 

The streets were alive with the delegates from seven o'clock on, and their badges 
were to be seen in almost every evangelical church in the city at the morning 
services. A large number of pastors had prepared sermons specially appropriate 
to their presence, and the day will never be forgotten. Dr. Philip Schaff of the 
Union Theological Seminary presided over the second service of prayer at the 
Garden in the morning, and was very much impressed with the earnestness of his 
congregation. He said, " The convention is a sight which should move all thinking 
Christians to the depths of their souls. The birth and the growth of Christian 
Endeavor marks a new era in the history of the Christian Church." This remark 
was considered very significant, coming as it did from a Church historian, and the 
convention applauded Dr. Schaff with much fervor. 

An incident of the evening is worth recording in this connection. Some promi- 
nent New Yorkers who had been absent from the city and unable to attend any 
of the meetings decided to do so on their return, and selected Sunday evening. 
On arriving at the entrance to the Garden at seven and one-half o'clock they found 
it closed, fourteen thousand having been seated within its walls before seven. Two 
or three thousand of the " Endeavorers " stood outside singing. The party in 
search of a place of worship proceeded to the Madison Square Presbyterian church, 
and found it crowded to the top of the pulpit stairs, and a large number standing 
by the entrance doors. The Marble Collegiate church in Fifth avenue was also 
crowded to its fullest extent. The audience hall of the Young Men's Christian 
Association at Twenty-third street was filled ; and the party then proceeded to the 
Metropolitan Opera House, only to find that every seat there was occupied even to 
the remotest part of the auditorium and to the roof, while hundreds had gathered 
in the aisles. How many thousands were in the building it was difficult to esti- 
mate. When the entire meeting sang, the refrain was taken up by those outside, 
and passers-by listened and wondered. The policemen here as elsewhere who had 
been appointed to preserve order had nothing to do. At the Music Hall two or 
three thousand were present, and not even standing-room left for the baffled New 
York church-goers. Therefore they drove back into Madison avenue, in front of 
the Garden, and from their carriage witnessed the impressive scene when the con- 
vention finally closed, and the delegations emerged from the audience room, sing- 
ing with unwearied voices as they passed on toward their hotels, while the waiting 
thousands in the streets joined in singing the hymns of praise. 

The general committee has provided for a most unique, interesting, and im- 
portant feature of the Columbian Exposition, in a ten days' parliament of religions, 
at which, for the first time in history, the representatives of the leading historic 
faiths will meet in fraternal conference over the great things of human life and 
destiny. The parliament of religions is not to be a mass-meeting, but rather an 
orderly school of comparative theology, where those who worthily represent the 
great historic faiths will be invited to report what they believe and why they be- 
lieve it. The programme will be determined and carefully arranged by the general 



MINOR TOPICS 149 

committee, most of whom are evangelical Christians, assisted by an able committee 
of women and by the wisdom of the advisory council numbering already more 
than two hundred of the leaders of religious thought. It will be a great moment 
in human history when for the first time the representatives of the world's religions 
stand side by side. 

All right-minded people will regard with warmest sympathy an organization 
formed as this is of the young people of the Christian Church, banded together for 
the purpose of helping on the practical work of the Church. In so far as the local 
societies hold their meetings for worship and social converse, they do useful work 
among their own members, for these meetings are calculated to elevate and 
strengthen lofty purposes, and to bring together those who may be inspired and 
encouraged by association to improve their own characters and better their lives- 
It helps them to resist evil influences and to combat the difficulties that beset the 
young in modern society. So far as they are engaged in active efforts to benefit 
the condition of the community at large, they are pledged to a cause that is invalu- 
able and that is calculated to remove from the Church the reproach of devoting 
itself too exclusively to matters of faith, to the neglect of good works. Moreover, 
it is destined to bring closer together those who have a common ground in the 
underlying principles of Christianity. The growth of the Christian Endeavor 
movement has been so normal that few have realized its astounding rapidity or 
deep significance. It was founded eleven years ago, in Portland, Maine, and its 
membership now numbers one and one-half millions. Its object is to promote an 
earnest Christian life among its members. It is a purely non-sectarian movement, 
including all of the evangelical denominations. The fact has been recognized that 
there is a unit of principle and endeavor in all the churches, and that there is a 
larger incentive in a world community and much greater enthusiasm than individ- 
ual communities can produce in themselves without union. Its history is one of 
the most remarkable of any religious movement since the country was settled. 

The presence of this great international convention of young Christians in New 
York has produced most agreeable impressions. It has given new life to the 
assurance that the great body of the people of this country consists of honest, God- 
fearing citizens. With open purse and inquiring minds they have come from every 
part of the country to give this testimony. That they are able to do so is in brief 
assurance of the prosperity of the country. While here they have warmed the 
hearts of the hotel proprietor and boarding-house keeper, and have given life to 
the merchants' dull season. There has been a magnificent gathering, the greatest 
religious convention ever held in North America or in any part of the world. 



150 



NOTES 



NOTES 



Origin of the written ballot — 
Douglas Campbell, in his new work on 
The Puritan in Holland, shows how the 
written secret ballot was introduced into 
the colonies. The first trace of it has 
been found in the historic city of Emden, 
so familiar to all English Puritans. " Its 
earliest employment here appears to have 
been under an ordinance issued by the 
count of the province in 1595, which 
provided a very intricate method of 
choosing burgomasters and counselors." 
The whole body of burghers first selected 
forty men to act as a kind of electoral 
college, and these forty " chose five of 
their number by lot, who, by means of a 
written ballot, selected nine others, who 
in turn, and also by a written ballot, 
selected a double number of candidates, 
from whom the count chose the magis- 
trates for the coming year." This cum- 
brous system soon gave way to one much 
simpler. Mr. Campbell says, " There is 
no difficulty in tracing the origin of the 
system, which was first introduced into 
New England. In the Netherlands, as 
in America, the first use of the secret 
written ballot seems to have been in the 
Reformed churches, where the people 
elected their own ministers and officers. 
Its earliest appearance of which I can 
find any trace is in the Provincial Synod 
held at Alkmaar for North Holland in 
15 73. There the president and secre- 
tary for the ensuing year were elected 
by this process. Shortly afterwards we 
find the same system prevailing in South 
Holland, Friesland, Guelderland, and, in 
fact, over the whole republic, not only in 
ecclesiastical synods, but for the election 



of ministers, elders, and deacons in the 
Calvinistic churches. In America, the 
written ballot first appears in the election 
of a minister for the Salem church in 
1629. There were two candidates for 
the position of minister : one, Mr. Skel- 
ton, was a pronounced separatist before 
leaving England ; the other, Mr. Hig- 
ginson, had never got beyond noncon- 
formity. The congregation selected Mr. 
Skelton, using for his election the system 
prevailing in the Netherland churches, of 
which fact few of them could have been 
in ignorance. The next appearance of 
the written ballot was in the election of a 
governor for the colony of Massachusetts 
Bay in 1634. John Winthrop, after four 
years of service, had become unpopular, 
and had a rival for his office in the per- 
son of Thomas Dudley, who had been 
an officer in the Dutch army. Adopting 
here, as in the Salem church, the Neth- 
erland system, which by its secrecy did 
much to avoid the ill-feeling engendered 
by an open vote, Dudley was elected over 
his competitor by what was called at the 
time voting papers. The colony in the 
next year provided by statute that voting 
papers should thereafter be used in the 
election of chief magistrates." 



The instinct of patriotism — Presi- 
dent Harrison said, in his recent address 
to the assemblage of teachers in Sara- 
toga, that the instinct of patriotism, or 
moral courage, was triumphant over 
mere physical daring in all great emer- 
gencies. He said : " It is quite as appro- 
priate, I think, that the President of the 
United States should review the teachers 



QUERIES 



151 



of the land as that he should review its 
army or its militia. For, after all, the 
strength and defense of our institutions, 
not only in peace, but in war, are to be 
found in the young of the land, who 
have received from the lips of patriotic 
teachers the story of the sacrifice which 
our fathers made to establish our civil 
institutions, and which their sons have 
repeated on hundreds of battlefields. 
The organized army of the United 
States, if we include the militia of the 
states, is of insignificant proportion when 
put in contrast with the armies of the 
other great powers of the world. Our 
strength is not in these ; it is in that 
great reserve to be found in the in- 
structed young of our land, who come 
to its defense in time of peril. 

It is not simply to give that power 
that comes from education, but to give 
it safe direction, that schools are estab- 
lished. He is not a benefactor of his 
race who develops undirected or misdi- 
rected power. Therefore we must insist 
that in all our schools the morality of 
the Ten Commandments shall be in- 
stilled ; that lessons of due subordina- 
tion to authority shall be taught. The 



family and the school are the beginning 
of the fundamental element of good citi- 
zenship and obedience to law ; a re- 
spectful deference to public authority ; 
a self-sacrificing purpose to stand by 
established and orderly administration 
of the government. I rejoice in nothing 
more than in this movement, recently so 
prominently developed, of placing the 
starry banner above every schoolhouse. 
. . . God pity the American citizen 
who does not love the flag, who does not 
see in it the story of our great, free insti- 
tutions and the hope of the home as well 
as of the nation ! " 



The true spirit of patriotism- — 
Mrs. William Read, the woman manager 
of the Columbian exhibition for Mary- 
land, has established a system of classes 
in American history in the schools of her 
city — Baltimore, and offers as a prize a 
free trip to the fair for the best scholar 
in this branch of learning. Mrs. Read 
is the vice-president of the Maryland 
Colonial Dames, and her example might 
be followed with good results by the in- 
telligent and public-spirited women of 
other states. 



QUERIES 



" Grandly begin " — origin of the 
lines. Editor Magazine of American 
History : Governor Russell of Massa- 
chusetts closed his admirable address to 
the twenty-six hundred graduates of the 
grammar schools of the city of Boston, 
on the 2d of July, with the following 
felicitous remarks : " I love, in speaking 
to school children, to leave in parting 
with them, if I may, as a sort of bene- 



diction from the commonwealth, the 
words of an old couplet which have 
always been in my mind, which I have 
tried in a humble way to keep always 
before me — words which, I think, if re- 
membered and followed, tend to make 
every one's life nobler and better. They 
express the thought that it is not so 
much whether we are successful or not 
which is important, as whether we try to 



152 



REPLIES 



be successful and reach out toward a 
high ideal and a high standard. And 
so I leave them with you in these lines : 

' Grandly begin, though thou hast time 
But for a line ; make that sublime. 
Not failure, but low aim is crime.' " 

Who is the author of the lines quoted ? 
Horatio King 



Sproule family — Information is de- 
sired regarding the ancestry and descend- 
ants of the following, mentioned in 
Sabine's Loyalists of the A?>ierican 
Revolution : 

(i) Vol.11., p.325. — "Sproule, George. 
Of Long Island, New York. He settled 
in New Brunswick, and became Survey- 
or-General of that Province and a mem- 
ber of the Council. He died at Fred- 
ericton in 1817, aged seventy-six." 



(2) Vol. II., p. 580.— "Sproule, An- 
drew. New York. At the peace, he 
went from New York to Shelburne, Nova 
Scotia, where the Crown granted him 
one town lot. He was twenty-eight years 
of age, and unmarried." 

J. J. Elder 

Indianapolis, Indiana 



Stewart elder — Information is re- 
quested as to the name of the wife and 
descendants of Stewart Elder (son of 
John Elder, by his wife, Jane Stew- 
art), who emigrated to Pennsylvania 
about 1820 from Roughan, within eight 
miles of Londonderry, Ireland. He 
married a wealthy American. 

J. J. Elder 

Indianapolis, Indiana 



REPLIES 



Origin of the name cuba [xxviii, 
75] — This was the name originally ap- 
plied to the island by the natives long 
before its discovery by Columbus, and 
is one of the rare instances where a na- 
tive name has survived several foreign 
ones. Columbus named the island Juan, 



in honor of the son of Ferdinand and 
Isabella, Prince John. After Ferdi- 
nand's death it was called Fernandino : 
later it was designated Santiago and still 
later Ave Maria. 

C. S. Yost 
St. Louis, Missouri 



SOCIETIES 



153 



SOCIETIES 



THE MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCI- 
ETY met in St. Paul on June 13. The 
publication committee stated that the 
report of Mr. J. V. Brower, on his topo- 
graphical and hydrographic survey of the 
Itasca lake basin, was now ready, and 
that the commissioners of state print- 
ing had ordered its publication. It will 
be illustrated by maps and engravings. 
A committee was appointed to prepare a 
programme for the celebration of the 
four hundredth anniversary of the dis- 
covery of America, and to engage an 
orator for that occasion. A valuable 
manuscript of three hundred pages, on 
the history, religion and customs of 
the Dakota nation, written by the late 
Rev. Samuel W. Pond, a missionary, has 
been promised by his son, and will be 
published by the society. 



The new york genealogical and 
biographical society — At its meeting 
held on the evening of April 8, Pro- 
fessor Thomas Egleston of Columbia 
College delivered an address on " Major 
Egleston of the Revolutionary Army," 
to whom and to his father-in-law, Gen- 
eral John Paterson, a monument has 
recently been erected in their native 
town in New England. Professor Eg- 
leston's address was a warm tribute to 
the zeal and patriotism of one of those 
many unselfish men who, while attaining 
no great meed of fame, yet rendered 
services of inestimable benefit to the 
cause of liberty during the Revolution. 

At the meeting of May 27 Rev. 
Dr. Benjamin F. de Costa read an in- 
teresting and valuable paper. 



THE MARYLAND HISTORICAL SOCI- 
ETY held its last meeting for the season 
on June 13, Hon. Henry Stockbridge 
presiding. The reading of a letter from 
the Moravian congregation at Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, requesting the loan of the 
much -cherished banner which made 
between the years 1777 and 1779 by the 
Moravian women of that town became 
the property of Count Pulaski, as it was 
desired for exhibition at the sesqui-cen- 
tennial celebration in that town, pro- 
voked an animated discussion, in which 
the history of the banner was recited in 
detail. A letter, written by Rev. Ed- 
mond de Schweinitz, a former bishop of 
the congregation, proved that the banner 
was not presented to Pulaski, nor was 
there anything romantic about it, the 
general having bought and paid for it, 
to be borne by his cavalry legion. The 
Moravian women were noted for their 
embroidery work, which attracted the 
attention of the general. This explodes 
the theory that Longfellow's poem about 
the banner was founded on fact, the 
poet himself having acknowledged his 
use of poetic license. When Pulaski 
fell before Savannah in 1779, the ban- 
ner became the property of Colonel 
Beuterlen, who preserved it until 1824, 
when it was borne by the Forsythe com- 
pany of volunteers at the time of their 
inspection by Lafayette. After this, 
Mr. Edmond Peale, of the Baltimore 
museum, obtained possession of the 
banner, and in 1845 ^ was presented 
to the Maryland Historical Society by 
Mr. Brantz Mayer, who related its his- 
tory. 



HISTORIC AND SOCIAL JOTTINGS 

The Sons of the Revolution have done themselves honor and the country good ser- 
vices by celebrating an event in American history — a turning event in American history 
— hitherto ignored or overlooked by the projectors of centennial observances and the 
founders of monumental contrivances for aiding the memory. An important milestone 
in the world's progress was planted on the 9th of July, 1776, at White Plains, New York, 
which in the steady roll of one hundred and sixteen years has patiently bided its time to 
spring into full stature, holding a beacon light for all the future. 



Hereafter it will be known to our readers, and to the whole world, that New York was 
the first colony of the original thirteen to officially read and adopt the immortal state paper 
by which our patriot grandfathers were absolved from all allegiance to the British crown. 
A solitary horseman brought the news of the final action of the continental congress at 
Philadelphia ; and the New York congress, consisting of thirty-eight men of sound and 
discriminating judgment, elected upon the express issue of independency, and specially 
authorized to act upon it, whose president was General Nathaniel Woodhull, assembled 
in the old courthouse at White Plains, and in the language of the brilliant orator of the 
Sons of the Revolution, Judge Isaac Newton Mills, speaking on the 9th of July, 1892, 
from a platform on the site of that old courthouse, " that sun's morning beams and noon- 
tide lustre shone here on the legal, although perhaps not overdutiful, subjects of George 
III., while its evening radiance fell upon the homes of free men emancipated by that 
act. In the morning and at noon the lawful proclamation was, 'God save the king!' 
while at evening it was, and ever since has been, and evermore shall be, 'God save the 
people ! ' From the hour of the passage of that resolve to this the citizens of our state 
have owned allegiance to no earthly prince, power, or potentate, save to their own 
inherent sovereignty, expressed in the various forms of constituted popular government, 
national, state, and municipal." 



"The constitution of the continental congress was such that its action in declaring 
independence, needed confirmation by the provincial conventions or congresses. New 
York was of prime importance to the Revolutionary cause. Her geographical location, 
manifold resources, and the character of her people made her aid indispensable. Her 
majestic Hudson with connecting waterways formed the only easy and practicable 
means of access to and from the northern provinces. The noted highways crossing her 
territory from the passes in the highlands and from the city to her eastern boundary 
afforded the usual, and in time of war with a nation ruling the seas the only avenues of 
communication between the eastern and southern colonies. One of those highways, with 
unchanged course, still passes this very place (White Plains). New York was the key- 
stone of the continental arch. With her sustaining strength the arch might stand, with- 
out that it must fall. Without her the revolt would have been in history but a rebellion, 
with her it was bound to be and was a revolution. All patriot eyes the country over 
were turned hither on the 9th of July, 1776, as the deputies assembled in the old court- 



HISTORIC AND SOCIAL JOTTINGS 155 

house of Westchester county. In recent years it has become a political maxim in Presi- 
dential elections, 'As goes New York so goes the Union.' This maxim was then 
essentially true as to the great issue of independence. Here was indeed the birthplace 
of our state. By the resolution of this provincial congress New York was born anew 
from a vassal province into a sovereign state." 



When the Hon. Whitelaw Reid was introduced to the vast audience by the president 
of the Sons of the Revolution, Frederick S. Tallmadge, he emphasized the above facts : 

" As your orator has so worthily said, here the state of New York was born : may 
vou not, indeed, go somewhat further and say that if American independence was cradled 
in Independence Hall in Philadelphia, surely the infant was christened in this old court- 
house of White Plains ? 

Do we fully realize the circumstances that surrounded this christening ? Your orator 
has very justly said that on that occasion, and during that whole period, an eminent 
citizen of Westchester county led New York. The name of Jay has been deservedly 
honored in Westchester from then until now. Have we forgotten that when John Jay, by 
his splendid leadership and through the support of your grandfathers, committed the 
state of New York to the cause of American independence, the British troops occupied 
Staten Island, the British fleet was in the harbor, and his venerable father and mother 
were at Rye ? I mention that only as one instance of the manifold perils which were 
encountered by those great men to whom you pay this just, though tardy, tribute now." 



If we look backward to that memorable morning in midsummer, 1776, we shall find 
that those brave men at White Plains knew but too well that for the inhabitants of New 
York ultimate success could only be secured through years of sorrow, during which they 
were sure to be impoverished, while death stared from every part of their territory. 
The Morrises must abandon their fine estates to the ravages of the enemy ; Jay must 
prepare to see his aged parents driven from the old homestead at Rye to wander and 
perish ; Van Cortlandt, Van Rensselaer, Schuyler, and the Livingstons must sacrifice 
ancestral wealth and circumstance, with all their feudal train, for the democratic level 
of the new departure ; and the sterling men from Tryon county must face the scalping- 
knife. But they had counted the cost, and with one voice resolved to sustain the decla- 
ration "at the risk of their lives and fortunes." They directed it to be proclaimed with 
beat of drum at White Plains, and in every district elsewhere, and at the same time sent 
the solitary horseman back to Philadelphia with a message to their delegates in the con- 
tinental congress empowering them to vote for the people of New York. 



The scholarly training of the men who were conspicuous in the New York congress 
is apparent through their intolerance of injustice in any form. They displayed a breadth 
of vision which the rash and narrow-minded had not the ability to perceive. Every- 
body suspected everybody at this critical juncture, and the commercial classes had 
little faith in the success of what was termed the rebellion. There is in the public mind 
a very natural confusion concerning the committees and congresses of New York in the 
exciting months preceding this event. But the careful reader will note the sequence 
unbroken from the birth of the famous " Fifty-one" in 1774. Whenever the provincial 



156 HISTORIC AND SOCIAL JOTTINGS 

congress adjourned, for however short a time, a committee of safety was delegated from 
their own number to manage affairs in the interim ; thus a responsible body representing 
the people was at all times in session. No colony had acquired more dexterity in the 
performance of public business than New York, and one of the strongly marked features 
in the complicated machinery of the self-organized government — acting side by side with 
that of the king— with the British army in the harbor, was the special care taken by all 
men in office not to wield more power than had been distinctly delegated to them by the 
united voice of their constituents. The leaders were so cautious that the power should 
actually and visibly come from the people, that there was no instance of a member of 
any elective body in New York taking his seat without exhibiting a well-authenticated 
certificate that he was duly chosen. Thus confidence was established, and harmony 
secured between the elected and the electors. It is impossible to regard the wise and 
effective movements of New York at this critical juncture but with admiration. 



It is especially fitting that the children's children of the heroic statesmen and Revolu- 
tionary soldiers who contributed so materially to the establishment of an independent 
nation — that has enjoyed a development and prosperity unrivaled in human history — 
should take active steps for the building of some enduring monument to perpetuate the 
memory of the momentous event, never before celebrated, but thanks to the Sons of the 
Revolution, now for once marked by fitting ceremonies. The Declaration of Indepen- 
dence was read on the happy occasion by a great-grandson of Ebenezer Lockwood of 
the New York congress ; selections from the old journals of the congress were read from 
the antique volume by a great-grandson of Stephen Ward of the congress ; and a poem 
by the great-granddaughter of President Woodhull and also of Jonathan Lawrence of the 
congress, Miss Ruth Lawrence, daughter of Judge Abraham R. Lawrence of New York, 
was read with charming effect by President Tallmadge. The son of a Revolutionary 
soldier, the venerable Charles Butler, president of the trustees of the University of the 
City of New York, occupied a seat on the platform, and spoke for a few moments in 
response to an urgent invitation, remarking that he was only one remove from the period 
we all delight to celebrate, and that he felt the thrill of the spirit which these exercises 
aroused. 

The throng which crowded the beautiful grounds and graced the platform repre- 
sented a large number of the patriots who risked their lives for independence. The 
closing paragraph of the splendid oration of Judge Mills deserves to be immortalized by 
the prompt carrying out of its excellent suggestions. " Our state, with her immense 
wealth and material resources, in common gratitude to those patriot statesmen who here 
gave her her being, ought to own this ground, and by appropriate ceremonies to 
dedicate it as hallowed forever to freedom, and to remove from it this private residence, 
and upon it rebuild and restore, accurate in every outline and feature, the old court- 
house, that temple of continental liberty, and then to gather and store and preserve 
within its sacred walls the relics and mementos of those times, that any of our people 
may at will come here, and from the associations of this place, and from such speaking 
though silent memorials of the mighty and honored past, learn anew the story how here 
those patriot deputies of 1776 founded the state, approved the immortal declaration of 
manhoofl rights, and then to its defense mutually and solemnly pledged their fortunes and 
their lives. May their names ever be held by all our people in loving and reverent 
memory." 






BOOK NOTICES 



157 



BOOK NOTICES 



THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL RAIL- 
WAY, AND THE COLONIZATION OF 
NEW ENGLAND. LIFE AND WRIT- 
INGS OF JOHN ALFRED POOR. Ed- 
ited by Laura Elizabeth Poor. 8vo, pp. 
400. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
1892. 

The subject of this interesting volume was 
the first active promoter of the present railroad 
system of the state of Maine, and originated the 
European and North American railway. From 
1846 until his death he was an active member 
of the Maine Historical Society ; and with a 
strong desire to popularize historical knowledge 
he in 1867 inaugurated a course of lectures on 
the history of Maine. He was especially gifted 
with foresight, and wrote convincingly on the 
benefits to be conferred on the human race by 
opening railway facilities (long before the col- 
lective mind could see the way to do so) from 
Montreal to the Atlantic coast. This book em- 
braces many of his clear-cut, forcible papers, in 
which he seems to have early comprehended 
the full magnitude and importance of the then 
new method of transportation. He was born in 
1808, thus was twenty-six years of age when the 
first locomotive engine, with passenger cars 
attached, ran over a freshly laid railway between 
Boston and Newton, which was afterward ex- 
tended to Worcester and beyond. Mr. Poor 
was present to witness the introduction of this 
new wonder of the age. Later on, after he had 
established and become the editor of the State 
of Maine, he labored with his pen without ceas- 
ing to educate the public to a full comprehension 
of the importance of railway extension. Two 
of his able historical addresses appear in this 
volume — " The Father of Colonization in Amer- 
ica," and " The First Colonization of New Eng- 
land," both of which reveal careful study and 
investigation, and are treasures to preserve. 



THE NEW EMPIRE. Reflections upon its 
Origin and Constitution, and its Relation to 
the Great Republic. By O. A. Rowland. 
8vo, pp. 608. New York : The Baker & 
Taylor Co. Toronto: Hart & Co. 1891. 
This author has written a book that deserves 
the reading of every thoughtful American, live 
he north or south of the St. Lawrence. We 
use the term advisedly as applied to our Cana- 
dian cousins, for it behooves us all — most of us, 
that is — to remember that we are Englishmen 
who happen to have been born on this side the 
Atlantic ; and Mr. Howland himself recognizes 
a certain jealousy among Canadians regarding 
the exclusive application of the term to us 



" Yankees." In a note on page 129. however, 
he shows clearly how naturally the name came 
to be applied as it universally is at present. All 
Canadians, and our own contemptible sprinkling 
of Anglomaniacs, are more intensely British than 
the British themselves, the former properly and 
patriotically so ; the latter, for some cause inap- 
preciable to the ordinary intellect. For each 
and all this book is replete with food for reflec- 
tion. To the few on both sides the line whose 
policy it is to shout for annexation, it will 
bring small comfort. Nevertheless, if they are 
still capable of an unbiased judgment, it will 
afford salutary subject for thought. We cannot 
discover that it contains any claptrap what- 
ever. Its English is clear, its reasoning logi- 
ical, its history from the most trustworthy 
authorities. Beginning with the " Fall of the 
Old Empire," namely, the American war for 
independence, the author discusses the treaty 
of partition and the thousand complications that 
involved organization under new conditions. 
There are between the covers only five chapters, 
an appendix, and an introduction ; and as the 
letter-press is large and clear, a faithful perusal 
is not a lengthy task. The work ends with 
the Newfoundland question, having gone to 
press doubtless before the Bering Sea difficulty 
arose and was amicably settled, and concludes 
with a plea in favor of a declaration of unity 
among all the British North American colonies. 



THE PURITAN IN HOLLAND, ENG- 
LAND, AND AMERICA. An Introduc- 
tion to American History. By Douglas 
Campbell, A.M., LL.B. Two volumes 
8vo, pp. 509, 588. New York : Harper & 
Brothers. 1892. 

The idea that the Americans are purely an 
English race has been so generally assumed by 
writers that the forcible arguments of the author 
of this remarkable work will attract universal 
attention. He says : " Identity of language is a 
great bond of union, and so is community of lit- 
erature. But these, and especially the latter, 
may induce very erroneous conclusions when we 
come to deal with historical questions." Mr. 
Campbell points out that our whole political 
system is founded on a basis entirely different 
from that of the mother country. The theory 
of all our institutions is summed up in the words, 
"All men are created equal." This doctrine 
was unknown to English law. What is dis- 
tinctive in American institutions could not have 
been derived from England. But tracing the 
precept, example, and influence of Holland, ex- 
ercised both directly through the Dutch settlers 



i 5 8 



BOOK NOTICES 



in New York, and indirectly through the Puri- 
tans who colonized New England, Mr. Camp- 
bell undertakes to show how it has affected the 
entire field of American history. He says he 
intends this work " mainly as an introduction 
to American history, although it may serve in 
some measure as an introduction to modern 
English history, in which Puritanism has played 
a leading part." In other words, he brings the 
settlers here with all their ideas and principles 
which were worked into our present constitu- 
tional system, but does not attempt to follow 
them into their new homes except so far as to 
describe some of their leading institutions, and 
to show how the colonies were powerfully 
affected by the intermixture of blood, and why 
it is that English travelers incessantly express 
surprise that the English race in America should 
be so different from the same race at home. 

The author refers to the fact first pointed out 
by Governor Horatio Seymour, that nine men. 
prominent in the early history of New York and 
of the Union, represented the same number of 
nationalities. Schuyler was of Dutch, Herki- 
mer of German, Jay of French, Livingston of 
Scotch, Clinton of Irish, Morris of Welsh, and 
Hoffman of Swedish descent. Hamilton, who 
came from one of the West India islands, was 
the son of a Scotch father and a French mother, 
and Baron Steuben, who became a citizen of 
New York after the Revolutionary war, was a 
Prussian. Similar observations in other states, 
such as Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jer- 
sey, show that only a minority were of English 
origin. When Mr. Campbell turns from the 
question of race to that of institutions, he enters 
a field wherein there is no room for mere opin- 
ion or conjecture. The institutions of the two 
countries are before us and their differences are 
unmistakable. Instead of those of the United 
States being derived from England, Mr. Camp- 
bell does not hesitate to assert that while we 
have in the main English social customs and 
traits of character, we have scarcely one legal 
or political institution of importance which is 
of English origin, and but few which have come 
to us by the way of England. Nor need the 
author fear that any of his American readers 
will undervalue the influence of institutions upon 
that of character. It may be true, as it is Mr. 
Campbell's purpose to demonstrate, that we did 
not invent our institutions, but at all events we 
have assimilated them and they suit us. It will 
not be disputed that, no matter whence they were 
derived, they have been most important factors 
in the evolution of American society. Leaving 
the great institutions which lie at the base of 
the republic, Mr. Campbell completes the 
groundwork of his book by showing that in the 
treatment of her abnormal and criminal popula- 
tion America is not the pupil but the instructor 
of Great Britain. This is true of our asylums 



for the blind, deaf and dumb and imbecile, and 
of our prison reforms. As for the machinery of 
justice, we did certainly not derive from Eng- 
land the provision that every person accused of 
crime is to be allowed counsel for his defense. 
This right was asserted in the first constitutions 
of five American states and in the first amend- 
ments to the federal Constitution. It was not 
recognized in England until nearly half a cen- 
tury later, and then only after a bitter struggle. 
To this day nothing is known in England of the 
reverse principle, in pursuance of which in the 
United States the government is in criminal 
trials represented in every county by a special 
public prosecutor. In civil matters the greatest 
legal reform of modern times has been the sim- 
plification of procedure in the courts and the 
virtual amalgamation of law and equity. Here, 
again, America was an exemplar of Great Brit- 
ain through the adoption by New York in 1848 
of a code of practice which has been followed 
by most of the other states of the Union, and in 
its main features has of late been imitated by 
England. In the emancipation of women New 
York also led off in i8i4by its Married Women's 
act, through whose enlargements and extensions 
a married woman has been made as independ- 
ent as a man. For no such reform was Amer- 
ica to look to England for a precedent. The 
book is ably written, and the array of argu- 
ments brought to critical notice should be care- 
fully studied. It contains food for thought, and 
in its broad and sweeping scope is of the great- 
est value to the historical scholar. 



THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG, 1863. 

By Samuel Adams Drake. i6mo, pp. 178. 

Boston : Lee & Shepard. i8g2. 

To his several brochures on Decisive Ezients 
in American History Mr. Drake adds a concise 
account of the great battle of the civil war. 
From the voluminous material at hand he has 
prepared a full and clear description of the field 
and of the desperate fighting that ushered in the 
month of July, 1863. Several sketch-maps ex- 
plain the context, which leaves little or nothing 
to be desired for the average reader. The idea 
is a good one of preparing a series of small 
books on leading events in our history, any one 
of which can be taken from the shelf and con- 
sulted without further research, and with the 
certainty that the more important facts at least 
will be found recorded with conscientious fidel- 
ity. 



HISTORY OF THE NINETEENTH 
ARMY CORPS. By Richard B. Irwin. 
i2mo, pp. 538. New York : G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 1892. 
The department of the Gulf was so remote 



BOOK NOTICES 



159 



from the grander centres of military operations 
during the civil war, cut off indeed from direct 
communication with Washington during a great 
part of the time, that it has received compara- 
tively little attention from historians. The de- 
partment was created in February, 1862, when 
the combined naval and land forces under Far- 
ragut and Butler sailed for the reduction of New 
Orleans. A year later the Nineteenth Army 
Corps was organized and sent out under Major- 
General Nathaniel P. Banks, with orders to ex- 
tend operations up the Mississippi and through- 
out the Gulf states. After two years of arduous 
service in Louisiana and the neighboring states, 
the major part of the corps was transferred to 
the army of the Potomac, where it participated 
in the closing campaigns of the war. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Irwin's position as assistant ad- 
jutant-general of the department and of the 
corps gave him every opportunity for acquaint- 
ance with its history through personal and 
official association. The work of compiling the 
volume before us must have been exceptionally 
difficult, for during a great part of its existence 
the administration of corps was not all what it 
should have been. He has, however, done his 
work conscientiously, and as well as possible 
under the circumstances. The volume is uni- 
form in size and shape with the Loyal Legion 
publications, and contains excellent maps of the 
principal engagements. Owing to the pecul- 
iarly unhealthful conditions under which its 
Louisiana campaigns were prosecuted, the Nine- 
teenth corps suffered more severely from sick- 
ness than almost any other section of the army, 
an unusually large proportion of its members 
being constantly on the sick list from diseases 
incident to exposure in the malarial swamps of 
the far south. Besides this, the corps suffered 
heavily in battle, losing, all told, nearly twenty- 
five per cent, of the men engaged in several dif- 
ferent actions. Colonel Irwin judiciously con- 
fines his history to the active campaigns of his 
corps, leaving for the most part untouched the 
abuses that developed in connection with the 
military administration of civil affairs, and which 
went far to corrupt beforehand subsequent 
efforts in good faith at genuine "reconstruc- 
tion." 

THE PHILADELPHIA MAGAZINES 
AND THEIR CONTRIBUTORS, 1741- 
1850. By Albert H. Smyth, A. B. i2mo, 
pp. 264. Philadelphia : Robert M. Lindsay. 
1892. 

For a hundred years Pennsylvania was the 
home of the best libraries and the seat of the 
ripest culture in America. The author of this 
admirable work tells as that " the eagerness of 
Philadelphia social circles in the olden time for 
each new thing in literature enabled booksellers 



to import large supplies from England and to 
undertake splendid editions of notable books. 
James Logan, a man of gentle nature and a 
scholar of rare attainments, had gathered at 
Stenton a library that comprehended books 'so 
scarce that neither price nor prayers could pur- 
chase them.' John Davis, the satirical English 
traveler, who said of Princeton that it was ' a 
place more famous for its college than its learn- 
ing,' did justice despite his own nature to Logan 
and to Philadelphia when he wrote : ' The Greek 
and Roman authors, forgotten on their native 
banks of the Ilissus and Tiber, delight by the 
kindness of a Logan the votaries to learning on 
those of the Delaware.' " In these early times 
every new experiment in literature was tried in 
Philadelphia. And even later, " there is scarcely 
a notable name in the literature of America that 
is not in some way connected with the Philadel- 
phia magazines. Joseph Dennie and Charles 
Brockden Brown, the first professional men-of- 
letters on this continent, were Philadelphia edi- 
tors. Washington Irving edited the Analeclic 
Magazine. James Russell Lowell, Edgar Allan 
Poe, and Bayard Taylor were editorial writers on 
Grahatn's Magazine, and John Greenleaf Whit- 
tier edited the Pennsylvania Freeman. Bryant 
and Cooper and Longfellow and Hawthorne and 
a hundred lesser men were constant contributors 
to the Philadelphia journals." 

The author sketches the Gentleman s Maga- 
zine, founded in 1731, and the principal monthly 
periodicals from that time to 1S48. Godey's 
Lady's Book begun in July, 1830, was the chief 
financial success among the Philadelphia maga- 
zines in the early part of this century, and en- 
listed the services of the greatest number of the 
best writers. Longfellow, Holmes, Poe, Bay- 
ard Taylor, Mrs. Sigourney, Frances Osgood, 
and Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote for it. In 1837 
Mrs. Sarah J. Hale became its editor. Peter- 
son's Magazine was founded in 1841, and its cir- 
culation was at one time one hundred and sixty- 
five thousand. Professor Smyth's book is filled 
with delightful information about all these ; he 
is himself a Philadelphia editor, having been one 
of the founders and the editor of Shakesperiana, 
the first magazine devoted to the study of a 
single author. We cordially commend his work, 
which is not only the product of a master hand, 
but the very first complete contribution to the 
history of the literature of Philadelphia. 

THE LIFE OE GEORGE MASON, 1725- 
1792. By Kate Mason Rowland. In- 
cluding his Speeches, Public Papers, and 
Correspondence. With an introduction by 
General Fitzhugh Lee. 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 
445, 527- G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. 
1892. 
Among the eminent patriots whose genius 



i6o 



BOOK NOTICES 



created a model form of human government, 
George Mason, of Virginia, held high place. 
Madison pronounced him the ablest debater he 
had ever known, and Jefferson called him the 
wisest man of his generation. Two handsome 
volumes are now devoted to his life and writings, 
and very justly so, and the author, Miss Row- 
land, who is not unknown to the literary world, 
is to be congratulated upon the ability and good 
taste with which they have been prepared. The 
work has been so carefully written that we can 
but regret the loss of much valuable material 
which, in the changes and chances of a hundred 
years since George Mason's death, has failed to 
be handed down to us. That some of this ma- 
terial was scattered by the havoc of war we 
can easily understand, but much of it was also 
lost from the want of historic sense in whole 
communities of the American people before the 
civil war. This want was sometimes specially 
deplorable in its effects at the South, where tra- 
dition records, as Miss Rowland tells us, that 
the wife of Ludwell Lee, son of Richard Henry 
Lee, converted many of the letters of George 
Mason into covers for her preserve-jars, as sim- 
ilar treasures among the Bland papers are known 
to have served as lining for egg-baskets. In 
the days before the war, Virginia, like many 
other parts of the country, with all her legiti- 
mate state pride, was slow to build the tombs 
of her political prophets. 

George Mason, of Gunston Hall, was born in 
1725. He was a member of the Virginia as- 
sembly in 1759. He was a vestryman of Po- 
hick church, near Mount Vernon, and was in 
early association with George Washington. 
He drafted the " Non-Importation Resolutions" 
adopted by the members of the Virginia house 
of burgesses after the house had been dissolved 
by the governor, Lord Botetourt, in 1769. In 
1773 he wrote the defense of Virginia's claim 
to the public lands west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains on both sides of the Ohio river, and be- 
came ever afterwards the recognized expositor 
of Virginia's pretensions under this head. He 
drew up the " Fairfax county resolves " of 1774, 
pronounced by Jared Sparks '* one of the ablest 
and most luminous expositions of the points at 
issue between Great Britain and the colonies." 
In 177O he drafted the declaration of rights and 
the state constitution adopted by Virginia in 
expression of her new autonomy after the Dec- 
laration of Independence. Working loyally and 
zealously in support of American independence, 
he opposed the emission of paper money and 
denounced the knavery of legal-tender laws. He 
favored the honest payment of private debts due 



to British creditors after the treaty of peace, as 
being required equally by common honesty and 
by treaty stipulation. He was selected as a del- 
egate to attend the Annapolis convention called 
to consult for a revision of the Articles of Con- 
federation, but did not attend because of illness. 
He was a member of the federal convention 
of 1787 and of the Virginia convention which 
sat on the adoption of the Constitution in 
1778. 

The introduction to the volumes is written by 
General Fitzhugh Lee, in which he says: " The 
sword of Washington carved success upon the 
standards of the new Republic. The pen of 
Jefferson declared in immortal phrase our inde- 
pendence of Great Britain. The young eagle 
was pluming for his flight among the nations 
of the globe. But how should he so adjust his 
wings as to carry with nice balance upon his 
pinions the mission of establishing a govern- 
ment of the people to replace the power of the 
tyrant ? Among the eminent patriots of those 
days whose minds grasped this great problem 
the subject of this book stands out in bold relief. 
A most remarkable man was George Mason ! 
His conception of the authority of the citizens 
to control the government, and that the govern- 
ment existed only by their will and consent, was 
thorough and complete. His warning as to the 
exercise of undelegated powers by either Con- 
gress or the President was truly prophetic. He 
desired to erect a republic — whose strength at 
the centre was only great enough to carry out 
the object for which it was created ; while the 
creator — the states themselves — should be left 
undisturbed in the exercise of all power not 
specified as having been relinquished. He had 
a full appreciation that the safety of the states 
was indeed the safety of the Union. He was 
the champion of the states and of the people." 

Of the breadth of Mr. Mason's intellect and 
the depth of his wisdom there can be no ques- 
tion. It is eminently proper that his literary 
remains should be collected and put in such 
shape that they may serve as his most fitting 
and expressive monument, so also that we who 
have come after him may have a record to 
which we may turn in all cases of doubt or hesi- 
tancy as to the views and intents of those who 
assisted so preeminently in the foundation and 
superstructure of our constitutional edifice. The 
best key to Mr. Mason's opinions on the Consti- 
tution are his own words, which cannot be con- 
densed with satisfactory effects. We recommend 
our readers to make a study of the volumes, 
which should, indeed, form a part of every 
library in the land. 



i 




-Eoigru-ved "by "W.T.Txy. 
SIR ISAAC NEWTON. 

[From the original of /inciter, in the collection of the Earl of Egremont 



: 






MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



Vol. XXVIII SEPTEMBER. 1S92 No. 



o 



PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION. 1807-189? 

THEN AND NOW 

THE unimaginative mind cannot keep pace with the results of the 
power of invention. We cross the oceans in floating palaces, heed- 
less of the luxury which we had no agency in creating, and hardly pausing 
to think of the short period of time since white sails, guided by the uncer- 
tain wind, were, apart from rude oars, the only propelling force for ships 
and boats, both large and small. It seems incredible that but eighty-five 
years have elapsed since the first successful application of the forces of 
the steam-engine to move a boat any considerable distance over the water 
was witnessed on the Hudson river between New York and Albany. 

The Clermont did not spring into its full stature from the brain of 
Robert Fulton, but his practical devices and heroic efforts planted the 
first important step in a marvelous progression. There was contagion in 
his experiments, magnetic power in his example. All preceding efforts 
had been in a certain sense sporadic although preparatory; but Fulton 
contrived a combination of means that finally started the world ir.to 
building steamboats for actual service. 

The first steam-ship that crossed the Atlantic ocean, the Savannah, was 
built at Corlear's Hook, in New York city — a full-rigged sailing-packet to 
be used between New York and Savannah. She was purchased by Mr. 
Scarborough of Savannah, and fitted with steam machinery, the paddle- 
wheels being constructed to fold up and be laid on deck when not in use, 
her shaft also having a joint for that purpose. Thus it will be observed that 
in this primitive enterprise steam was only an auxiliary force. The Sav- 
annah was placed in charge of Captain Moses Rogers, who had previously 
commanded the Clermont, also the Phoenix built by Colonel John Stevens, 
which, in 1808, was taken from New York, via the ocean, to Philadelphia, 
by Robert L. Stevens the son of John, who was the first inventor to trust 
himself on the open sea in a vessel that relied entirely upon steam power; 
and she sailed from Savannah for Liverpool May 2(f , 18 19, arriving at her 
destination June 20, 1819. From Liverpool the Savannah sailed July 23, 

Vol. XXVIII.- No. 3.-11 



1 62 PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 

for the Baltic, touching at Copenhagen, Stockholm, St. Petersburgh, and 
other ports. An effort was made to sell her to Russia, but failed. At St. 
Petersburgh Lord Lyndock, who had been a passenger, was landed, and 
on taking leave of the captain of the vessel presented him with a silver 
tea-kettle inscribed with a legend referring to the importance of the event. 
The Savannah returned safely to the United States, notwithstanding her 
meeting with severe gales on the Atlantic, and her steam machinery was 
subsequently removed and sold to the Allaire Works of New York. She 
was then employed as a sailing vessel on the line between New York and 
Savannah, as originally intended, and was finally wrecked on the south 
coast of Long Island in 1822. 

Not until 1838, however, was the possibility of steam communication 
between England and America demonstrated beyond a doubt. Thus the 
wonders that have been achieved in ocean navigation are chiefly com- 
pressed within one half century. The truthful account of them reads like 
a stupendous fable. John Fitch, the eccentric but ingenious Connecticut 
mechanic, who tried so many devices to propel boats by steam prior to 
1S00, predicted with an assurance that provoked wholesale derision that 
the ocean would eventually be crossed by steam-vessels, and that fame and 
riches would come to many men from his inventions. Fitch made his last 
experiment with a little screw steamboat, in 1796, on the Fresh Water pond 
in New York city — which occupied the site of the present gloomy Tombs 
in Centre street — and the model of this boat is now in the museum of the 
New York Historical Society. (See page 173.) John Fitch died in 1798. 

Robert Fulton's history is a chapter of intense interest. Every school- 
boy has learned it by heart. His failures, one after another, were nearly as 
useful to the world as his final success. When the Clermont sailed for 
Albany one bright midsummer day in 1807, very few believed it would 
ever reach its destination. Those who stood upon its deck as invited 
guests were prepared for any emergency. All New York saw this new- 
fangled craft depart on its voyage with acute expectation of disaster. As 
it was passing the Palisades, the noise of its machinery and paddle-wheels 
so startled a farmer at his plow that he ran home to tell his wife he had 
seen " the devil on his way up the river in a saw-mill ! " A; night came on, 
many persons described the strange sight as " a monster moving on the 
waters, defying wind and tide, and breathing flames and smoke." Pine 
wood was used for fuel, hence the blaze frequently shot into the skies. 
above the tall smoke-stack, and whenever the fire was replenished mingled 
smoke and fiery sparks would rise a great distance into the air. It was a 
terrific spectacle for the crews of little sailing-vessels, and many a stout 




THE " CLERMONT " OF ROI1EKT FULTON PASSING THE I'ALISADES, 1807. 

[/''rot/i Mis. Lamb's " History oj the City of Nc-.u Yo> £."] 



164 PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 

sailor fell on his knees in humble prayer for protection as the strange 
thing rapidly approached, while others jumped into the water and swam 
ashore. 

Fulton's most important work in this exploit, aside from giving to the 
world the fruits of the inventive genius of all who had preceded him, was 
the experimental determination of the magnitude and the laws of ship- 
resistance, and the systematic proportioning of vessel and machinery to the 
work to be done by them. He was also, later on, the first to design and 
build a war-steamer, authorized by congress in March, 18 14, which for 
the time was a most remarkable production, and by far the largest steam- 
vessel built before 1838. The Fulton the First was a fitting monument to 
the genius of the man who unfortunately did not live to see her comple- 
tion and successful trials. On the fourth of July, 1815, she first moved 
upon the waters, steaming outside of Sandy Hook and back, some fifty- 
three miles, in eight hours and twenty minutes. She was never commis- 
sioned, the war having ended, and was used as a receiving ship at New 
York until 1829, when she accidentally blew up. 

" The general slowness with which men in the early part of the century 
received the idea of the mighty changes impending may be recognized 
when we look over the few publications connected with navigation then 
published," writes Commander F. E. Chadwick in Ocean Steamships* 
"Mind seemed to move more slowly in those days; communication was 
tedious and difficult. Edinburgh was as far from London, in length of time 
taken for the journey, as is now London from New Orleans ; few papers 
were published ; there were no scientific journals of value ; no great asso- 
ciations of men given to meeting and discussing scientific questions, 
excepting the few ponderous societies which dealt more in abstract ques- 
tions than in the daily advances of the mechanical world. It was thus 
that the steam vessel came slowly to the front, and that it took more than 
a third of the whole time which has elapsed since Fulton's successful effort 
to convince men that it might be possible to carry on traffic by steam 
across the Atlantic. Dr. Lardner is almost chiefly remembered by his 
famous unwillingness to grant the possibilities of steaming directly from 
New York to Liverpool, and by this remark: 'As to the project which 
was announced in the newspapers, of making the voyage directly from 
New York to Liverpool, it is perfectly chimerical, and they might as well 
talk of making a voyage from New York or Liverpool to the moon.' He 
strongly urged dividing the transit by using Ireland as one of the inter- 

* Ocean Steamships : A popular account of their construction, development, management, 
and appliances. With ninety-six illustrations. Charles Scribner's Sons. 8vo, pp. 298. 



PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 165 

mediate stops, and going thence to Newfoundland. He curiously limited 
the size of ships which might be used, and their fuel-carrying powers. 
Though a philosopher, he did not seem to grasp that if a steamship had 
grown to what it was in 1835 from the small beginnings of 1807, it might 
even grow more." 

Such was the general state of mind when the Great Western Steam- 
ship Company was formed in 1836. Up to that date America was greatly 
ahead of England in the number and development of steam vessels. In 
the year 1830 there were eighty-six steamboats on the Hudson river and 
Long Island Sound, and they were in use on the Great Lakes, the Missis- 
sippi river and other inland waters. Charleston and Savannah had regu- 
lar steam communication with our northern ports. But the passage of 
the ocean, despite the incredulity existing, was most earnestly desired, 
and thus many eyes were turned to the construction of the Great Western 
at Bristol, of one thousand three hundred and forty tons, a steamship of 
unprecedented size — as was believed needful for power and coal-carrying 
capacity. At the same time the Sirms, of seven hundred tons, which had 
been employed between London and Cork, was purchased by a rival en- 
terprise, and prepared for a voyage to America. The two vessels steamed 
into New York bay on the same day, April 23, 1838, the Sirius in the morn- 
ing, and the Great Western in the afternoon, having made the voyage in 
one-half the time usually occupied by sailing packets. The event was 
one of inexpressible significance, and these steamships were greeted with 
the booming of cannon from all the forts and men-of-war in the harbor, 
the merchantmen dipping their flags, and the assembled throngs on the 
Battery and in small boats on the water shouting and cheering with the 
greatest possible enthusiasm. Trans-oceanic steam service was by these 
voyages securely inaugurated, and has ever since been constantly develop- 
ing in extent and importance. 

The Great Western started on her return passage May 7, with sixty- 
six passengers ; and within the succeeding five years made seventy-four 
voyages across the Atlantic. The Sirius was considered too small for the 
long and boisterous route, and was withdrawn. She had consumed her 
whole supply of fuel before passing Sandy Hook, and sacrificed all her 
spare spars and forty-three barrels of rosin in order to enter the upper bay 
under steam. The art and science of ship-building was henceforward 
studied with keen, freshly sharpened vigor on both sides of the Atlantic. 
What a saving of valuable time if the mails could only be transported by 
steam ! The Great Western s average time in crossing the Atlantic was 
fifteen days, her fastest trip twelve days and eighteen hours. Perhaps - 



1 66 PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 

this speed could be increased? The steam-engine itself might be im- 
proved ? Someone must invent a better form of screw. Why cannot 
more steel be used in the machinery to lighten some of its parts? We 
must have higher pressures and greater expansions. Human ingenuity 
and genius and activity were inspired to heroic efforts. Achievements 
presently overlapped one another. The progress that seemed slow from 
month to month was swift and certain, as it now appears. Without paus- 
ing among the statistics to note the various degrees on the wonderful 
records, it is interesting to bridge the half century and compare the Great 
Western with the Majestic, and her triumph in crossing the Atlantic 
in five days, eighteen hours, and eight minutes, reaching New York August 
5, 1891 — an event that thrilled every nation. Yet the Majestic only held 
the coveted place at the head of her class for two weeks. The Teutonic 
then steamed into New York harbor, having made the voyage in five 
days, sixteen hours, and thirty minutes. Recently the City of Paris 
made the voyage in five days, fifteen hours, and fifty-eight minutes. 

In the approaching Columbian exposition there can be exhibited no 
more impressive feature of the world's advance than the history of the 
development and progress o. steam navigation. It is to be hoped that 
the various steps will be made completely visible and tangible. In de- 
scribing the beautiful array of models at the international exhibition at 
Liverpool in 1886, Commander Chadwick says: "They represented 
almost every stage of progress in British steamship building, from the 
Comet onward, and one could not help regretting that an effort had not 
been made by our government to bring together models illustrative of 
our earlier practice. Models of the Clermont ; of the Stevens experi- 
mental screw boat; a later Mississippi steamer; the Savannali ; the Wash- 
ington, pioneer of regular transatlantic steam traffic under our flag ; the 
Adriatic ; the Hudson river and great sound steamers of to-day, would, 
apart from any war-ship models, have made a most interesting and attrac- 
tive collection. The steamboat had in its earlier days a much greater 
extension in America than elsewhere. Our great rivers were an espe- 
cially attractive field for its use. The Mississippi had but lately come 
under our control, and the beginning of the great tide of western emigra- 
tion and exploration was almost coincident with the steamboat's advent, 
so that through these favoring conditions it had a much more rapid 
growth among us than elsewhere. Yet the only American things visible 
were the drawings of a New York ferry-boat (the type of which, by the 
way, we owe to Fulton) so placed as to be scarcely discoverable. These 
boats are so typical, so different from anything found in Europe, and so 



PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 



167 




THE GREAT WESTERN. 



)LD PAINTING. 



interesting to any student of steam ferriage as to thorough adaptation of 
means to an end, that a complete model of the boat and its ferry-slip 
would have been a most satisfactory addition. 

The display, however, of British models was as complete as it could 
well be made. Private owners and builders, the admiralty, and Lloyd's 
registry, united to make the collection a very complete and perfect one. 
The exhibition, of course, did not confine itself to the steam era alone. It 
even had a model of an Egyptian vessel, which was exhibited by the Liv- 
erpool Library Society, as taken from Thebes, and estimated to date about 
1500 B.C., and which Moses himself might have seen. It was a long 
stretch, however, to the next in date, as no others antedated 1700 A.D. 
There were many of the handsome and dignified eighteenth century men- 
of-war, built at a time when men began to preserve a record of their work 
in the miniature ships which are now esteemed an essential addition to 
almost every vessel of importance put afloat. Firms exist at present whose 
only business it is to make the various minute fittings — the posts, chains, 
anchors, blocks, etc., of the Liliputian craft, so that every detail of the 
original is given with an exact verisimilitude very often in most beautiful 



1 68 PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 

and elaborate work. The only exhibits of modern war-ships at Liverpool 
were those of England and Italy, unless we except the numerous vessels 
built for foreign powers by English builders. The remainder of the dis- 
play was chiefly connected with the strife for commerce, and in this it is 
likely to remain as complete and comprehensive as can be made in some 
time to come." 

The application of steam to the propulsion of vessels has been most 
inconceivably fruitful, and the hint afforded by the omission of the United 
States to contribute to its own annals in the exhibition at Liverpool should 
awaken every American citizen to a sense of duty in 1893. Dear reader, 
we are told on good authority that there are five hundred million dollars 
invested in ocean-going steamships sailing from the port of New York 
alone ! We see here the realization of the industry, energy, hopes, disap- 
pointments, and prophecies of a long line of persistent, far-seeing invent- 
ors, who had the misfortune to live too soon — certainly in advance of their 
contemporaries. Each profited to some extent by the experience of pre- 
decessors. Many important as well as crude ideas came out of the past, 
and going backward out of a still more remote past. It is such history 
that should be traced in the most critical and thorough manner at this 
particular juncture, when the whole world is stimulated to thought and 
research as never before. Spain is already in the field with her reproduc- 
tion of the Santa Maria, and she may possibly send to Chicago the model 
of the vessel of two hundred tons, made in 1543 by Blasco de Garay, a 
Spanish naval officer, in the harbor of Barcelona — a boat said to have 
been moved by paddle-wheels, with a "vessel of boiling water" in the 
apparatus. A description of paddle-wheels applied to vessels, illustrated by 
a quaint wood-cut, may be found in the old French work of Fammelli, 1588. 
It is stated that the Roman army under Claudius Caudex was taken across 
to Sicily in boats propelled by paddle-wheels turned by oxen. A scien- 
tific tract was published at Orleans in 1569, probably written by Benson," 
in which is described very intelligently the process of generation of steam 
through the communication of heat to water, and its peculiar properties. 
There is, as we all know, very little to record in these early centuries. 
But that little is worth knowing and preserving. 

In 1690, Dyonysius Papin, physician to the elector of Cassel, also a 
mathematician of celebrity who had learned much from the illustrious Sir 
Isaac Newton, having constructed a piston-engine, tried to use it in driving 
paddle-wheels to propel vessels; and in 1707 he applied the steam-engine, 
which he had purposed as a pumping-engine, to driving a model boat on 
the Fulda at Cassel. An account of his experiments is preserved in manu- 



PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 



169 



script in the royal library at Hanover. His pumping-engine forced up 
water to turn a water-wheel, which in turn was made to drive the paddles. 
He failed, however, to obtain permission of the electoral councillors to 
dispatch his " vessel of singular construction down the river Weser to 
Bremen ; " and a mob of boatmen, afflicted with that jealousy which is 
cross-eyed and forever seeing round the corner what never existed, attacked 
the strange craft at night and utterly destroyed it, Papin narrowly escap- 
ing with his life. In 
1736, Jonathan Hulls 
constructed a steam- 
engine for ship pro- 
pulsion, expecting to 
employ his craft as a 
tow-boat, and ob- 
tained for it an Eng- 
lish patent. He wrote 
a pamphlet, in which 
he gave a very clear 
and distinct idea .of 
the subject. It is said 
he built a fine model 
which he tried with 
such poor success 
that his neighbors 
laughed at him, and 
his efforts came to an 
end. 

The first attempt 
in the United States 
to construct a steam- 
boat was made in 1763 
by William Henry, a 
bright, ingenious, well- 
balanced investigator, 
who was of the same family as Patrick Henry. He had been to England 
on business and heard the great invention of James Watt discussed on 
every side. On his return he built a steam-engine and placed it in a boat 
fitted with paddle-wheels, and tried it on the Contesga river near his home 
in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, but through some mismanagement it was 
wrecked. He tried a second model with improvements without avail. He. 




THE GANG PLANK (1892) JUST BEFORE SAILING. 

[From " Ocean Steamships."} 



I/O PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1S07-1892 

declared that such a boat would come into use on the waters of the Ohio 
and Mississippi ; he had not the least doubt of it, but the time had not 
yet arrived for its appreciation and support. Benjamin West was a friend 
and protege of Henry, and was influenced by the latter to undertake his- 
torical pictures. Robert Fulton when twelve years old visited Henry to 
study the paintings of West, and was captivated by the model steamboats 
which Henry had made. John Fitch was an acquaintance and frequent 
visitor of Henry, and while at Henry's house his attention was first called 
to the possibilities of using steam to propel vessels. Thomas Paine, 
author of Common Sense, at one time lived with Henry, and afterward, in 
1788, proposed that congress take up the subject of steam navigation for 
the benefit of the country. Nothing came of all these efforts in that period, 
yet the facts should be known and brought into the foreground if the 
great potent factor of human progress is to be intelligently understood in 
all its bearings. What we see to-day is the logical result of a slow but 
sure evolution — the outgrowth of lessons learned in preceding times, not 
least among which were those in the science of calculation, otherwise 
mathematics, covering a vast field of experimental development. 

The first experimental steamboat-engine built in America is said to have 
been made in 1773 by Christopher Colles, a lecturer before the American 
Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, the engineer who subsequently was 
the first to suggest canals between the Hudson river and the Great Lakes. 
James Rumsey, of Maryland birth, should be remembered for his untiring 
attempts to construct and navigate boats by the force of steam. As early 
as 1784 he visited Washington at Mount Vernon, and exhibited to the 
great general his model of a boat, which was afterwards patented in 
several states. In 1787 he launched a little steamboat on the Potomac 
and made a successful trial trip, witnessed by a large concourse of people ; 
and he was granted the rights of navigating the streams of Maryland, 
Virginia, and some other states. The Rumsey Society, of which Franklin 
was a member, was founded in Philadelphia in 1788 to further his schemes. 
He then went to England and obtained patents for his invention in 
several European countries, and a boat and machinery were built for him, 
and a successful trial trip made on the Thames in 1792 ; but he died while 
preparing for another experiment. He was involved in a bitter con- 
troversy with John Fitch as to the priority of their inventions, whose first 
model for a steamboat was completed in 1785. Fitch's second boat was 
tried on the Delaware at Philadelphia in 1787, in the presence of the 
framers of the Constitution who were in session in that city — and it was 
in a measure satisfactory, although in general respects a failure. Nathan 



PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-189; 



171 




THE NIGHT SIGNAL OF A DISABLED STEAMER, 1892. 

[From " Ocean Steamships."} 

Read f Massachusetts, a graduate of Harvard in 178!, was the inventor 
o the vert.cal mult.tubular fire-box boiler, now in general use, which gave 
h m great d.stmct.on. In I7 88 he designed a steamboat fitted with pad- 

h m!i!fl S Tf^ ^^ t0 ^ tUrned With the hand ' and ^ trial »tisfied 
h.mself that the system would work. In 1789 he applied to congress, then 

convened m New York, for a patent-was the first petitioner for a patent 

before the patent law was enacted-and it was granted him in 1701 • 

James Rumsey, John Fitch, and John Stevens all receiving patents at the 

same date for various methods of applying steam to the propulsion of 

vessels. Samuel Moray of New Hampshire began experimenting with a. 



172 PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 

steamboat in 1790, built by himself and fitted with paddle-wheels driven 
by a steam-engine of his own design. He made a trial trip on the Con- 
necticut river one Sunday morning, from Oxford to Fairlee, Vermont, a 
distance of several miles, and returned safely. He spent his summers in 
New York until 1793, studying to improve his boat and engine; the boat 
was a " stern wheeler," and was thought to be capable of steaming five 
miles an hour. Elijah Ormsbee of Rhode Island caught the spirit, and in 
1792 built a small steamboat, with an "atmospheric engine" and "duck's 
foot " paddles, and made a successful trial trip on the Seekonk river. 
Nicholas Roosevelt of New York, who had become interested in the Schuy- 
ler copper mines, and had constructed an atmospheric engine from the 
model of Hornblower's, joined with John Stevens and Chancellor Livings- 
ton in building a little steamboat, which was tried on the Passaic river in 
1798, having on board a party of invited guests, among whom was the 
Spanish minister; but the enterprise failed. In 1809, Roosevelt became 
associated with Fulton in the introduction of steamboats on the western 
waters; and in 181 1 Roosevelt built and navigated the New Orleans, the 
pioneer steamboat that descended the Ohio and Mississippi rivers from 
Pittsburgh to New Orleans. He took his family with him and accom- 
plished the trip in fourteen days. John Stevens of New York urged more 
weighty and advanced opinions and statesman-like views on the economi- 
cal importance of steam navigation than any man of his time. He was 
the grandson, through his mother, of the great lawyer and mathematician, 
James Alexander, and his sister was the wife of Chancellor Livingston ; 
he was a graduate of King's (now Columbia) college in 1768, and at the 
beginning of this century was fifty-one years of age. His petition 
to congress in 1790 for the protection of inventors, was the founda- 
tion of the American patent law. His life was devoted to experiments 
at his own cost for the common good. He built the Phcenix which 
was completed and launched only a few weeks after Fulton's triumph 
had been assured ; it was sent to Philadelphia, as before mentioned, 
by open sea, to be used on the Delaware. His son, Robert Livingston 
Stevens, then but twenty years of age, had already commenced his 
remarkable career of invention. He assisted his father in bringing out a 
fleet of steamers on the Delaware, and upon the collapse of the Fulton 
monopoly they together built some of the finest steamboats on the Hudson. 
The speed when Fulton died had only reached seven miles an hour ; 
Robert L. Stevens built the Plnladelphia, in 181 3, introducing several new 
devices, which sailed eight miles an hour. With every steamboat he 
constructed thereafter the speed was increased, until, in 1827, the North 



PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 



173 




STEAMBOAT OF JOHN FITCH, 1796. 



America attained fifteen miles. From 1815 until 1840 he stood at the head 
of his profession in this country as a builder of steam-vessels and their 
machinery, making constant and invaluable improvements. He originated 
the present form of ferry-boats and ferry-slips, and was the first to bring a 
steam-ferry into actual operation. He made the first marine tubular boiler 
in 1831 ; he adopted a new method of bracing and fastening steam- 
boats, and was the first on record to use the new, unmanageable anthracite 
coal for steam fuel. He 
became, in short, one of 
the greatest of naval ar- 
chitects, and was con- 
stantly lavishing time and 
money upon changes to 
enhance the usefulness of 
steam navigation; and 
the variety, extent, and 
importance of his work, 
it is hoped, will yet be 
recognized in some sub- 
stantial form. 

The inventive instinct of America appears to have been abreast with 
that of any other country ; and it has the honor, through the trial of the 
Clermont in 1807, of bridging the chasm between mere attempts and posi- 
tive achievements in steam navigation. Robert Fulton's fame was justly 
earned, and is secure in the world's memory. But the time has come 
when his industrious and less fortunate cotemporaries in invention should 
not be left in unmerited obscurity. A vast amount of experimental work 
had to be accomplished, and it is no reflection on a man's genius to have 
groped in the dark when there was no light within his reach. Immature 
schemes were necessarily failures; but the causes of such failures were 
carefully noted, and their fruits became marvels of inspiration. No inven- 
tion was ever born full-grown or disjoined from antecedents leading to it ; 
thus it is exceptionally interesting to trace the extraordinary efforts and 
bitter disappointments in widely separated countries which stand in 
orderly relations one to another, apparently without connection, as essen- 
tial parts of an intelligent design. 

The screw, which was first suggested by Dr. Hooke in 168 1, and was 
the subject of a prize essay by Dr. Bernouilli in 1752, before the French 
Academy of Sciences, and actually tried in the United States during the 
Revolution, by David Bushnell, while conducting submarine experiments 



174 PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 

with torpedoes, was finally brought into general use by John Ericsson, who 
in 1836 invented and patented the screw-propeller, which revolutionized 
navigation. In 1837 he built a steam vessel having twin screw-propellers, 
which on trial towed the American packet-ship Toronto at the rate of five 
miles an hour on the river Thames. In 1838 he constructed the iron 
screw-steamer Robert F. Stockton, which crossed the Atlantic under canvas 
in 1839, and was afterward employed as a tug-boat on the Delaware river 
for a quarter of a century. Ericsson had tried to interest the British admi- 
ralty in his improvements, but only succeeded so far as to persuade the 
noble lords to make the excursion with him on the Thames. The barriers 
of tradition and prejudice had not yet been overcome, and the naval 
authorities rejected the, to them, new idea, although it was presently taken 
up by private parties. But the greater boldness and intelligence of some 
of the representatives of the United States, then in England, gave Erics- 
son substantial encouragement. Francis B. Ogden of New Jersey placed 
capital at the inventor's command, who built a little screw-boat called the 
Francis B. Ogdcn, and Commodore Stockton of our navy made an excur- 
sion on it with Ericsson, and then gave an order for the building of the 
Robert F. Stockton, above mentioned. On his arrival in America Ericsson 
was almost immediately given an opportunity to build the large screw- 
steamer Princeton, a war vessel, and presently the English, French, Ger- 
man, and other European governments had screw-steamers constructed 
from Ericsson's plans, or from those of his agent in England, Count de 
Rosen, as the screw was found to possess many advantages over the pad- 
dle-wheel as an instrument for ship-propulsion, and the cost of machinery 
was much lessened by its use. 

The first steamer on our Great Lakes was the Ontario, built in 18 16, at 
Sackett's Harbor — -three years before the Savannah crossed the Atlantic. 
At the time of the establishment of the Cunard line of ocean steamers in 
1840, one of the most notable events of the decade immediately following 
the success of the Great Western, there were many fine steamers on our 
lakes, and they multiplied with rapidity. The first four vessels of the 
Cunard line had modern paddle-wheels, and the Britannia was the fore- 
most to sail. The Cunard company had agreed to cany the mails fort- 
nightly between Liverpool, Halifax, and Boston, and the contract was to 
continue seven years. These ships accommodated only first-cabin passen- 
gers, emigrants having no place in any steamer prior to 1850. But no lux- 
uries were provided ; a narrow berth to sleep in and ordinary food was 
esteemed sufficient. The building of the Great Britain, in 1845, was a 
notable advance in steamship construction, iron being used with great 



■■ \ ,; 





';'?. 



s*» MmMm>iih;4! : !- : v<. ■■'. 



■iS'MfMur: 



176 PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 

skill and discretion. The first enterprise of this character originating in 
the United States was the Ocean Steam Navigation Company, which in 
1847 undertook to carry the American mails between New York and 
Bremen twice a month. Two steamships were built for this line, the 
Washington and Herman. The contract with the government was not 
however renewed at its expiration, and the ships were withdrawn and the 
project abandoned. The Collins line was established in 1849, a ^ so an Amer- 
ican enterprise in the field of international trade, with a large government 
subsidy, and its steamers were a new departure in model and arrangement. 
The Inman line came into existence the same year, with screw steamers 
built of iron. In 1858 was added the North German Lloyd line, in 1861 
the French Compagnie Transatlantique line, in 1863 the National line, in 
1866 the Williams and Guion line (formerly a line of sailing packets), now 
the Guion line, and in 1870 the White Star line, which latter brought 
another new type of steamships. There were, in the meantime, many 
other lines directed to different quarters of the world. 

Mr. John H. Gould, writing on "Ocean Passenger Travel," says: "The 
most important American rival which foreign corporations encountered in 
transatlantic steam navigation was the famous Collins line. Mr. E. K. Col- 
lins had grown up in the freight and passenger business between New York 
and Liverpool, and in 1847 began to interest New York merchants in a 
plan to establish this new steamship line. Two years later the company 
he had organized launched four vessels — the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, and 
Baltic. These were to make twenty-six voyages every year, and the pas- 
sage from port to port was to be better, in point of time, than that made 
by the Cunarders. Many features that have since come to be regarded as 
indispensable on board ship, were introduced by the Collins vessels. Among 
them none attracted more comment, when the Atlantic on her first voyage 
arrived at Liverpool, than the barber's shop. Another novelty was a 
smoking-room in a house on the after part of the deck. . . The accom- 
modations on board ship have kept pace with the growing traffic and the 
increasing demand for luxurious appointments. Vessels are now lighted 
by electricity in every quarter, including even the steerage; there is ample 
room for exercises and games on deck; there are well-stocked libraries and 
music rooms, no well-ordered vessel being without a piano or organ, and 
some have both ; and on nearly all the larger ships there is a miniature 
newspaper printed by the ship's printer, which gives the usual amount 
of 'local' gossip and happenings peculiar to the surroundings, to which 
articles are often contributed by the passengers." 

The same writer gives us an interesting chapter on the "Ocean Steam- 



PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 1 77 

ship as a Freight Carrier." He says there are now twenty-nine regular 
lines of steamships running between New York and the European ports. 
" Of these, eight lines run express steamships, and twenty-three lines carry 
passengers and freight; the other six lines transport freight only. The 
ocean steamship lines require an auxiliary fleet of harbor vessels as ten- 
ders to them. There are regular lines other than those above mentioned, 
running to the West Indies and elsewhere ; there is a large number of 
tramp ships, and our coastwise steamships are operated by a dozen or more 
lines. The volume of ocean freight is enormous. In these days of heavy 
shipments the specie-room on the steamship is a very important institu- 
tion. It is located in an out-of-the-way place, and few of the passengers 
know of its existence. Fruit steamships have three decks, all open, with a 
space of about two inches between each of the deck planks. This arrange- 
ment assures a free circulation of air at all times, and thus the fruit is pre- 
served from heating and decay. Great care is taken to prevent its contact 
with salt water, which causes the black spots frequently seen on bananas." 
These fruit steamships carry from fifteen to twenty-five thousand bunches 
of bananas. There are steamships specially fitted for carrying grain, others 
for carrying oil in bulk, and the steamships for cattle are the most interest- 
ing of all. The development of ocean traffic is vividly illustrated in the 
work so ably and satisfactorily prepared by accomplished experts. 

The mechanical improvements which have been devised, one after 
another, from year to year, to produce these varied results, have racked the 
brains of innumerable skilled mechanics and wise and ingenious men. But 
the safe-conduct of transatlantic vessels, with their passengers, involves 
scarcely less expert knowledge, and much more trained will-power. The 
care of a steamship is unremitting; every hour of the day has its impera- 
tive duties. The officers vary in their methods of keeping watch, new 
ships having new rules. The chief officer of the White Star vessels stands 
the watches from six to eight and from twelve to two o'clock, night and 
day, respectively ; the second officer keeps the watches from eight to ten 
and two to four o'clock ; and the third officer, those from ten to twelve and 
from four to six o'clock. The cheerless night drifts on, the weary vigil tax- 
ing the brains and bodies of those who must seek no rest because of the 
lives intrusted to them. William H. Rideing says : " Probably the cap- 
tain dreads no one thing more than a fog which comes down when he is 
making land. When he can see the familiar lights and promontories he 
can verify the position of the ship and check his daily observations of the 
sun. Then it is plain sailing into port. But when the strongest light is 
quenched, and every well-known landmark hidden, and he has to feel his 

Vol. XXVIII No. 3.-12 



1/8 PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 

way with only the compass and the sounding-machine to guide him, the 
consciousness that a slight divergence from the proper course may lead to 
disaster and death keeps him on the pins and needles of anxiety, and sears 
his brain to constant wakefulness as with a branding iron." 

Between 1838 and 1879 one hundred and forty-four steamers, counting 
all classes, were lost in the transatlantic trade. Of these, ten were burned 
at sea ; eight were sunk in collisions; three sunk by ice ; twenty-four never 
reached the ports for which they sailed, their fate being still unknown ; 
and the remainder were wrecked. Since 1879, writes Mr. Rideing, "the 
most memorable disasters, besides those already referred to, have been the 
burning at sea of the Egypt, of the National line, and the City of Montreal, 
of the Inman line, both without loss of life : the stranding of the State of 
Virginia, of the State line, on the quicksands of Sable Island, which 
quickly entombed her; the sinking of the State of Florida, of the same 
line, by collision with a sailing ship ; the disappearance of the National 
line steamer Erin, which is supposed to have foundered at sea ; and the 
sinking of the magnificent Cunarder Oregon, in collision with a coal 
schooner off Fire Island. No line in existence has been wholly free from 
calamity; no line in existence has not at least one page in its history to 
tell of anxious crowds besieging its wharves and offices for news of a ship 
that has never come in. It is not conceivable that the element of danger 
can ever be wholly eliminated from the navigation of the Atlantic, but 
notwithstanding the extent and difficulty of the traffic, and the size and 
speed of the ships, which, flying to and fro in all kinds of weather, arrive 
in port at all seasons with a promptness and regularity quite equal to that 
of express trains on land, the number of accidents is constantly diminish- 
ing. More cabin passengers are carried from New York to European 
ports in one summer now than were carried in the whole of the first quar- 
ter of a century of steam navigation on this ocean ; we now see hundreds 
of thousands of passengers crossing, with a sense of security which a 
remarkable record of immunity from accident fully justifies." 

One of the most interesting chapters in the excellent volume, Ocean 
Steamships, concerns the steamship lines of the world. It reminds us that 
there are other lands and other peoples than our own, worthy of admiration 
and study ; that a voyage round the world clears the head of narrowness 
and cobwebs. The Pacific Mail Steamship Company was organized in 
1847, and gained notoriety by sending one of its first vessels, the California, 
from New York to San Francisco by way of Cape Horn. The successful 
termination of this remarkable voyage in those early days of steam navi- 
gation, enabled the company to inaugurate a steamship service between 



ISO PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 

Panama and San Francisco. The transpacific route was commenced in 
1867, soon after the opening of the Pacific railroad, and is now worked in 
conjunction with the English line. 

Lieutenant Hunt writes : " The United States has the credit of estab- 
lishing long lines of communication by sea with far-distant countries. As 
early as 1789 the merchants of Boston despatched their ships direct to 
China and the East Indies some time before England entered on this 
trade; for the American vessels not only brought their cargoes to the 
home markets, but also trans-shipped spices, silks, teas, sugar, coffee, and 
cotton to Europe. The development of the resources of the East by the 
East India Company, and the richness of the freights carried by the 
United States vessels — the proceeds of a single voyage often defraying 
the first cost of the ship — induced England to enter into competition, 
thus starting that rivalry between the sailing fleets of the two nations that 
was long the admiration of the world. In 1845 the American clippers, 
long, low, of good beam, very fine lines, and with yards so square and spars 
so lofty as to get a greater spread of canvas in proportion to their tonnage 
than any ship hitherto sailed, entered the race and left all rivals far astern. 
Then followed the days of which the old 'sad sea dogs' still love to tell, 
when every stitch of sail was carried until the fierce wind blew it from the 
bolt-ropes; when for weeks the lee scuppers lay buried in the^ seething 
waters and the flying jibboom plunged deep into the white-capped waves; 
when the good ship, Sovereign of the Seas, came into port ninety days from 
Hong-Kong, and the town gathered on the wharf to welcome the daring 
navigators ; while the cargo of teas and coffees was sold at fabulous prices." 

The discovery of gold in California started a line of ships to take out 
merchandise of every description ; and Australia was opened to commerce. 
These old routes exerted great influence upon subsequent progress — but 
the day of the sailing ship, except on long routes, was closing. The 
steamship entered into competition, and gradually absorbed the lucrative 
passenger traffic and much of the more valuable freight. The routes of 
communication between distant portions of the world, established after 
long years of navigation, have now become the highways of commerce. 
The tourist may choose from many routes in going round the world. 
Steamboats and steamships are everywhere. He finds several lines 
between the ports of Japan along the inland passage and up the Japan 
sea. Singapore has steam communication with one hundred and fifty-two 
different ports, far and near. From Calcutta several short sea-routes in 
steam-vessels may be taken to strange countries. Nearly a dozen steam- 
ship lines leave Colon for ports in the United States, Europe, and the West 



PROGRESSION IN STEAM NAVIGATION, 1807-1892 l8l 

Indies. From Colombo, Ceylon, fifteen steamships radiate toward the 
attractive countries of Australia, Africa, the Dutch East Indies, China, 
Japan, India, and Europe. The number of steamers traversing the great 
thoroughfares, aside from those in regular service between the United 
States and the Old World, is said to be more than eleven thousand ! 

The civilization of our time owes a debt of gratitude to the early sci- 
entists and inventors. Like the discovery of a continent by Columbus they 
gave the world something to build upon, and it is doubtful if the manag- 
ers of the World's Columbian Exposition will encounter, in attempting to 
exhibit the progress this country has made in four centuries, a more far- 
reaching and significant problem than that of steam navigation. It touches 
all sides of human life ; the theme is as attractive as it is colossal. It has 
brought the different nations of the earth into hand-shaking acquaintance; 
with the aid of electricity borrowed from the forces of nature, steam power 
is at the root of all our present material wealth and prosperity. Every 
industry on the globe has been revolutionized since the beginning of this 
century, and in the rapid march of events the steamboat and the steamship 
have played the most important part of any factor in stimulating produc- 
tion and giving an impulse to trade with distant countries, opening in- 
numerable markets in hitherto unheard-of places. Every nation is now 
interested in steam navigation ; the welfare of the farmer, the merchant, 
and the artisan is interwoven with that of the heroes who live on the sea. 
Commerce and the industries go hand in hand, and the magnificent show- 
ing of the former is but an index to the flourishing conditions of the 
latter. It is because the race has been awakened into new life that it dis- 
plays new growth. The peculiar glory of America— an empire unparalleled 
in beauty of situation and resources — is in the intelligence, dignity, domes- 
tic happiness, right thinking, right acting, moral power, matchless ingenu- 
ity, and business integrity of its people, who have contributed their full 
quota to the solution of scientific problems, through which, within the 
past eighty-five years, the entire world has been benefited and stirred 
into active endeavor. It may be truly said that steam navigation has 
made the Columbian Exposition in its prospective magnitude a possibility, 
and seems destined to lift it into a vast success in 1893. 



CAPTURE OF STONY POINT, JULY, 1779 

BY MAJOR WILLIAM HULL 
\From manuscript in the possession of Jus grandson. J 

On the morning of the 14th of July, 1779, Major Hull was ordered to 
march to Sandy Beach and unite his corps to that of General Wayne. 
Two companies of North Carolina infantry commanded by Major Murfee 
were directed to join the troops at Sandy Beach. These were placed in 
the detachment of Major Hull, whose command now consisted of about 
four hundred men. At eleven o'clock of the morning of the 15th of July 
the march was commenced over rugged and almost impassable mountains, 
and continued for fourteen miles, when the detachment arrived, a little 
before dark in the evening, within a mile and a half of Stony Point. Here 
it halted. General Wayne with his principal officers reconnoitred the 
works, and now for the first time was communicated to the troops the 
object of the enterprise. He stated that the attack was to be made on 
Stony Point at twelve o'clock that night. That the detachment was to be 
divided into two columns ; to advance with unloaded muskets, and depend 
entirely on the bayonet ; that it was his determination to persevere until 
in complete possession of the fort ; and that if any man attempted to 
load his piece, leave his station, or retreat, he was instantly to be put to 
death by the officer or soldier next him. 

General Wayne then gave in detail the disposition of the troops. The 
column on the right was to consist of Febiger's and Meigs' regiments 
and Major Hull's detachment, and to be led by General Wayne himself. 
The column on the left was to consist of Colonel Butler's regiment. 
Major Hull Avas directed to detach Major Murfee's two companies to form 
in the centre of the two columns, and to advance near to a part of the 
fort that was not to be assailed, and to keep up a constant fire with a view 
to distract and draw off attention from the real point of attack ; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Fleury and Major Posey to command a corps of one hundred 
and fifty volunteers to precede the column on the right, and Major 
Stewart with one hundred volunteers to precede the column on the left. 
A forlorn hope of twenty men was attached to each column — one led by 
Lieutenant Gibbon, the other by Lieutenant Knox. Their duty was to 



CAPTURE OF STONY POINT, JULY, 1779 1 83 

remove the abatis and other obstructions in the way of the troops. 
About half-past eleven o'clock the two columns commenced their march 
in platoons. The beach was more than two feet deep with water, and 
before the right column reached it we were fired upon by the out-guards, 
which gave the alarm to the garrison. We were now directly under the 
fort, and closing in a solid column ascended the hill, which was almost 
perpendicular. When about half way up our course was impeded by two 
strong rows of abatis, which the forlorn hope had not been able entirely 
to remove. The column proceeded silently on, clearing away the abatis, 
passed to the breastwork, cut and tore away the pickets, cleared the 
cheveaux de frisc at the sally-port, mounted the parapet, and entered the 
fort at the point of the bayonet. All this was done under a heavy fire 
of artillery and musketry, and as strong a resistance as could be made by 
the British bayonet. Our column on the other side entered the fort at the 
same time. Each of our men had a white paper in his hat, which in 
the darkness distinguished him from the enemy, and the watchword was. 
The fort is our own. Our troops reached the area of the garrison, not 
having fired a gun, the enemy still firing on us. The men made free use 
of the bayonet, and in every direction was heard, The fort is our own ! 
We were compelled to continue the dreadful slaughter owing to the fierce 
and obstinate resistance of the enemy. They did not surrender until 
nearly one hundred men were killed and wounded ; after which their arms 
were secured and they were assembled under a strong guard in an angle 
of the fort until morning. Major Murfee acted his part with great 
address, keeping up an incessant fire between the two columns, thus 
diverting the attention of the assailed from the point of attack. His two 
companies were the only American troops that fired a gun. In ascending 
the hill, just after he had passed the abatis, General Wayne was wounded 
in the head by a musket ball, and immediately fell. He remained on the 
spot until the British surrendered, when some other officers and myself 
bore him into the fort, bleeding, but in triumph. 

Three long and loud cheers were now given, and reverberating in the 
stillness of night amidst rocks and mountains sent back in echo a glad 
response to the hearts of the victors. They were quickly answered by the 
enemy's ships of war in the river, and by the garrison at Verplank's Point, 
under the belief that the Americans were repulsed. 

Our troops lost no time in collecting the cannon of the garrison and 
turning them against the shipping in the river. The officer of the British 
artillery was requested to furnish the key of the powder magazine; he 
hesitated, and said that he only received his orders from Colonel Johnson.' 



1 84 CAPTURE OF STONY POINT. JULY, I 779 

He was informed that Colonel Johnson was superseded in command, and 
that there must be no delay, or the consequences might be unpleasant. 
The key was produced, the pieces of ordnance loaded, and the news of 
what had happened sent to the shipping from the mouths of the cannon. 
They made no return to our fire, and the tide being strong, they slipped 
their cables and were carried down by the current. In the same manner 
the intelligence was announced at the fort at Verplank's Point, but no 
reply was made. 

Soon after the surrender, a lieutenant of my detachment informed me 
that he had killed one of the men in obedience to orders, and that he 
regretted it more than he could express. He said that as the column 
was ascending the hill, the man left his station and was loading his mus- 
ket. His commander ordered him to return and desist from loading. 
He refused, saying that he did not understand fighting without firing. 
The officer immediately ran him through the body. I replied : " You per- 
formed a painful duty, by which, perhaps, victory has been secured, and 
the life of many a brave man saved. Be satisfied." Colonel Johnson 
remained in his marquee until morning, with others of the officers. I was 
frequently with him during the night. It was intimated by some one 
that the garrison had been surprised. Colonel Johnson observed that we 
should not do ourselves or him the injustice to say that he had been 
surprised. 

He begged the gentleman who made the remark to recollect the fact 
that the firing commenced before we passed the marsh ; that all his men 
were at their stations with their arms and completely dressed before our 
columns began to ascend the hill. That an incessant fire had been kept 
up until we entered the works, and the garrison surrendered. Yet it has 
been represented by some historians of the Revolution that the British 
were taken by surprise. But the distance from the fort, from which our 
columns were fired upon, the incessant roar of musketry and artillery 
while we were ascending the precipice, the condition of the troops when 
the garrison surrendered, are facts which show that success was owing to 
the valor, perseverance, and superior physical strength of the assailants. 
Fifteen Americans were killed and eighty-three wounded. Colonel John- 
son in his return reports twenty killed of the British, including one officer, 
and sixty-eight privates wounded. The prisoners amounted to five hun- 
dred and forty-three. 

The following day we were employed in burying the dead. I had two 
narrow escapes ; one ball passed through the crown of my hat, another 
struck my boot. General Washington came to the fort next day, and the 



COLUMBUS 



185 



interesting scene of his arrival is perfectly fresh in my remembrance. I 
recollect how cordially he took me by the hand, and the satisfaction and 
the joy that glowed in his countenance. 

I attended him with a number of other field officers, General Wayne 
being prevented by his wound. Washington minutely viewed every part 
of the fortifications. His attention was particularly drawn to those places 
where the two columns ascended the hill, mounted the parapets, and first 
entered the works. He expressed his astonishment that we were enabled 
to surmount the difficulties and attain our object with so inconsiderable 
a loss. And here he offered his thanks to Almighty God, that He had 
been our shield and protector amidst the dangers we had been called to 
encounter. 

Contributed by 



Marietta. Georgia. 



< X<u~£ £ €^U-^C 



COLUMBUS 

A fertile continent thou gav'st mankind, 

Which only lay in lonely idleness ; 

Through sufferings terrible, and great distress, 

This was accomplished ; for thy noble mind 

And faith excelled all others — thou stood'st alone. 

But thou didst know thyself — as now thou'rt known- 

And thou didst prove thy disbelievers blind. 

Immortal man, the world yet owes to thee 

A tribute for thy hardships and thy pain ; 

Thy misery proved in truth to be its gain, 

Thy woes have given to it prosperity. 

Four centuries now have praised thy lofty name, 

And ages yet to come will keep thy fame, 

And glory in thy deathless memory. 




i 



AN OLD BOOK 

It lies before me, a fat little volume some six inches by eight, in sheep 
binding whose edges are curled and whose back is cracked by age. 

With its musty odor comes a vision of ghosts — the attractive kind of 
ghosts — the ghosts that as children we used to hope to see when we lay 
awake at night. There is a dignified divine in a well-brushed suit of black, 
silver knee-buckles and shoe-buckles, stiff stock, and very neat linen. There 
is a careful housewife, a saver of pence and crumbs, yet able on occasions 
of state to make a most imposing appearance, 

"Bedecked, ornate and gay, 
Like a stately ship, 

With all her bravery on and tackle trim, 
Sails filled and streamers waving." 

Then the shadow of death falls on the honest economy and simple 
dignity. Out of it comes one of the strangest figures in our history. The 
silver buckles shine on feet that climbed rapidly the ladder of fame. They 
shone there still when vaulting ambition that o'erleaped itself had brought 
their wearer, the brand of Cain on his brow, to dishonor and ostracism. 

All these figures are sketched sometimes by a line, sometimes by a 
page in the old book. What is it? An old account-book of the Rev. Dr. 
Burr, second president of Princeton college. The first entry bears date 
1755 ; the last, 1758. 

The president used it first to keep an " account of money received by 
contribution for New Jersey college," and carefully transferred all sums 
received to the depreciated colonial money at an advance of about one- 
third. The doctor's own salary was not large ; but two hundred and 
thirty pounds a year went farther then than now. He seems to have had 
means of increasing his income, for we find numerous small sums entered 
from literature, and there are various entries: "For my sermon 1 shilling 
6 pence." Unless we are prepared to believe that the doctor had a 
literary bureau to supply slothful parsons with manuscript sermons, we 
must conclude that this indicates a fee for preaching. Think of it, ye 
clerical professors who grumble over modern fees! 

There was apparently a difference of rates, for we find an entry : " By 
cash paid Mr. Tennent for preaching to Indians, /\£ is. 8d." Could it 
have been that Indian preaching was worth more because of its difficulty? 



AN OLD BOOK 187 

But possibly Mr. Tennent preached sixty-five and a third sermons to 
the Indians at the rate of one and three pence. 

It seems that the doctor also drove a small trade in paper and books. 
There are several entries in the hand of the thrifty housewife. "To the 
Rev. Johnathan Edwards (her father) one quire of paper, is. 3d." It is 
regrettable to observe that this book trade even included ponies, for 
there are constant entries of a certain "Translation of Xenophon in two 
volumes," which was the most expensive book on the list. But perhaps 
the doctor anticipated the heretical attitude of certain new-fangled educa- 
tors who rather encourage the use of ponies in the proper way. 

Education seems to have been very cheap in those days, when we read 
such entries as " Sayre, To iyr. tuition i£ I0.f." But there were extras, as 
one might expect at the price, for we find several entries of " French 
schooling." With a fine impartiality this is spelt " shooling," " scholing," 
and " scholling." 

Of course at these rates the college could not support itself. A large 
part of the doctor's energies must have been devoted to raising funds. 
And no less than two thousand pounds are entered as raised in sums of 
one pound and upward. It may be very surprising to the uninformed to 
find not only that part of this was raised by a lottery, but that the tickets 
were sold by the president to the students. Most of them seem to have 
invested in one or more at the price of thirty shillings. 

But education, even with the opportunities for fortune afforded by the 
lottery, was more expensive comparatively than it appears at first sight. 
The doctor used this book for the college accounts, the good wife for 
household matters, and thus we perceive that a certain Edwards, who may 
have been Mrs. Burr's brother, obtained a little more than four months' 
board at the presidential table for seven pounds three shillings four- 
pence. Provisions were not so very cheap, but the scale of living was 
doubtless very simple. The Burrs bought beef at twopence a pound, ten 
pounds of cheese for four shillings, tea at seven shillings a pound. A 
domestic servant was hired at four shillings a week, a field laborer by the 
day at two shillings sixpence. A barrel of cider cost eight shillings; six 
bottles of wine, thirteen shillings sixpence. They bought three horses 
at prices ranging from fourteen pounds to twenty-two pounds ; a cow 
and calf at four pounds fifteen shillings. A black man was sold for rather 
less than the good horse, and brought seventeen pounds sixpence. 

But death closed the account, for on the last three pages, bearing date 
May, 1758, we find in the careful hand of the man of law " an Acct. of Mrs. 
Burrs cloaths given to her daughter Sally by will." 



1 88 AN OLD BOOK 

It was no inconsiderable legacy, but the list is a little confusing to the 
modern masculine mind. One finds it difficult to imagine what " a suit of 
black Paduasoy " looks like at a distance. How does " a brown Cali- 
manco gown " differ from " one lead colored Ducap ditto, " beyond the 
difference in color? And what is the distinction between a "black Cali- 
manco " and a "black Allopeen " ? Of course any one could tell a 
" Corded Dimity with flowered border " from " A copucheen flowered 
sattin." But why should an " old gauze hood" be accompanied by "two 
tan mounts " ? 

We understand that " one mask " was used to preserve Mrs. President's 
complexion, but what, oh, what was the " one Vandyke cat-gutted " 
which is mentioned with it? Was the lawyer who made this inven- 
tory assisted by his wife ? Aaron Burr was not forgotten in the distribu- 
tion of finery, for we find that he received " one silver watch, one pair of 
silver shoe-buckles, one pair ditto knee-buckles, one stock-buckle and 
Mr. and Mrs. Burr's pictures." 

The strict economy of the worthy couple was not without its touch of 
gilt on the edge, for they left " to Sally Burr " and " for the use of the chil- 
dren," some sixty pounds' worth of silver plate. Those were simple times 
at Nassau Hall, when the president received a little more than the salary 
of a tutor, and his assistants the pay of a common school teacher. And 
yet the admirer of learning must not rejoice overmuch that her votaries 
seem to receive in the midst of this commercial age more of the good 
things of this world. For it is to be observed that while the cost of 
tuition has increased ten times at Princeton, the salary has only increased 
about five times. It is hard to tell what moral to draw from this, unless 
it be that, as both professors and students are more plentiful now than 
they were four generations ago, the one is willing to pay more and the 
other to take less. 



(Po^Jiuv-^ Sy^t. 






RETAINING THE NORTHWEST POSTS 

HOW ENGLAND GAINED BY IT 

On the conclusion of the peace of 1783 between Great Britain and the 
United States, the fur-traders of the northwest very naturally became 
anxious lest the Americans should gain possession of the extensive and 
lucrative business which had fallen into British hands when the French 
surrendered Canada. For five years after the English took possession of 
Montreal the traders of the northwest were mostly Frenchmen, without 
concert of action, and therefore with precarious profits. In 1765 the first 
English trader made his slow way along the shores of Lake Superior to 
the Grand Portage, on the northwestern shore of that lake, and thence 
westward to Lake La Pluye. There the Indians, incensed at being kept 
so long waiting for supplies of ammunition, rum, and trinkets, appropri- 
ated the trader's supplies without giving him the customary return of 
peltries. A year later the same trader met the same fate at the same 
hands ; but the third year perseverance met its proverbial success, and the 
Indians, contenting themselves with a heavy toll, allowed the trader to 
proceed to Lake Winnipeg. 

In 1769 Benjamin and Joseph Frobisher, whose base of supplies was 
the Montreal firm of Todd & McGill, also suffered disaster among the 
rapacious Indians about Rainy Lake. However, they had gone into the 
trading business too deeply to get out. In order to protect their venture 
they made a strong combination with the other traders who had gone into 
the northwest country, and by 1774 supplies were received by the Indians 
so regularly that not only were the old stations occupied, but also a num- 
ber of new posts unknown to the French were established. The success 
of the Frobishers drew many adventurers into the field, who so demoral- 
ized business that the cautious Montreal firms no longer were willing to 
supply outfits ; and by the end of the year 1782 only twelve traders were 
left in the field. 

When the Frobishers learned the terms of the definitive treaty they set 
about combining all the British interests, with the view of crushing out 
competition on the part of English adventurers and also of protecting 
British trade from threatened encroachments on the part of Americans. 
This step was dictated by ordinary prudence, because the new boundary. 



19° RETAINING THE NORTHWEST POSTS 

line was believed to give to the Americans the whole route from the Grand 
Portage to the Lake of the Woods ; and, as well, the posts of Detroit and 
Michilimackinac, on which the traders were dependent for provisions. 
The old connection among the traders was made stronger, and from this, 
time on the North-West Company became the controlling influence in the 
country bordering upon the Great Lakes. 

The first efforts of the company were directed to the discovery of a 
new route to Lake Winnipeg, so that a line of communication wholly in 
Canadian territory might be maintained. In June, 1783, Edward Umfre- 
ville and Venance St. Germain, both of whom were able to speak the lan- 
guage of the Indians, set out with an exploring party of six Canadians 
to find such a passage. In return for this discovery, if it should be made, 
the company asked for a monopoly of the Indian trade for ten years : but 
this request Governor-General Haldimand did not feel at liberty to grant. 
He had other plans which would delay at least for a time the necessity of 
finding a substitute for the Grand Portage. 

The trade carried on by the North- West Company was well worthy of 
high consideration on the part of the government. In 1780 it was worth 
to England two hundred thousand pounds* in the value of furs brought to 
her markets, without counting the profits on the manufactures sent into 
the wilderness. A canoe-load of goods was made up of dry-goods to the 
amount of three hundred pounds first sterling cost in England, and two 
hundred gallons of rum and wine, worth fifty pounds, to which charges a 
profit of fifty per cent, was added at Montreal. The cost of transportation 
to Michilimackinac was one hundred and sixty pounds, and to the Grand 
Portage ninety pounds more. Between Montreal and the Grand Portage a 
canoe carried four tons of freight ; but beyond the latter place a. ton and 
a half was allotted to a canoe manned by five Canadians. No fewer than 
five hundred men were employed in this trade, one-half of the number 
covering the country from the mouth of the Ohio northward and westward 
around Lakes Superior and Huron. Supplies of provisions were taken at 
Michilimackinac ; but in part the traders were expected to live off the 
country, and many and severe were the hardships endured before winter 
quarters were reached and all the bitternesses forgotten in the long nights 
of feasting which Washington Irving has so graphically described. 

Such was the condition of affairs when, in July, 1783, General Wash- 
ington wrote to General Haldimand asking him to receive the Baron de 
Steuben to make provision for the surrender of the eight posts within the 
newly-acquired territory of the United States. The interview was con- 

* Report of Charles Grant. Canadian Archives, 1888. 



RETAINING THE NORTHWEST POSTS I9I 

ducted with all the politeness consistent with a flat refusal on the part of 
Haldimand either to give up the posts or even to allow Steuben to visit 
them, without explicit orders from his majesty. This policy he main- 
tained throughout his term, and when he left office he wrote to his 
successor, Brigadier-General St. Leger : " Different attempts having been 
made by the American states to get possession of the posts of the Upper 
country, in consequence of the treaty of peace, I have thought it my duty 
uniformly to oppose the same, until his majesty's orders for that purpose 
shall be received, and my conduct upon that occasion having been 
approved, I have only to recommend to you a strict attention to the 
same." * 

In refusing to surrender the northwestern posts without explicit orders, 
Haldimand undoubtedly acted the part of a prudent official ; and his 
action saved the North-West Company from the interruption of their 
lucrative traffic. There was another action of Haldimand's, undertaken 
for the very laudable purpose of shutting the Americans out of the fur 
trade, which worked great hardship to the traders without any apparent 
advantage. 

In a memorandum submitted to the Right Honorable Lord Sidney by 
General Haldimand, in 1785, the latter says : " The navigation of these 
lakes by the king's vessels only is an object so nearly connected with the 
entire preservation of the fur trade, that I have withstood various applica- 
tions for building and navigating private vessels and boats upon the lakes. 
The rivers and outlets from them to the American states are so numerous 
that no precautions which could be taken, in that case, would be effectual 
in preventing a great part of the furs from going directly into the Ameri- 
can states, and there is but little doubt that traders will carry their com- 
modities to the best market, whatever may be the consequences; indeed, 
several instances have already occurred since the peace of their smuggling 
even from Montreal over Lake Champlain into the States, notwithstand- 
ing the vigilance of the civil and military officers. What then would be 
the case upon the remote lakes may easily be conceived. I would, there- 
fore, recommend by all means that a sufficient number of the king's 
vessels be kept up upon the lakes, and all other craft whatever prohibited, 
not only from the foregoing reasons, but in all events to preserve a supe- 
riority upon the waters of that country. 

Having from motives of economy reduced the Marine Department 
perhaps in some degree below the establishment that may be found neces- 
sary for purposes of transport, such arrangements should be made as will 

* Canadian Archives, 1 890, xxxii. 



I92 RETAILING THE NORTHWEST POSTS 

leave the merchants no room to complain, which I find they are inclined 
to do as a pretext for their application to navigate in their own vessels, 
for though some trivial neglects might have happened in the course of 
the war, they cannot occur in times of peace." * 

In 1784 Haldimand gave the North- West Company permission to build 
at Detroit a small vessel for use on Lake Superior. This vessel, measur- 
ing thirty-four feet keel, thirteen feet beam, and four feet depth of hold, 
was built at an expense of one thousand eight hundred and forty three 
pounds thirteen shillings and twopence, York currency, and was christened 
the Beaver. When, in the spring of 1785, an attempt was made to get her 
up the rapids of the St. Mary's river the project proved a failure, and this 
under the regulations prohibiting private vessels on the lakes. Haldimand 
returned to London to enjoy a long round of pleasure at balls and the card- 
table, and also to feel keenly that monarchies as well as republics have a 
way of forgetting the services of their servants who have ceased to be 
useful.f But he left in command at Canada Barry St. Leger, who was only 
too ready to accept the situation established by his more brilliant prede- 
cessor. 

Against the prohibition of private vessels trading on the lakes the 
North-West Company and the merchants of Detroit made vigorous protest. 
James McGill, who was one of the owners of the sixteen shares of the 
company, addressed to Lieutenant-Governor Henry Hamilton a letter 
which throws a great deal of light on the fur trade. He estimates the 
value of this trade in 1785 at one hundred and eighty thousand pounds, 
of which amount one hundred thousand pounds' value is within the 
boundaries of the United States as defined by the treaty. The object of 
the government in attempting to keep the Americans from this trade is, 
the company admits, a most laudable one; but this object would best be 
subserved by allowing the merchants to have small decked vessels in which 
to transport supplies and furs. There was no danger, Mr. McGill argued, 
that the Americans would invade Canadian territory, for they were not 
used to navigating small streams in birch-bark canoes, and spending severe 
Canadian winters among the Indians. 

As for the trade lying within the American lines, that too must con- 
tinue to be controlled largely by the British, because the people of the 
United States consume only deerskins, with some beaver and raccoons, 
every other article being sent to the London market, whence also must 
come the manufactures exchanged for furs. The cost of carriage both 
ways through Albany being greater than those through Montreal, the 

* Canadian Archives, 1890, p. 65. f Haldimand's Diary, Canadian Archives, 1889. 



RETAINING THE NORTHWEST POSTS 1 93 

English would continue to hold the trade by underselling their American 
competitors. Even should the United States prohibit, under pain of con- 
fiscation, British subjects trading in the Indian country, Mr. McGill pro- 
fessed not the least doubt that the English merchants at Detroit would all 
turn Americans and carry on an illicit business across the border. A 
newly acquired patriotism would never be allowed to stand in the way of 
financial gain. 

On the other hand, with a few vessels at their command, the company 
could be morally certain of having goods in the market by June and July, 
and their importations from England could be imported the same year, 
which would " save leakage, imbezzlement and wait of property, besides 
interest of money, which you know is a dreadful moth if once allowed to 
get to any head." At the time of Mr. McGill's writing the company had 
one hundred and thirty bateau-loads of goods on Lake Erie awaiting 
shipment ; and he urged that the four king's ships be commanded to make 
two trips each to Detroit with merchants' goods, and that the three or 
four small private vessels also on Lake Erie be permitted to take cargoes 
for the benefit of their owners and under the command or inspection of a 
king's officer. Unless such permission be granted, Mr. McGill expressed a 
fear that the traders would get dispirited and careless, and may even go to 
the extent of wishing for a change of government in hopes of being bet- 
tered, although, he patriotically remarks, "they will certainly be much 
worse; but such were their sufferings last year, with the untoward pros- 
pects for the present one, that I fear few goods will be ordered for the 
ensuing, or houses of any reputation here found to execute them until 
this defect is remedied." 

A week later than the date of Mr. McGill's letter, Benjamin Frobisher 
wrote an appealing letter to the Hon. Hugh Finlay for transmission to 
the lieutenant-governor. It appears that in order completely to clear 
the lakes of private vessels, Lieutenant-Governor Sinclair had ordered 
down all the craft on Lake Superior, so that the company was compelled to 
fall back on canoe service, at a great expense. Lieutenant-Governor Hay 
had allowed the Beaver to make one trip in order to fill up the absolutely 
empty granaries at St. Mary's, so that the canoes would have provisions 
for the return voyage, and Frobisher desired authority to use the Beaver 
regularly to transport provisions for the company, instead of laying her up 
at Detroit. 

The McGill and Frobisher letters were transmitted by Hamilton to 
Brigadier-General St. L6ger, with the indorsement: "I am sorry to give 
you repeated trouble on this occasion ; but as it is not in my power to 

Vol. XXVIII.-No. 3.-13 



194 RETAINING THE NORTHWEST POSTS 

give any determinate answer to these demands, they must wait with 
patience the result of the minister's mandates, which may relieve them 
from their present state of uncertainty." Hamilton adds that he thinks 
the request as to the Beaver very reasonable, and that he hopes the ulti- 
matum from England may arrive in time for the next year's business. 

Hamilton's indorsement covered also a petition signed by twenty-one 
firms of Detroit traders, Alex. De Win, Macomb, Meldrum, and Park and 
James Abbott among the number. The Detroit men were so frank in 
their expressions as to leave no doubt about their meaning. They de- 
clared that because private vessels had been prohibited from navigating 
the lakes, and because the service of transporting merchandise must be 
performed in the king's vessels, when not wanted for transporting troops, 
provisions, and stores (which vessels were not adequate to the needs of 
the merchants, even if no government service were required of them), the 
merchants of Detroit had year after year suffered unheard-of losses, and 
now had but too much reason to apprehend the total ruin of their affairs, 
an event that would cause disaster as well in England as throughout Can- 
ada. The interest charges on property detained at the eastern end of 
Lake Erie for the want of a sufficient number of king's vessels to trans- 
port it had for several years amounted annually to upwards of ,£3,700; 
an,d, although the king's vessels had made several trips up to July 10, not 
a pound of the merchandise stored during the previous autumn had 
arrived at Detroit. Again, over one thousand packs of furs and peltries 
that otherwise would have come to Detroit had been diverted to New 
Orleans and the French market ; also fifty of the pettyaugers which were 
too long detained at Detroit during the previous autumn had been frozen 
up before reaching their destination, and the traders had returned empty- 
handed. 

To these appeals Brigadier-General St. Leger turned a deaf ear, in so 
far as recommending any increase in the merchant marine or any relaxa- 
tion of the rules requiring peltries to be transported in the king's ships. 
He did promise to do what he could to hasten the shipment of goods ; 
but to Lord Sidney in England and to the merchants trading to the 
Upper Country he professed himself fully satisfied with the rules made by 
General Haldimand. For ten years and more the English held the posts, 
and when Detroit and Michilimackinac were surrendered in 1796, the 
North-West Company transferred their headquarters to Drummond's island 
in St. Mary's river, where the ruins of their roads and buildings remain to 
this day. 

That the British were able to control the fur trade even after the 



RETAINING THE NORTHWEST POSTS I95 

advent of the Americans is made evident by a letter addressed to Secre- 
tary Madison by Chief-Justice Woodward of Michigan territory, and dated 
in 1807. " From the ocean all the way to these settlements," writes the 
judge, '" there is a continued line of improvements following without 
deviation the line of navigation. It is seldom more than forty miles in 
breadth, but its length is at least fifteen hundred miles. These settle- 
ments are pleasant, fertile, and even opulent. They present along the 
whole line an activity little realized in the United States. The com- 
merce in furs, which has been carried on in one channel for two centuries, 
is the cause of this phenomenon. . . . This commerce belongs to 
another nation. The Americans have never been able to succeed in it, 
though the most desirable part of it belongs to their own territory and 
the whole of it passes along their line." 

Four years later, in 181 1, John Jacob Astor bought out the associa- 
tion of British merchants known as the Mackinac Company, and eventu- 
ally gained control of the American market, even going to the extent of 
having congress punish the North-West Company for the part they took 
in the capture of Mackinac in the war of 1812, by prohibiting them from 
trading in American territory. But Astor's success was a brief one. 
Haldimand, by retaining the posts and by preventing commerce on the 
lakes, undoubtedly accomplished his purpose of saving the fur trade for 
England until the advance of civilization brought about the lingering 
death of the ancient and famous industry that formed the motive of La 
Salle and the picturesque and adventurous explorers who came after him. 



Washington, D. C. 



(QA<xjJbL<f Udruft*^ 



OGLETHORPE AS A LANDED PROPRIETOR IN GEORGIA 

HIS COTTAGE HOME 

Not very long ago certain parties from England, claiming to be repre- 
sentatives of General Oglethorpe, visited Georgia for the purpose of ascer- 
taining whether there were any lands within the limits of that common- 
wealth, which had been acquired by him during his connection with the 
trust, and to which title might now be asserted. Resort was had to the 
public records; and, while they were being examined, some anxiety was 
manifested by a few who feared that perhaps a cloud might be cast upon 
the early title to lands in and near Savannah and Frederica by reason of 
ancient and dormant cessions to the founder of the colony of Georgia. A 
moment's reflection, however, sufficed to dissipate all apprehensions of 
this character. The statute of limitations would long since have barred 
all claims of this description, which, however valid in their inception, 
would now prove incapable of assertion by reason of adverse possession, 
non-payment of taxes, non-user, etc. Apart from all this, it could be 
readily shown that Oglethorpe never coveted or acquired, except to a 
very limited degree, the proprietorship of Georgia lands, or sought per- 
sonal gain while charged with the conduct of the trustees' affairs in that 
province. His connection with the foundation and development of the 
colony was characterized by disinterested benevolence, and all his ser- 
vices in behalf of the trust were rendered voluntarily and without remuner- 
ation. In advancing the welfare of the colonists, and in supplying their 
wants, he drew largely upon his private fortune. Often the trust was 
heavily in debt to him. Free from all desire for personal advantage 
during his connection with public affairs in Georgia, so far from claiming 
compensation for important services rendered, or seeking to benefit himself 
by asking cessions of well-located lands, he was, time and again, compelled 
to put forth unusual exertions and restrict his individual expenditures within 
the narrowest limits, that he might, from his own purse, meet the obliga- 
tions which he had voluntarily assumed in the settlement, support, and 
defense of the province. A more striking example of self-abnegation, of 
disinterested benevolence, of public spirit, and of broad-minded gener- 
osity cannot readily be recalled. 

In the formal allotment of town and garden lots and farms to the set- 



OGLETHORPE AS A LANDED PROPRIETOR IN GEORGIA 197 

tiers, he made no reservation for himself. During his early residence in 
Savannah he dwelt in a tent pitched beneath four large pine trees on the 
bluff, and on all occasions he sedulously refrained from taxing the colonists 
in any wise for the promotion of his personal comfort. Sharing the priva- 
tions and the exposures of the inhabitants, he postponed his own ease to 
the procurement of their suitable shelter, nourishment, and protection. 

The only home he ever owned or claimed in Georgia was located on 
the island of St. Simon. The only hours of leisure he enjoyed — and they 
were but few — were spent in sight and sound of his military works along 
the southern frontier, upon the safe tenure of which depended the salva- 
tion of the province. Just where the military road connecting Fort St. 
Simon with Frederica, after having traversed the beautiful prairie consti- 
tuting the common pasture land of Frederica, entered the woods, General 
Oglethorpe established his cottage. Adjacent to it were a garden, and an 
orchard of oranges, figs, and grapes. Magnificent live-oaks threw their 
protecting shadows above and around this quiet, pleasant abode, fanned 
by delicious sea breezes, fragrant with the perfume of flowers, and vocal 
with the melody of song-birds. To the westward, and in full view, were 
the fortifications and white houses of Frederica. Behind rose a dense 
forest of oaks. " This cottage and fifty acres of land attached to it," says 
the Hon. Thomas Spalding, writing in March, 1840, "was all the landed 
domain General Oglethorpe reserved for himself; and, after the general 
went to England, it became the property of my father. . . . After the 
Revolutionary war, the buildings being destroyed, my father sold this 
little property. But the oaks were cut down only within four or five years 
past, and the elder people of St. Simon yet feel as if it were a sacrilege, 
and mourn their fall." 

During the entire period of his employment as agent of the trustees 
and de facto governor and commander-in-chief of Georgia, Oglethorpe 
enjoyed no respite from his multifarious, perplexing, and important labors. 
Personally directing all movements; supervising the location and provid- 
ing for the safety, comfort, and good order of the settlers ; accommodating 
their differences ; encouraging and directing their operations ; propitiating 
the aborigines ; influencing necessary supplies, and inaugurating suitable 
defenses, he constantly passed from point to point, finding no rest for the 
soles of his feet. Now in tent in Savannah, now in open boat reconnoi- 
tering the coast, now upon the southern islands, his only shelter the wide- 
spreading live-oak, designating sites for forts and look-outs, and with his 
own hands planning military works and laying out villages ; again in jour- 
neys oft along the Savannah, the Great Ogeechee, the Altamaha, the St. 



198 LINES ATTACHED TO A PETITION TO CONGRESS IN 1 826 

John, and far off into the heart of the Indian country, frequently inspect- 
ing his advanced posts, undertaking voyages to Charleston and to Eng- 
land in behalf of the trust, and engaged in severe contests with the 
Spaniards, his life was one of incessant activity, danger, and solicitude. 

The founder and patron of the colony was so thoroughly engrossed by 
his public duties, and was so wholly engaged in the development of his 
benevolent scheme, that he found neither time nor inclination for specu- 

„ Sad*. &Jmu>. & 

Augusta, Georgia. 



LINES ATTACHED TO A PETITION TO CONGRESS IN 1826 

BY CAPTAIN WILLIAM B. WALLACE OF THE VIRGINIA LINE 
[An excerpt from "Virginia Genealogies," by Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, M.A.\ 

When British bands our rights assailed. 

When Freedom seemed to languish, 
When all resources seemed to fail, 

And naught was seen but anguish ; 
When hostile troops o'erspread our land, 

Then marked by blood and plunder ; 
When haltered gibbets seemed at hand, 

To bring us rebels under — 
I kept the field ; my country's cause 

I never did give over; 
Full eight campaigns in arms I was, 

Till peace our land did cover. 
And now I see my country free — 

Her stand among the nations, 
Her commerce whit'ning every sea, 

No British king's plantations. 
Now uncontrolled by foreign laws, 

We legislate in freedom ; 
Remember those who gained your cause, 

When you could scarcely feed 'em ; 
The war-worn soldier ne'er despise, 

Nor treat him as a stranger; 
He fought unpaid, he gained the prize, 

Through heat, through cold, through danger. 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

" HORSE SHOE ROBINSON " 

[Second Chapter, continued from page 143.] 

It was after midnight when Mary Musgrove's sleep was disturbed by 
the sound of voices in the adjoining room, which was at the opposite end of 
the cabin from where the travelers slept. It was Mr. Adair trying to wake 
Michael Lynch, and there being only a thin partition of boards between 
the rooms, the girl could hear every word that was spoken. " Rouse your- 
self. It is nearly one o'clock," said Adair; "you have no time to lose. 
Hugh Habershaw is good ten miles off, and you must be back by daylight. 
I had the crop-ear put up in the stable last night to save time ; so up and 
saddle and away. Take your shoes in your hand ; you can put them on 
when you get to the porch." " There, give me my coat, Wat," said 
Lynch. " I think I should have no objection to a drop before I set out. 
Now, tell me exactly what I am to say to Hugh Habershaw." " Tell him 
that we have got Horse Shoe Robinson and Major Butler of the Conti- 
nental army as snug as a pair of foxes in a bag, and that I will let them 
run exactly at seven, and — " "Hold on," said Lynch; "let me ask, 
suppose this shouldn't be the man ? Are you sure of it ? It would be a 

d d unchristian job to give over any other human being to such a set 

of bloodhounds as Hugh Habershaw and his gang." "You are a fool, 
Mike ! Who in the name of all the imps could it be but Major Butler ! 
Weren't we told he'd be along with Horse Shoe about this time? Tell 
Hugh to be ready at the Dogwood spring at the latest by eight o'clock ; 
and, Mike, warn him to have his whole squad with him, for Horse Shoe 
Robinson, you know, is not to be handled by boys." " The major seems 
to have a wicked eye, too," said Lynch. " I shouldn't like much to be in 
his way if he was angry. But, Wat, how if they don't ride by the Dog- 
wood spring?" " Leave that to me. I will contrive to go as far as the 
forks with them, and if they don't take the right-hand fork it will be be- 
cause I don't know how to lie." " Stop a minute," said Lynch ; " couldn't 
we get as much money by telling Horse Shoe, and hoisting colors with 
Major Butler?" "No; I have thought of that, but it won't do; the 
tories have got the upper hand hereabouts, and I should have my house 



200 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

burnt down and my children thrown into the blaze of it in less than three 
days, if I was to let these fellows slip through my fingers. Be off. I'll 
look for you back at daylight." "I'll ride," said Lynch, " as if the devil 
was on my crupper ; so good-by ! " 

Mary Musgrove arose and dressed herself, determined to do what she 
could toward saving these men from the blow which treachery was aiming 
at them. Slipping along the porch, she was saluted by the watch-dog, 
which her hand readily soothed into silence ; but the noise brought her 
uncle out, and she was obliged to cower close against the wall as mute and 
motionless as a statue until he went back to his bed. Then she proceeded 
to the window of the travelers' chamber and gave a feeble tap with her 
hand against the sash. There was no answer : the sleep within was the 
sleep of tired men. She threw a pebble against the window without suc- 
cess. Then she raised the sash and thrust her head partially into the 
room, and softly called, " Mr. Butler! Mr. Butler! Major Butler! " but he 
only muttered in his sleep. She called, " Mr. Robinson !" without avail. 
Again she called, " Major Butler ! Oh, good sir, awake ; the people in this 
house know you, and they are contriving evil against you. Do not ride 
by the Dogwood spring to-morrow, nor take the right-hand road at the 
forks. There are wicked men upon that road. Have your eye upon my 
uncle Walter. I am Mary Musgrove, the daughter of Allen Musgrove, 
the miller. If you knew John Ramsay, you would believe me. Be sure to 
take the left-hand road at the first fork — " and as she lowered the sash 
she heard the exclamation from within, " In God's name, what is it? 
Where are you ? " She did not halt for parley or explanation, but stole 
back to her room like a frightened bird, panting and almost breathless, 
for the watch-dog had again disturbed her uncle. 

With the first day-streak in the morning Horse Shoe went to the stable 
to look after his horse, and to his surprise found the fence-rails down and 
no horses in the stable. He ascended a hill near by to discover, if possible, 
the horses in some adjacent pasture ; which failing, he inspected the foot- 
prints as far as the high road, where three of the horses had evidently 
eloped into a corn-field, and the fourth continued upon the road — as Horse 
Shoe speculated, " never by its own free will." Presently Wat Adair was 
hurrying past him, and Horse Shoe called out, " You seem to be in a very 
onreasonable hurry, considerin' that you have the day afore you!" The 
woodsman made some lame excuses, and as Horse Shoe afterward said, 
" prevaricatered onormously." When asked about the horses, and the 
tracks pointed out to him of the beast that carried some man up the road, 
and " sot loose all the horses in the stable," Adair promptly answered^ 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 201 

" Mike Lynch, perhaps. Where can that fellow have been so early ? Oh, 
I remember; he told me last night that he was going this morning to the 
blacksmith's. He ought to be back by now." Just then Mike Lynch 
appeared, riding a pony covered with foam, which had evidently been 
taxed to its utmost speed in a severe journey. Adair hurried forward to 
meet the man, and in low voice told him to conjure a lie quickly about 
having been at a blacksmith's, and to be merry and have a joke. 

Turning toward the cabin the three men reached it a little after sun- 
rise, just as Butler came forth ready for his journey, and with an air of 
concern and bewilderment watched the idle talk, and the curious delay 
when two lazy negroes were sent off in quest of the horses. " Will the 
gentlemen stay for breakfast?" asked Mary Musgrove, with a doubtful 
look at Butler. " To be sure they will," exclaimed the woodsman. " I 
thought they had far to ride," replied the girl, " and would choose, rather 
than wait, to take some cold provision to eat on the road." " Tush ! go 
about your business, niece. The horses are not caught yet, and you may 
have your bacon fried before they are at the door." 

During the interval Mary several times attempted to gain a moment's 
speech with Butler, but the presence of Adair and Lynch prevented. The 
repast was made ready and quickly eaten. Horse Shoe handed the woods- 
man the price of their entertainment, and the customary farewells were 
said. Mary, offering Butler her hand, whispered : " The left-hand road at 
the fork — remember," and glided out of his sight. 

The woodsman took his rifle as he started to show the travelers their 
route, and with a long, swinging step kept without difficulty abreast with 
the horsemen. They had not gone half a mile before they reached a point 
in the woods at which Adair called a halt. " My trap is a little off the 
road," he said, "and we'll stop and see what luck I have this morning. 
This way, Horse Shoe." " Our time is pressing,' 1 answered Butler. 
" Pray, give us your directions as to the road, and we will go on." "You 
would never find it in these woods," replied Adair. " There are two or 
three paths leading through here and the road is a blind one till you come 
to the fork." He pressed so urgently that Horse Shoe turned into the 
thicket with him, and Butler also followed to the foot of a stately gum tree, 
where Adair had indeed caught a large wolf in his trap. So much time 
was lost through the woodsman's insisting on killing the wolf that Butler 
manifested no little impatience and displeasure, and when once more on 
the journey urged Adair forward without mercy. They reached the fork 
finally, and telling them to take the right-hand road, and about ten miles 
further to strike to the left, the woodsman said " good-by. " 



202 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

"Ride-on!" said Butler, sternly, to Horse Shoe, who was about to 
reply to Adair. The travelers disappeared swiftly, and the treacherous 
guide, who had been bitten by the wolf, limped back to his dwelling. 
They had not galloped far when Butler reined up his horse and asked 
Horse Shoe what he thought of that woodsman. " He plays on both 
sides," replied Horse Shoe, " and knows more about you than by rights he 
ought. He spoke consarning you this morning as Major Butler ; it came 
out of his mouth onawares." "Which reminds me," said Butler, "that I 
dreamt last night that Mary Musgrove came to our room and warned us 
our lives were in danger ; she spoke of our being waylaid, and I think she 
advised us that we should take the left-hand road at this fork. The right, 
she said, led to some spring." "Perhaps the Dogwood," said Horse 
Shoe ; " there is such a place somewhere in these parts." " The Dogwood — 
by my life ! She certainly called it the Dogwood spring," exclaimed Butler. 
"That's strange," said Horse Shoe, " unless you hearn someone tell about 
the spring afore you went to bed last night. For there is such a spring not 
far off — although I don't know exactly where." " I am more and more 
perplexed," said Butler, " for this morning Mary Musgrove cautioned me, 
in a whisper, to take the left-hand road at the fork ! " " There is some- 
thing wrong here," said Horse Shoe, gravely; " there is something wrong 
as sure as you are born. I didn't like the crossness of Wat's wife last 
night ; then what did the granny mean by her palaver about golden 
guineas in Wat's pocket — and the English officer? And the fuss and 
hinder this morning about the horses." " I will take the hint," said Butler. 
" Strike across into the left-hand road ; in this will I move no further." 

They turned into the thicket and proceeded across the space that filled 
up the angle made by the two branches of the road, Horse Shoe remark- 
ing that they " mought as well examine their fire-arms." He dismounted, 
and having primed his rifle afresh, attempted to fire it into the air, but it 
merely flashed without going off. This induced a second trial with the 
same results. Further investigation disclosed the fact that his rifle had 
been tampered with ; and Butler's pistols were also incapable of being 
used. This work had evidently been done while they were at breakfast. 
Their eyes were opened to the imminent perils that threatened, and they 
pursued their way on the constant lookout for a surprise. One man whom 
they met in the forenoon told them they were on the most direct road to 
Grindall's ford, and that the route they had abandoned would have con- 
ducted them to Dogwood spring — which was out of their proper course, 
and from which the ford might only have been reached by a difficult by- 
way. They rode on through the day, and as twilight faded in the western 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 203 

sky and the road in front of them was lost in darkness, a sense of imme- 
diate danger took possession of their minds. " I think I hear a wild sort 
of yell — like people laughing a great way off," said Horse Shoe. " Halt, 
major, there it is again." " It is the crying of a wild animal," said Butler, 
quietly, " and by my ear more than a mile from us." They jogged along, 
but Horse Shoe remarked, " It is more like the scream of drunken men. 
Hark ! I thought I heard the clatter of a hoof." The travelers again 
reined up and listened. " It is a deer stalking through the bushes," said 
Butler. " No ; that's the gallop of a horse making down the road ahead of 
us — as sure as you are alive. I heard the shoe strike a stone," said Horse 
Shoe. " Look to your pistols, major, and prime afresh." 

"We seem to have ridden a great way," remarked Butler. "Can we 
have lost ourselves?" "I have seen no road that could take us astray," 
replied Horse Shoe. " By what we were told just afore sundown we must 
be near the ford, and it is only three miles from that to Christie's. Wat 
Adair directed us there, and I have a mind to propose that since we caught 
him in a trick this morning, to make for some other house or spend the 
night in the woods." " I will be ruled by you," said Butler. "Isn't that 
the glimmer of a light yonder in the bushes?" exclaimed Horse Shoe. 
"There it is again — there is some devilment goin' on in these woods. I 
saw a figure pass in front of the light through the bushes. I would be 
willing to swear it was a man on horseback. Here we are at the river." 
They rode cautiously into the water, which was shallow, and had reached 
the middle of the stream when a bullet whistled near their ears. " Spur, 
and out on the other side; quick, they are upon us," said Horse Shoe. 
They gained the opposite bank, aware that a number of assailants had gal- 
loped into the river from different points, and they directed all their energies 
to out-run their pursuers, who were firing incessantly ; but in the very crisis 
of their escape Butler's horse, bounding under the prick of the spur, stag- 
gered and fell dead from a bullet of the enemy. Butler fell beneath the 
stricken animal, from whence he was unable to extricate himself. Horse 
Shoe sprang from his horse to assist him, and at the same instant the ruf- 
fians came up and surrounded them. " Bury your swords in both men to 
the hilt," shouted Hugh Habershaw. " I don't want that work to do to- 
morrow." " Stand off," cried one Gideon Blake, a stalwart woodsman, as 
two or three of the gang sprang to execute their captain's order. "The 
man is on his back; he shall not be murdered in cold blood." The assas- 
sins turned upon Horse Shoe, but another of the gang whom they called 
Peppercorn warded off the blows, crying, " Hold, you knaves ! This is 
my prisoner ; I will deal with him to my liking." 



204 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

The prisoners were then each mounted behind a trooper, and in this 
manner conducted back across the river. The saddle and other equip- 
ments were stripped from Butler's dead horse, and Horse Shoe's faithful 
charger was burdened with two of the enemy's wounded men whose horses 
had escaped when they fell, for Horse Shoe's rifle had been used vigor- 
ously. Two of the assailants had been killed outright. Butler tried to 
learn of his captors why he and his companion had been molested on their 
journey, and on what pretense arrested, but was silenced by the brutal 
commander, and Horse Shoe whispered, " It is my advice, major, to ax no 
questions of these blackguards." Peppercorn was a tall, well-proportioned 
man, neatly dressed in the uniform of a British dragoon; but most of the 
party might have been taken for banditti of the most undisciplined and 
savage class. Peppercorn managed to give the prisoners food, and when 
the excitement had subsided he took Butler's cloak from the baggage and 
spread it on the ground beneath the shelter of the shrubbery, and thus 
the suffering officer was able to take a little much-needed rest. Then 
turning to Horse Shoe, Peppercorn tauntingly whispered, " Mayhap thou 
knowest me?" "That I do, James Curry, and I have a mean opinion of 
the company you keep," was the quick retort. 

Captain Butler and Horse Shoe watched the course of events with 
keenest solicitude. They both understood the lawless habits of the rough 
men who had doubtless been hired to seize them. The morning dawned 
upon a strange scene. The drunken and coarse wretches of the night 
before were slow in making preparations for march. The prisoners were 
provided with two of the poorest horses of the troop and were escorted 
by four men under command of James Curry. About an hour after sun- 
rise they arrived at Christie's. A consultation between Curry and Haber- 
shaw seemed to bode no good to the prisoners, but they concealed their 
fears, and Horse Shoe took advantage of the drinking proclivities and 
exhilaration of the troopers to affect an easy tone of companionship, for 
the purpose of throwing them off their guard. He soon discovered that 
they were divided in sentiment respecting some important question about 
the disposition of Butler and himself, and he played the role of a boon 
companion, roared loudly with the rioters, and drank with them hilariously. 
" You mightn't be so jolly if some that took the trouble to catch you 
should have their own way," said one woodsman to him in a whisper. 
" It's a tight pull whether you are to be held a prisoner of war or shoved 
under ground this morning." A few moments later Habershaw appeared 
and ordered the execution of the prisoners — they were to be shot without 
delay. Instantly there was a mutiny among the men, and it was four 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 205 

against four : the mutineers demanding the safety of the prisoners until 
they were delivered to the commander of a regular post. They threatened 
Habershaw that if blood was spilled some of his own would be mixed with 
it. They looked ugly and determined. James Curry stepped in as peace- 
maker, and promised that the prisoners should be taken to a regular 
post. 

The good-nature of Horse Shoe was undisturbed, and he laughed and 
told stories with those who had taken up the cause of the prisoners, as if 
nothing had occurred of a serious import, and with characteristic shrewd- 
ness paid special compliments (in the thin guise of wit) to one of the gang, 
a man named Clopper, who evinced so much amiability that Horse Shoe 
contrived with him a secret interview, which resulted in the sly transfer 
of a piece of gold into the freebooter's hand. Presently the order to 
mount was given, and the troopers repaired to their horses, where a short 
time was spent in making ready for the march, after which the ill- organ- 
ized body returned to the porch and occupied the few minutes further 
delay in a boisterous drinking carousal. This was a period of intense 
interest to Horse Shoe, Clopper having lingered behind his comrades in 
the equipment of his horse, but he laughed at the rude jests and made 
merry with the crowd all the same. 

" Give me that cup," he said, finally, with a loud haw, haw, haw, to one 
of the men, pointing to a gourd on the table. " I have a notion to drink 
some water after all this liquor." And, walking deliberately to the draw- 
well, dipped in the gourd, and turned his back upon the company while 
he drank. Then, suddenly throwing the gourd away, he sprang toward 
his own trusty horse, leaped into the saddle at one bound, and sped like 
an arrow from a bow along the highway. This exploit was so swift in its 
execution and so entirely unexpected, that no one was aware of his purpose 
until he was twenty paces off. Then three or four rifle-shots were fired after 
him in rapid succession, and he was seen ducking his head and moving it 
from side to side, with a view to baffle the aim of the marksmen. The 
order " to horse " was obeyed with alacrity, but the bridles were all tied 
in hard knots in such a way as to connect each two or three horses 
together. Some delay was thus occasioned, and Curry was the first to 
disentangle his reins and dash after the prisoner, followed by two of the 
men, who returned in about half an hour and reported that they had been 
unable to overtake or even see Horse Shoe or Curry. It seems that 
Horse Shoe, glancing behind him, had observed that Curry was foremost 
in pursuit, and pulled up his horse as if to allow himself to be overtaken. 
Curry came up and laid his hand upon the bridle of Horse Shoe's horse; 



206 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

but, as Curry afterward related to Habershaw, " by some sudden sleight 
which he must have taught his horse, he contrived to upset me, horse and 
all, down a bank by the roadside. And when I lay on the ground sprawl- 
ing, the jolly runagate reined up and gave me a broad laugh, and asked if 
he ' mought be of any further sarvice to me ! ' He then bade me ' good- 
by,' saying he had an engagement that prevented him from favoring me 
any longer with his company." 

Horse Shoe's clever escape was to obtain help to rescue Butler, whose 
situation without Horse Shoe was no more perilous, although he was 
more rigorously guarded. When the party reached Blackstocks, a rude 
hamlet that had been made famous by the gallant repulse of Tarleton by 
Sumter, Butler was quartered in a barn and deprived of all personal com- 
forts, and when next they marched, he was compelled to walk. Dur- 
ing the night in the barn, Butler, pretending to sleep, heard the condition 
of the armies discussed by his guard and some militia-men, and could 
hardly forbear a smile when it was told that a vidette of the British had 
come scampering into the place that morning on a big black horse, all in 
a foam, to warn the people that Sumter was near Ninety-six. Haber- 
shaw, loitering by the barn-door, said there was not a word of truth in it, 
for Sumter was in North Carolina, marching toward Burk, and asked 
who saw the vidette. " The whole detachment," was the reply. " A 
queer fellow he was; had almost been caught by a pair of reconnoitering 
whigs a few miles back. He told us you were on the road." " We have 
seen nobody on the road. When did the man arrive ? " " About an 
hour before you. We asked him his name, and he said, with a great haw, 
haw, that he never was christened, but was called ' Jack-o'-Lantern,' and 
that if we wanted more of him we must give him a snatch of something 
to eat, which we did, and to drink also. Then he said he must have our 
landlord's sword, for his own had been torn from him by the whig troop- 
ers that pushed him so hard — and that the bill for it must be sent to Cru- 
ger. So we gave him the old cheese knife that used to hang over the fire- 
place, and he strung it across his shoulder. He laughed so hard, and 
seemed so good-natured that we treated him as well as we knew how. 
When he had mounted his horse again, he said Captain Habershaw was 
an old friend of his, and would be here presently and tell us all the news. 
Then away he went clinking it over the hills at the rate of twenty miles 
an hour." "A black horse, did you say?" asked Habershaw. " Had he 
a white star in the forehead, and hind legs white below the knee ? " " Ex- 
actly so," replied the man. " Horse Shoe Robinson, to be sure!" came 
from half a dozen voices. "The cunning old fox," exclaimed one of the 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 2QJ 

troopers ; " to think of his getting past the guard with a good dinner and 
a sword into the bargain ! " 

In the evening of the same day a knock was heard at the door of the 
little cottage of Allen Musgrove, the miller, on the banks of the Ennoree, 
which was near a small, low-browed mill, built of wood. The old man 
had just been reading a portion of Scripture, and was on his knees attend- 
ing family prayers, but he started up and asked, " Who raps? " A voice 
from without said : " A stranger, a poor fellow who has been hot pressed 
and hard run, and as harmless as a barndoor fowl." " I do not fear you," 
said Musgrove, opening the door. Horse Shoe strode into the apart- 
ment with cheerful words, and Mrs. Musgrove and Christopher Shaw, her 
nephew, placed some food before him. "Are you friend or foe? " asked 
Musgrove ; " I take no part in the war myself on either side." " Allen, I 
know you, and am not afeared to trust you. Perchance you mought have 
heard of one Horse Shoe Robinson, who lived over here at the Waxhaws? 
I won't tell you that he is here in your house to-night, for the tories might 
call you to account for harboring him. But I have had a hard time to get 
to you. An officer of the Continental army and me had been traveling 
through these parts, and most onaccountably ambushed by a half wild-cat, 
half bull-dog by the name of Hugh Habershaw, who cotch us in the night 
at Grindall's ford. I took the chance to slip the noose this morning, and 
after riding plump into a hornet's nest at Blackstocks, where I put on a 
new face and tricked the guard, I took a course for this mill, asking peo- 
ple along the road where I should find Allen Musgrove ; and so after 
making some roundabouts, and dodging into the woods until night come 
on to keep clear of the sodgers, here I am." 

"And the officer?" asked Mr. Musgrove. " In the hands of the mur- 
derers yet," replied Horse Shoe, " most likely now at Blackstocks. His 
name is Butler, a gentleman that has been used to tender life and good 
fortune ; he has lands on the sea coast, unless that new-fangled court at 
Charlestown they call seekerstations has nulled and voided them. We 
came now from Virginy, but lastly from Wat Adair's, who put us into the 
wild-cat's claws. There was a tidy, spruce, smart little girl there — maybe 
you know her, for her name is Mary Musgrove — -who managed to warn us 
there was harm in the wind, and we took her advice ; but it didn't do." 

" Our Mary ! our own Mary ! " exclaimed Mrs. Musgrove. " I wish 
the child was at home. It is an ill place for her at Wat Adair's," said 
Mr. Musgrove. " Christopher, at daylight to-morrow morning saddle a 
horse and be off to Adair's and bring Mary home." 

A few moments later Horse Shoe learned that Colonel Innis had some 



208 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

light corps stationed within two miles, and that the country was swarm- 
ing with troops of one kind or another. The British fort at Ninety-six was 
one side of him and Hanging Rock on the other. Colonel Innis was 
keeping the passage open, and almost hourly his men were passing. When 
Horse Shoe had finished his supper Mr. Musgrove invited him to join in 
the conclusion of the family worship which had been interrupted by his 
arrival, and they were about to retire for the night when the door was 
suddenly thrown open, and in rushed pretty Mary Musgrove, springing 
into her father's arms, from which she jumped to kiss her mother, ex- 
claiming, " I am so tired, so tired. I have ridden the live-long day — alone, 
and frightened out of my wits. Oh, father, there have been such doings! 
Ah ! here is Mr. Horse Shoe Robinson. Where is Major Butler? " 

She soon heard the eventful history of the last two days, and her 
mother caressed her, meanwhile feeding her as she would an infant, as she 
told of the wicked people in her uncle's house, who talked of mischief and 
murder. Her father walked to and fro, clenching his teeth with anger, 
for he knew that Mary's disclosures were the testimony of a witness whose 
senses could not be disturbed by illusions nor clouded by fear. When 
the family once more broke up for the night, Mary followed Horse Shoe 
to the foot of the stair to his attic chamber, and said in a half whisper: 
" I think John Ramsay might help you do something for Major Butler; 
he belongs to General Sumter's brigade. If you will go to his father's, 
six miles from here on the upper road to Ninety-six, you may possibly 
hear where John is. But maybe you are afraid to go so near the fort? " 
" It's a good thought, Mary," replied Horse Shoe. " I know the place, I 
know the family, and I know John himself. I want help now more than 
I ever did in my life. I'll start before daylight — for it won't do to skip 
round much in the sunshine with Innis's sodgers so nigh. So if I am 
missed to-morrow morning, let your father know how it happened." 

Just before daybreak next morning [which was Sunday] James Curry, 
returning from a mission to Ninety-six concerning the disposition of 
Butler, was riding leisurely through the woods toward Blackstocks — about 
four miles from Musgrove's mill — whistling and singing by snatches as he 
proceeded on his way. Suddenly, without the slightest warning, a blow 
was bestowed on the back of his head by what seemed a ponderous hand, 
that swayed him from the line of gravity — he reeled in his saddle and 
alighted on his back in the road, with one foot attached to the stirrup 
and the reins of his horse grasped firmly in his hand. " Singin' on Sun- 
day is agin the law," said a hoarse voice that came apparently from the 
air. Curry could see nothing in the darkness, and for the instant was 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 209 

panic-stricken with what seemed to him a mysterious visitation. He lay 
for a moment prostrate, then struggled to his feet and almost fancied he 
heard the dull beat of a horse's hoof in the distance. But even while strain- 
ing his ear to catch the sound again he was convinced that he had been 
mistaken, and drawing his sword all at once, called out, " Beware ! Who 
waylays me ? I warn him in the name of the king that I am on his 
Majesty's errand, and they are not far off who will punish any outrage on 
my person ! " Then, after a pause, exclaimed, " By all the powers, the 
place is bewitched ! " He crept trembling into his saddle and moved at 
first slowly forward ; then, hearing or seeing nothing, gradually increased 
his pace from a trot to a gallop and from that to almost high speed until 
he emerged from the wood into open country. About ten o'clock that 
morning he arrived at Blackstocks, and communicated certain orders to 
Habershaw, respecting Butler, from the commander at Ninety-six. Before 
noon the whole party, including the militia department, were on the 
march, compelling Butler to walk, and just before sunset arrived at the 
camp of Colonel Innis. 

On that same Sunday morning, about eight o'clock, Horse Shoe Rob- 
inson might have been seen leaving the main road from Ninety-six by a 
private path which led through the forest to the house of David Ramsay, 
which was situated on a by-road, not more than a mile from the principal 
route of travel between Ninety-six and Blackstocks. It is a matter of 
history that after the fall of Charleston and the rapid subjugation of South 
Carolina by the British, there were three bold and skillful soldiers, Marion, 
Sumter, and Pickens, who carried on the war of the patriots with a well- 
digested plan of annoyance, and under the most disheartening destitu- 
tion as regards means of offence that history records. They kept up an 
apparently hopeless partisan warfare with unparalleled bravery, amidst 
innumerable discomfitures, which contributed largely to the expulsion of 
the British power. In their plan of operations, Marion took the lower 
country under his supervision, Pickens the southwestern districts border- 
ing on the Savannah, and to Sumter was allotted the tract lying between 
the Broad and Catawba rivers from their junction below Camden, to the 
mountainous districts of North Carolina. Thus the high-road between 
Ninety-six and Blackstocks was almost as necessary for communication 
between Sumter and Pickens, as between the several British garrisons. 

Horse Shoe knew that Innis was encamped on the Ennoree, not far 
from Musgrove's mill, and he had met with considerable delay in his 
morning ride by the small foraging parties of the enemy that he was 
obliged to dodge, and coming in view of Ramsay's house, he resolved to 

Vol. XXVIII. -No. 3.— 14 



2IO THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

reconnoitre before advancing upon a post that might be in possession of 
the red-coats. He dismounted and fastened his horse in a fence corner, 
where a field of corn concealed him from notice, and then stealthily pro- 
ceeded until he came behind one of the out-houses, from which point he 
easily satisfied himself that he could enter the house without danger. 
Mrs. Ramsay recognized him at once, and told him her husband had gone 
to the meeting-house on the Ennoree, hoping to hear something of the 
army; and she asked him for news. His answer was characteristic of the 
man. He had brought no news, but, he said, " at this present speaking I 
command the flying artillery. We have but one man in the corps — and 
that's myself; and all the guns we have got is this piece of ordnance, that 
hangs in this old belt by my side (pointing to his sword), and that I cap- 
tured from the enemy at Blackstocks. I was hoping I mought find John 
Ramsay at home — I have need of him as a recruit." 

Mrs. Ramsay told him of the hard life her son John had with Sumter 
— "often without his natural rest or a meal's victuals" — and the general 
thinking so much of him that he could not spare him to come home. She 
said they had expected him that morning, but she was glad he did not 
come, for he would have been certain to get into trouble, for just after 
her husband left the house on his horse, a young cock-a-whoop ensign 
from Ninety-six, and four great Scotchmen in red coats, came along and 
swaggered about the house, calling for this and for that, and turning into 
the yard, killed as many of her chickens and ducks as they could string 
about them, and went on. " Who is at home with you ? " asked Horse 
Shoe, eagerly. " Nobody but my youngest boy, Andrew," answered the 
dame. "What arms have you in the house?" asked Horse Shoe. "We 
have a rifle, and a horseman's pistol that belongs to John — " " Which 
way did they go?" interrupted Horse Shoe. "Straight forward toward 
Ninety-six — but, Mr. Horse Shoe, you're not thinking of going after 
them ? " " Isn't there an old field about a mile from here on that road, 
and a shabby, racketty cabin in the middle of the field?" he asked, intent 
upon his own thoughts. "Yes," she replied. "And nobody lives in it; it 
has no door to it ? " "Mr. Horse Shoe, there has been no family there 
these seven years." 

" I know the place well," said Horse Shoe. It was raining, and he 
asked how long before the rain began it was that they quitted the house, 
and when she told him " not above fifteen minutes," he immediately 
asked for the rifle and pistol, and the powder horn and bullets ; and when 
she returned with them he asked for her boy Andrew, a lad about thirteen, 
who came at her call, his clothes dripping with rain. " How would you 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 211 

like a scrummage, Andy, with them Scotchmen that stole your mother's 
chickens this morning?" asked Horse Shoe. "I am agreed if you will 
tell me what to do," said the boy, with an open, fearless expression on his 
bright face. " You are not going to take my boy out on any of your des- 
perate projects, Mr. Horse Shoe ! " exclaimed the mother, with the tears 
starting to her eyes. " Bless your soul, there ar'n't no danger about it ! It's 
a thing that's either done at a blow or not done. I want the boy only to 
bring home the prisoners for me after I've took 'em. I give you my honor 
that I will bring or send him home safe in one hour, and he sha'n't be 
put in any sort of danger whatsomedever — " " It ain't nothing ! " inter- 
rupted Andrew, in a sprightly tone. " Pooh ! if I'm not afraid, mother, 
you oughtn't to be," and she sadly consented. 

Horse Shoe loaded the fire-arms, gave the pistol to the boy, and 
shouldered the rifle. He turned with a laugh as he was crossing the 
threshold, saying: "Andy and me will teach them Pat's point of war — we 
will surround the ragmuffins." Andy mounted the horse behind Horse 
Shoe, and as they rode along the soldier told the boy how to shield his 
pistol from the rain, and what to do if they found the party in the hut. 
" It is a supposable case," he said, " that when the rain begun they would 
go into the driest place they could find. Just at the edge of the woods 
you are to get down and put yourself behind a tree ; I'll ride forward as if 
I had a whole troop at my heels. And if it is as I expect they will have a 
little fire kindled, and, as likely as not, they will be cooking some of your 
mother's fowls. If I get at them onawares, they will be apt to think they 
are surrounded, and will bellow like fine fellows for quarter. And there- 
upon, Andy, I will cry out ' STAND FAST,' as if I was speaking to my own 
men ; then you are to come up full tilt, and run into the house and bring 
out the muskets, as quick as a rat runs through a kitchen ; and when 
you've done that, why, all's done. But if you should hear any popping of 
fire-arms — that is, more than one shot, which I might let off — do you take 
that for a bad sign and get away as fast as you can heel it. You compre- 
hend?" "Oh, yes," replied the lad; "I'll do what you want, and more, 
too, maybe, Mr. Robinson." " Captain Robinson ; you must call me cap- 
tain, remember, in the hearing of these Scotchmen," said Horse Shoe. 

They soon came in sight of the field, and smoke was indeed issuing 
from the chimney of the hovel. The boy was made to repeat the signals 
agreed upon and left behind, while Horse Shoe galloped across the inter- 
vening space, pausing in the doorway of the hut, and springing from his 
saddle stepped inside, with his rifle aimed at the little group round a fire. 
" Surrender," he shouted, " to Captain Robinson of the Free Will Volun- 



212 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

teers and the Continental Congress, or you are dead men ! " And with a 
voice of thunder he cried, as if speaking to a corps outside, " Halt! File 
off, cornet, right and left, to both sides of. the house ! " And to the men 
before him : " The first one of you that budges a foot from that there fire- 
place shall have fifty balls through his body ! " 

" To arms ! " cried the young officer. " Leap to your arms, men ! " 
But Horse Shoe was between them and the pile of muskets in the corner 
by the door, and the men did not stir. " I don't want yer blood, but if 
you move an inch I fire," said Horse Shoe, coolly. " Upon him at the 
risk of your lives ! " shouted the officer, discharging his own pistol, which 
by a sudden dodge of Horse Shoe failed of its mark. " Shall I let loose 
upon them, captain ? " called out Andy by the door, appearing most 
opportunely. " Not yet ; keep them outside ! STAND FAST ! " cried 
Horse Shoe. Then to the officer: " It's onpossible for me to keep my 
sodgers off a minute longer ; if you hope for quarter, give up." The lad 
meanwhile was calling off names, and the device convinced the young 
officer that resistance was hopeless. " Lower your rifle, sir," he said to 
Horse Shoe. " In the presence of a superior force, and being without 
arms, it is my duty to save bloodshed. With the promise of fair usage 
and the rights of prisoners of war, I surrender these men under my com- 
mand." Horse Shoe agreed to make fair terms, and ordered his supposi- 
titious troops outside : " Right hand file, advance and receive the arms of 
the prisoners ! " "I am here, captain," said Andy, and entering the hut he 
carried out the weapons. " Now, sir," said Horse Shoe to the officer, " your 
sword, and whatsoever else you mought have about you of the ammuni- 
tions of war." The young man handed him his sword and a pair of pocket 
pistols. "Your name, sir," continued Horse Shoe. " Ensign St. Jermyn, 
of his majesty's Seventy-first regiment of light infantry." " Walk out 
now and form in line at the door," said Horse Shoe. The prisoners 
obeyed, but when they saw only one horse, one man, and one boy they 
cursed a little, and laughed, and for a few minutes were about to turn 
upon their captors. But Horse Shoe's rifle was pointed toward them, 
and he told Andy to fire one of the captured pieces at the first man who 
opened his lips. " You have my word, sir ; lead on," said the officer. 

The prisoners were marched in front of the novel procession down the 
road to Ramsay's, Andy with all the fire-arms on his shoulders following 
Horse Shoe, who was leading his horse. " Well, Mistress Ramsay, your 
boy did excellent sarvice; these here men are his prisoners," said Horse 
Shoe, on their arrival. The Captives were conducted to a small log store- 
house, and locked in ; Andy was placed on guard. It was a little after 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 213 

noon, and the rain had ceased. David Ramsay, coming from church, 
recognized Horse Shoe, and on being told of the capture of the foraging 
party, inspected them through the chinks of their prison-house and laughed 
immoderately, but soon became grave and troubled. He had hitherto 
lived peaceably with his neighbors, maintaining a neutral position on the 
question of independence, although his eldest son was active in the field 
with Sumter. But he foresaw that the capture of these men and their 
confinement on his premises would decide his fate. In an earnest, confi- 
dential talk with Horse Shoe he proved an invaluable adviser as to the 
proper measures to be taken for the relief of Butler. 

As the afternoon waned, Mary Musgrove rode briskly into the yard, 
attended by her cousin, Christopher Shaw. They brought intelligence 
concerning Butler. While on the high-road near by, where that very 
morning James Curry had been struck down by a goblin, they met a mili- 
tary party of horse and foot, and were detained at the head of the column 
to answer questions. Christopher's replies were satisfactory. He was 
only riding with his kinswoman on a social visit to a neighbor — the country 
generally was quiet as far as he knew — and they were suffered to pass on. 
Mary had seen Butler on foot in the centre of a guard; and thus it was 
evident that he was already at Innis's camp. Horse Shoe at once recog- 
nized the fact that Butler was in the hands of those who had hired the 
ruffians to capture him, and would be summarily dealt with. 

He went to the storehouse, and directed Ensign St. Jermyn to follow 
him into the dwelling, and, giving him a chair, pen, and paper, said: 
"You will now write as I bid you." "To what end ?" asked the young 
officer. "To the settlement of your worldly affairs, if the consarns of 
to-morrow should bring ill-luck to a friend of mine. Tell your commander 
that you are in the hands of the continentals, and if any mischief is done 
Major Butler you are to die the first minute we hear of it," said Horse 
Shoe, sternly. The officer took up the pen, then flung it down again. " I 
will not write — do with me as you please," he said. " David Ramsay, get 
me a rope; this night he swings in the wind," exclaimed Horse Shoe, and 
took the cord that Ramsay supplied. " For God's sake, spare him ! " cried 
Mary Musgrove. " Mr. Ramsay can write a letter to Colonel Innis. " 
" Girl, get you gone ; this is no place for women. I've said it, and I'll do 
it," said Horse Shoe. Mary fled, sobbing, and St. Jermyn looked up : " I 
am young, sir, not above twenty, and I have a mother and sisters in Eng- 
land — " " We've no time to talk about kinsfolk ; Major Butler has those that 
love his life, and if they are brought to grief by the onnatural rascality of 
British officers, it matters not to me if every daughter and sister in Eng- 



"■ 



214 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

land pines away of heart-sickness for the loss of them they love best. 
Take my advice, and write the letter," said Horse Shoe sternly. 

Seeing it was his only chance for life, the letter was written ; and 
Horse Shoe and David Ramsay then went to the storehouse and promised 
the incarcerated men that if they would give their parole not to serve as 
soldiers until they were fairly exchanged they should be liberated before 
daybreak. The parole was duly signed by each. It was speedily arranged 
that Horse Shoe and Christopher Shaw should conduct St. Jermyn to 
some hiding-place in the mountains, and David Ramsay was to escort 
Mary back to her father's house, and concoct measures for the delivery of 
the letter. Colonel Innis had been conspicuous in the court of sequestra- 
tions at Charleston, and had much to do with the large property of Major 
Butler, which it was alleged would come into his possession for private 
and hazardous secret services, in the matter of seducing and bringing 
to the army of King George an opulent and authoritative gentleman of 
Virginia, Mr. Philip Lindsay. 

Early the next morning Butler was visited by the British officer, Cap- 
tain St. Jermyn, who proved to be an older brother of the young ensign 
captured by Horse Shoe. He came to inform Butler of his coming trial 
before a court of inquiry on a charge of " treason." Later in the forenoon 
Butler was conducted to the foot of a large mulberry-tree, where Colonel 
Innis presided at a table, around which were seated several officers, and 
four extraordinary charges were made against him, the second being his 
visit to the family of Walter Adair as a spy ! It was evident that his speedy 
execution was contemplated, and Butler listened to the iniquitous false- 
hoods in dismay. Many people had crowded near the table, among them 
a few venders of fruits and vegetables. A smart-looking girl carried a 
basket of mellow apples, and recommended them in such a sweet-toned 
voice that she easily made her way to the head of the table. " Buy my 
apples, three for a penny — they are ripe and mellow, sir," she said fear- 
lessly to Colonel Innis, her laughing blue eyes peering from the shade of a 
deep narrow sun-bonnet. The colonel selected a few apples, and the girl 
placed the basket on the table in the midst of the hats and swords, and 
every member of the court followed the example of the colonel. Then 
the pretty fruit merchant took up her burden, and retiring among the 
spectators walked up to the prisoner, courtesied, and presented him an apple, 
which was gratefully accepted. Shortly after this interruption the trial 
was resumed, and witnesses were called one after another to testify, includ- 
ing Curry, whose false statements shocked Butler more than aught else. 

(To be continued.} 



AN EARLY COMBAT IN VERMONT 

An old Greek grammar in my possession, entitled Iiistitntio Grcecce 
Grammatices, originally belonged to Rev. Stephen Williams, the son of 
the Rev. John Williams, of Deerfield, Massachusetts, who wrote The 
Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion. Rev. Stephen Williams was carried 
to Canada with his father, and " returned from Canada the 2ist day of 
November, in the year of our Lord 1705," as he himself states on the fly- 
leaf. On two of the blank leaves at the beginning of the book is an 
account of a skirmish with the Indians in 1709, which I have never seen 
in print. It is in Mr. Williams' handwriting. Mention of the skirmish 
is made in the appendix to the Redeemed Captive, found in the later 
editions, and in Judd's Hadley. The last named says: " In 1709, Captain 
B. Wright with about ten men crossed the wilderness to Lake Champlain. 
On the 20th of May they killed one Indian and wounded others near the 
lake. On their return they had a skirmish with a party of Indians on 
Onion river, and Lieutenant John Wells, of Deerfield, was slain ; John 
Burt, of Northampton, was slain or perished in the woods, and John 
Strong, of Northampton, was wounded. The General Court gave to 
Captain Wright £\2, and to nine men £6 each. They had a pocket- 
compass to guide them." Mr. Williams' account is as follows: "On the 
26th of May 1709 came in Captain Benjamin Wright, Henery Wright, 

John Strong, John Olmsted, Jonathan Hoit, Timothy Chit , Thomas 

Regan, Epraim , and Joseph , from the Lake, who had made attack 

upon eight Indians towards the east side of Lake, who recken they killed 
four and wounded a fith so ye boat padled away. When they were com- 
ing home upon the french river they saw a canoe with four Indians in it, 
shot upon it and killed two right out, wounded the other two, one of which 
jumpt out of the canoe which they killed as he was going upon the bank 
on the other side, but they started up an Englishman, which they had 
padle the canoe to y m , but the wounded Indian y l was in the canoe 
paddled the other way and the Englishman towards them, so y* they fell 
down the stream and got to neither shore. They bid this Englishman take 
up an hatchet and knock him on the head. He toke up a hatchet in order 
to do it, but the Indian took hold of it and got it away from him. They 
struggled and turned the canoe over. This Englishman was carried down 
the stream thirty or forty rods, so y' four men ran to help him, but two of 



216 earth's noblest men 

which made some stop to shoot at the Indian y t was turned out of the 
canoe with the Englishman, the other two ran yet lower & help this 
man out, but a company of Indians y' were below came upon these 
two men, killed one, namly John Wells; the other they shot with shot, 
but his wound is not dangerous, the said captive {i.e. the one hitherto 
called ' the Englishman ') took the said Wells his gun, but they were all 
quickly put to flight, the said captive they quickly lost. They likewise 
lost one John Burt, as they fled." 



Pratt Library, Baltimore. 




EARTH'S NOBLEST MEN 

A SONNET BY THOMAS MACKELLAR 



Some men are born t' endure the toil and strife 

And heavy burdens of the earth. They are 
The pillars in the temple of this life, 

Its strength and ornament; or, hidden far 
Beneath, they form its firm foundation-stone. 
In nobleness they stand distinct and lone ; 

Yet other men upon them lean, and fain 
(Such selfishness in human bosoms swells) 

Would lay on them the weight of their own pain. 
Where greatness is, a patient spirit dwells ; 

They least repine who bear and suffer most: 
In calm and stern endurance they sustain 
The ills whereof ignoble minds complain ; 

And in their lot they stand, nor weakly sigh nor boast. 

— Rhymes Atzveen Times. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES ON POEMS AND BALLADS 

RELATING TO MAJOR ANDRE 

But little of the poetry that concerns the plot in which Andre was 
engaged has decided merit ; most of it is mere doggerel and unworthy 
of preservation from a literary point of view. There is a value in the 
verses, however, more important than that bestowed by the approval of 
critics. They have helped to shape and to voice public feeling in regard 
to Arnold's treason and the actors in it, and by aiding right judgment in 
these particulars they have quickened the sense of patriotism as well. An 
index to periodical literature at any period indicates the taste and tend- 
ency of the time. By this means we know that while the public is fickle 
in its literary likings — as a rule — and may cease to care to-morrow for that 
which pleases it to-day, its interest in the Andre matter is perennial and 
as active now as it was one hundred years ago. The makers of verse 
may have been less prolific of good results in his case than the writers of 
prose, but they have not slighted him, and it would make an interesting 
exhibit to bring together all of the good, bad, and indifferent efforts in a 
single place. 

Before periodicals were widely circulated the earlier verses mentioned 
in these notes had a higher value than they have to-day. Issued in broad- 
side form, they were recited and sung throughout the land, and no one 
can estimate the influence they exerted for good in a patriotic way. At 
that period there were but few among the people who called Arnold's 
treason a "defection"; who questioned the justice of Andre's fate, or 
who doubted the motives of his captors. 

Fortunately for those who compose verses, the habit of reading them 
once formed is seldom recovered from, and demands a fresh supply of 
rhyme and rhythm day by day. Readers of verses, however, are equally 
blessed, for the propensity to write poetry is incurable, and the abundance 
of the product makes it one of the common luxuries of life. While the 
term "lovers of verse" does not comprise the whole of human kind, it 
does include all sorts and conditions of men, and until the millennium 
dawns there will be an influential class who place a lower value upon an 
essay or a story than they do upon a ballad or a song. As with poetry in 
general, so it is with that which relates to Andre' in particular : neithe.r the 
demand nor the supply seems likely to fail. 



2l8 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES ON POEMS AND BALLADS 

In the Magazine of American History [viii. 61-72] may be found an 
elaborate " Bibliography of Major Andre," by Charles A. Campbell, which 
contains many valuable suggestions to collectors of Andreana. The sub- 
division of the article on " Poems and Ballads " is but briefly treated, and 
the following supplementary references are reported for the benefit of 
readers who take an interest in the subject, with the hope that they will 
add to the list and complete it. 

That the number of poems relating to Andre must be large is indicated 
by the fact that the references given below were culled from a moderate- 
sized collection of books relating to the treason of Arnold, and from a 
miscellaneous library of similar proportions, neither of which had been 
gathered with reference to the subject-matter of this paper. 

1. Prophecy of Andre. An ode written in 1780. London, 1782. 

2. Remembrance. One of the last poems written by Miss Anna 
Seward. 1809. Refers to Andre and Honora. 

3. Andre. By McDonald Clarke. The Gossip. Gray & Bunce, New 
York, 1823. 

4. Andre". By Charles W. Upham. The Boivdoin Poets. Joseph 
Griffin, Brunswick, 1840. 

5. On Sir Henry Clinton's Recall. Author unknown. Vol. I. p. 270 ; 

6. West Point. By Margaretta V. Faugeres. Vol. I. p. 381 ; 

7. His Captors to Andre. By G. W. Miller. Vol. III. p. 354 ; 

8. Andre"s Request to Washington. By N. P. Willis. Vol. III. p. 415. 
Songs, Odes, and Other Poems. Collected and published by William 
McCarty, Philadelphia, 1842. 3 vols. 

9. Arnold ; or, the Treason at West Point. A Tragedy in Five Acts. By 
Horatio Hubbell. Philadelphia, 1847. 

10. The Highland Treason. By E. G. Holland. Essays and a Drama. 
Phillips, Sampson & Co., Boston, 1852. P. 241. 

11. Arnold and Other Poems. By J. R. Orton. Partridge & Brittan, 
New York, 1854. 

12. Andre'. A Tragedy in Five Acts. By W. W. Lord. Charles 
Scribner, New York, 1852. 

13. David Williams. By Alfred B. Street. Centennial Celebrations 
of the State of New York. Allan C. Beach, Albany, 1879. 

14. Sergeant Champe. Author unknown. Songs and Ballads of the 
American Revolution. Frank Moore. Appleton & Co., New York, 
1856. 

15. Washington. A Heroic Drama of the Revolution in Five Acts. 
By Ingersoll Lockwood. New York, 1875. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES ON POEMS AND BALLADS 219 

16. Washington. A Drama in Five Acts. By Martin F. Tupper. 
James Martin, New York, 1876. 

17. At the Andre Monument. By Minna Irving. Sunnyside Press, 
Tarrytown, N. Y., June, 1880. 

18. Lines on Andre and his Captors. Author unknown. 

19. Commemoration of t lie Capture of Andre. By " Elfride." 

The History of the County of Westchester. Rev. Robert Bolton. New 
York, 1 88 1. 

20. Andre'. By John Anketell. Centennial Souvenir of Monument 
Association of Captors of Andre. 1881. P. 129. 

21. Arno/d's Treason. By Henry W. Hurlbett. Life and Writings of 
Frank Forrester. Orange Judd & Co., New York, 1882. Vol. II. p. 272. 

22. Lossing. The Two Spies. Poem found on Field Monument at 
Tappan. New York papers, February 24, 1882. D. Appleton & Co., New 
York, 1886. P. 118. 

23. Major Andre and Arnold 's Treason.* ]■ }■ Sabin & Son's American 
Bibliophilist. New York. Vol. IV. p. 132. 

* This ballad is also given in McCarty's Songs, Odes, etc., vol. Hi., p. 70, under the title 
" Major Andre." The language differs widely in the two reprints, but Sabin's is a verbatim copy 
of a contemporary broad-sheet, and although Paulding masquerades as Spauldiug in it, the poem 
is without doubt a correct transcript. Such variations in readings are very common, and some- 
times equally curious as well. A comparison of two copies of the well-known "Acrostic on 
Arnold " may be of interest as an illustration of these facts. The first is in Andreana, Horace W. 
Smith, Philadelphia, 1865, p. 57; the second in The Frontiersmen of A T ew York, by Jeptha R. 
Simms, Albany, 18S3, p. 730. Other examples could easily be given, but this is selected on 
account of its brevity. 



Born for a curse to nature and mankind, 
Earth's broadest realms can't show so black a mind 
Night's sable veil your crimes can never hide, 
Each one so great would glut historic tide. 
Defunct, your cursed memory will live 
In all the glare that infamy can give ; 
Curses of ages will attend your name ; 
Traitors will glory in your shame. 

Almighty vengeance earnestly waits to roll 
Rivers of sulphur on your treacherous soul ; 
Nature looks down, with conscious error sad, 
On such a tarnished blot as she has made. 
Let hell receive you, riveted in chains, 
Doomed to the hottest of its flames.'' 



220 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES ON POEMS AND BALLADS 



24. Paulding the Patriot. By Minna Irving. Songs of a Haunted 
Heart. Belford, Clarke & Co., New York, 1888. 164. 

25. Major Andrfs Ride. By Thomas H. Farnham. The Sunnyside 
Press. Tarrytown, N. Y., February 23, 1889. 

26. West Point. By Leon Del Monte. Robert Clarke & Co., Cincin- 
nati, 1890. 

In fiction add : 

1. Secrets of Arnold's Treason ; or. Victors and Victims. By Charles 
Porter Sumner. Hilton & Co., New York, n. d. 

2. A Great Treason. A Story of the War of Independence. By Mary 
A. M. Hoppus. McMillan & Co., New York, 1883. 

3. Eventful Nine Days, September 23 to October 2, 1780. A Story of 
Andre the Spy, and Arnold the Traitor. Tarrytown Argus, December 19, 
1885. 



Born for a curse to virtue and mankind, 
Earth's darkest realm can't show so black a mind 
Night, sable night, thy crimes can never hide, 
Each is so great it gluts historic tide. 
Defunct, thy memory shall ever live 
In all the glare that infamy can give : 
Curses of ages shall attend thy name; 
Traitors alone shall glory in thy fame. 

Almighty vengeance waits to roll 

Rivers of sulphur o'er thy treach'rous soul ; 

Nature looks back, with conscious error sad, 

On such a tarnished blot that she had made. 

Let hell receive thee riveted in chains. 

D d to the focus of its hottest flames ! " 



Tarrytown, New York. 




JfuAaJs^j 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



[Continued from page 144] 
Arizona 



One of the " South Pacific " group of 
states. Area', 113,020 square miles ; 335 
miles wide, 390 miles long. Latitude, 
31 20' to 37" N.; longitude, 109 to 
114^45'W. Population in 1890,59,691. 
The name is from Arizonac, a district 
of the native Pima race. Its English 
meaning is not authoritatively denned. 
" Sand Hills," " Maiden Queen, " and 
" Silver Bearing " are among the fan- 
ciful translations. Nicknamed " the 
Apache State," from a warlike native 
tribe ; " the Sunset State," from the 
peculiar splendor of the evening skies. 
State motto, " Ditat Deus" = Let God 
enrich. 

Prehistoric. Ruins, relics, and tra- 
dition indicate that about the beginning 
of the Christian era Arizona was 
peopled by a race well advanced toward 
civilization. The surviving remnants of 
this race are found in the Pueblo native 
tribes, whose dwellings were the first of 
permanent character that were built in 
America. (See Bancroft, vol. xii., Ari- 
zona and New Mexico.) 

1539. Marcos de Niza, an Italian 
Franciscan, penetrates to the Gila valley 
with one Estivan (Stephen), a negro 
freedman. 

March. Niza first hears at Vacapa of 
the fabled "Seven Cities," for which 
prospectors have searched ever since. 

May 15-20. Estivan, sent in advance, 



reaches Cibola (Zuni), but is put to 
death for indiscreet attentions to the 
native women. 

May 22 (?). Niza advances to within 
sight of Zuni, erects a cross, claims the 
country for Spain, and retires, reaching 
the coast in June or July. 

1540, July. Vasquez de Coronado, 
with a considerable force of Spaniards 
and Indians, invades the territory from 
Mexico, and assaults the Pueblo towns, 
while Hernando de Alarcon ascends the 
Colorado river as far as the Grand Canon. 
The river was named Buena Guia by 
Alarcon, and Rio del Tizon, by Coro- 
nado. — Expedition of Captain Tobar. 

1541-1542. The breeding of horses 
and sheep probably introduced by the 
Spaniards of Coronado's army. 

1542, April. Coronado marches to 
the coast, leaving missionary friars to 
convert the natives. 

1543-1560. The Spanish records re- 
fer to the territory as " Primaria Alta," 
and " Moqui Province." 

1563-1565. A somewhat mythical 
expedition of one F. de Ibarra, who is 
said to have reached the Pueblo cities. 

1581-1583. Missions undertaken by 
the padres Roderiguez and Lopez, who 
are killed by Indians. — Don Antonio 
Espejo pushes a private exploration to 
the Pueblos, visiting seventy-four towns, 
and reckoning their aggregate popul'a- 



222 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



tion at two hundred and fifty-three 
thousand. 

1590, July 27. Caspar Castano de 
Soza, with one hundred and seventy 
intending settlers and a cumbersome 
wagon-train, marches from Texas. 

1591, January. He reaches the Pueb- 
lo region. 

March. Castano is arrested by order 
of the crown for conducting a " contra- 
band " expedition. 

1598. Don Juan de Ornate enters the 
present territory from New Mexico. 
Little is known of his visit. — Expedition 
of Captain Marcos Farfan. 

1599. March 2. Onate reports the 
conquest of New Mexico and Ari- 
zona. 

1600. First Jesuit missionaries visit 
the Pueblo towns but do not remain. 

1604, October 7. Onate undertakes 
and accomplishes a march from his head- 
quarters, in New Mexico, to the Pacific. 

1605, April 25. Returning, he reaches 
San Gabriel, N. M. 

1617-1620. Arrival of Padre Gero- 
nimo de Zarate Salmeron, and renewed 
activity of missionaries. 

1626. Alleged establishment of forty- 
six churches and conversion of sixty 
thousand natives. 

1630. The name Gila or Xila (river) 
first appears in Spanish official reports. 

1642-1660. Successive revolts of 
the natives against Spanish oppression, 
aided by the Apaches and other war- 
like tribes, leading to the final abandon- 
ment of the province. 

1661-1664. Governor Pefialosa visits 
the Pueblo towns. 

1680. The Spaniards are driven out 
bv the natives. 



1681. Governor Otermin partially re- 
subjugates the province. 

1692-1693. Reconquest by Don 
Diego de Vargos. 

1696. Renewed and partly successful 
revolt. 

1 698-17 1 1. Notable explorations and 
services pf the Jesuit Father Eusebio 
Francisco Kino, probably the first resi- 
dent Jesuit. 

1 70 1-1750. With the exception of 
the ever-present chance of an Apache or 
Navajo raid, the province is subjected 
to Spanish rule, and falls into the hope- 
less lethargy that inevitably resulted. 

1706. Captain Holguin storms the 
pueblo of Tehua, but is subsequently 
defeated by the Moquis. 

1736-1741. Silver mining excitement 
at Arizonac ; lands claimed for the 
crown. 

1748, December 20. Original issue 
of the Peralta grant, covering most of 
the Gila valley, subsequently confirmed, 
in its chief features, under American law. 

1750. Revolt of the Pima tribes. 

1751-1822. Period of confirmed Span- 
ish rule. Natives practically reduced to 
slavery under plea of Christianization ; 
fierce wars with the Apaches and other 
warlike tribes ; the country ruthlessly 
drained of its wealth for the benefit of 
Spain. 

1774. Expedition of Captain Juan B. 
Anza, reaching the California coast. 

1776. Permanent Spanish occupation 
of San Augustin del pueblito de Tucson. 
(The claims of Tucson to alleged earlier 
settlement are not regarded as valid.) 

1790. Beginning of mining opera- 
tions. 

1 790-1 810. Comparative peace with 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



223 



the Apaches, and beginnings of pros- 
perity. 

1 82 1. Archiepiscopal visit of Ber- 
nado del Espiritu Santo. 

1824. Establishment of the Republic 
of Mexico, including the present terri- 
tory of Arizona. 

1828. Missions suppressed by the 
Mexican government, and the whole 
territory raided by the Apaches and 
other savage tribes. 

1829-1836. Explorations of Kit Car- 
son, Pauline Weaver, Ewing Young, Da- 
vid Jackson, and others. 

1832— 1836. Fierce wars with the 
Apaches ; Mexican settlements practi- 
cally exterminated. 

1836. The Apaches, previously 
friendly, become hostile to Americans 
in consequence of overbearing treat- 
ment ; twenty-two trappers (Kemp's 
party) killed on the Gila river. 

1842-1843. War with the Papagos 
and Gila tribes. 

1848, July 4. A large part of the ter- 
ritory acquired by the United States by 
purchase ($15,000,000), and as a result 
of the war with Mexico. (Treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo.) 

1 849-1850. Large numbers of emi- 
grants cross Arizona en route to the Cali- 
fornia gold fields. 

1850. Territory of New Mexico or- 
ganized, including part of Arizona. 

1850, November 27. Camp Indepen- 
dence, afterward Fort Yuma, established 
by Captain Heintzelman. This post 
became Arizona City in 1854. 

1 85 1, January. Survey under Lieu- 
tenant Geo. H. Derby, U. S. A. (After- 
ward widely known in literature under 
the pseudonym of John Phoenix.) 



1 85 1. First government exploration 
under Captain L. Sitgreaves. (Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, 1853.) 

1852, December. First steamboat on 
the Colorado, the Uncle Sam, Captain 
Turnbull. 

1854-1861. Period of pioneer settle- 
ment and establishment of American 
military posts. No attempt at civic or- 
ganization. 

1854. January. Second steamboat, 
the General Jesup, Captain Johnson. 
(Boiler burst in August.) 

Pacific Railway survey on the thirty- 
fifth parallel, under Lieutenant A. W, 
Whipple, U. S. A. (Report published, 
Washington, 1856.) 

June 30. Proclamation of the " Gads- 
den purchase," transferring additional 
territory to the United States and re-ad- 
justing the Mexican boundary to include 
Mesilla valley, etc. (Price $10,000,000. ) 

August 4. The Gadsden purchase 
added to New Mexico by Congress. 

1855. Adjustment of boundary line 
with Mexico. Major (afterward Gen- 
eral) W. H. Emory, commissioner for 
the United States ; Jose Salazar Uarregin 
for Mexico. 

Continuous steam navigation estab- 
lished. 

1856. Henry A. Crabb, of California, 
leads a filibusters' expedition into Mex- 
ico. He is defeated and killed. 

1858. First newspaper published at 
Tubac, The Weekly Arizonian. Discov- 
ery of gold placers on the Gila river ; 
mining towns established. 

i860, April 2-5. Constitutional con- 
vention at Tucson. Provisional govern- 
ment established, with Dr. L. S. Ow- 
ings, of Mesilla, as governor. 



224 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



1 86 1, August. Secession. A con- 
vention held at Tucson declares Arizona 
a part of the Southern confederacy and 
elects a delegate to its congress. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John R. Baylor, 
C S. A., invades Arizona from Texas. 
Retreat of United States garrisons. 
The Apaches murder all settlers re- 
maining. 

1862. Captain Hunter, C. S. A., 
takes possession of Tucson for the 
Southern confederacy. 

1862, May. The " California col- 
umn," under Colonel James H. Carleton, 
drives out the confederates, re-garrisons 
United States posts, and holds Arizona 
for the Union. 

Mining towns on the Gila destroyed 
by floods. 

1863, February 24. Arizona made a 
United States territory, with the capital 
at Tucson, John N. Goodwin, governor. 

1864. Four counties formed ; namely, 
Pima, Yuma, Mojave, and Yavapai. 
Mining laws of Arizona published at 
Prescott. 

1865. Richard C. McCormick, gov- 
ernor. Publication at Prescott of the 
" Howell Code." 

1868. Mormon colonization move- 
ment begins. 

1869. Adventurous trip of Major J. 
W. Powell down the Colorado. (Wash- 
ington, 1875.) 

1869-1877. A. P. K.Safford, governor. 

1870. Population by United States 
census, 9,658. Town site of Phoenix 
surveyed, but Apache raids prevented 
permanent settlement. 

1 87 1. Maricopa county formed. 

1 87 1. Massacre of Camp Grant. 
Many Apaches killed by citizens. 



General George Crook begins opera- 
tions against the Indians. (See On the 
Border with Crook, by Captain J. G. 
Bourke, U. S. A., Scribner's, 1891.) Fu- 
tile peace negotiations by Vincent Colyer. 

1871-1878. Surveys of Captain 
George M. Wheeler, U. S. A. (Reports 
United States Geological Survey.) 

1872. "The Diamond Hoax." A 
district supposed to be in Arizona, but 
really in Colorado, " salted " with dia- 
monds. Fraud exposed by Clarence 
King. 

1875. Pinal county organized. Nar- 
rative of Chas. D. Poston published. 

1877-1878. John P. Hoyt, acting 
governor. Prescott made the capital. 

1878. The Southern Pacific Railway 
reaches the border of the territory. 

1879. Apache county formed. 
1879-1881. John Charles Fremont 

governor. 

1880. Population by United States 
census, 40,440. The Southern Pacific 
Railroad reaches Tucson. 

1881. Cochin, Graham, and Gila 
counties formed. 

1881-1882. John J. Gosper, acting 
governor. 

1882-1883. The Apaches break from 
their reservation and renew hostilities, 
but are subdued by General Crook. 

1882-1885. Frederick A. Tritle, gov- 
ernor. 

1883. Completion of the Atchison, 
Topeka, and Santa Fe railroad to the 
Colorado river. 

1 885-1 889. C. Meyer Zulick, gover- 
nor. 

1886. Territorial Normal School es- 
tablished at Tempe, Maricopa county. 

1886. Practical subjugation of the 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



225 



Apaches by United States force under 
General Crook. 

1889, January 24. Act passed by the 
legislature removing the territorial capi- 
tal from Prescott to Phcenix, Maricopa 
county. (See February 4, 1890.) 

1889. Lewis Wolfley, governor. 

1890. Indian outbreak ; many set- 
tlers killed. 



1890. Population by United States 
census, 59,691. 

1890, February 4. Phcenix, Maricopa 
county, becomes the territorial capital. 
(Act of January 24, 1889.) 

1890, September. Resignation of Gov- 
ernor Wolfley ; Nathan O. Murphy, act- 
ing governor until October. 

1891-1895. John N. Irwin, governor. 




( To be continued) 



Vol. XXVIII No. 3.— 15 



MINOR TOPICS 
HON. FRANCIS AQUILA STOUT 

In the death of Mr. Stout, suddenly from pneumonia, at the Thousand Islands, 
Alexandria Bay, New York, July 18, 1892, the American Geographical Society has 
lost its senior vice-president, and one of its ablest and most efficient supporters. 
Mr. Stout was educated as an engineer in Paris and as a barrister in New York ; 
he was one of the founders and commissioners of the New York State Survey, and 
formerly president of the Nicaragua canal company ; was one of the commission- 
ers to the French Exposition in 1889, and one of the vice-presidents of the Geo- 
graphical Congress at Berne in 1891. The Gaiignani Messenger, Paris, France, 
says of him : " Possessing an ample fortune he devoted himself assiduously to 
scientific studies, and to charitable works, and was president and director of 
many important charitable associations in New York. His vigorous intellect, 
his large experience, his varied culture, his charming manners, and his hon- 
orable character, won him a multitude of warm friends both in America 
and Europe, who will deeply feel his loss. Mr. Stout belonged to a historic 
family. His paternal grandfather owned and resided in the famous Philipse 
manor-house, now the city hall of Yonkers. His maternal great-grandfather, 
Colonel Lewis Morris, signed the Declaration of Independence, whose grand- 
father, Richard Morris, was founder of the manor of Morrisania. Mr. Stout's 
great-granduncles were General Staats Long Morris, M. P. and governor of 
Quebec, who married the duchess of Gordon ; and Gouverneur Morris, a member 
of the Continental Congress, assistant minister of finance in the Revolution, one of 
the framers of the Constitution of the United States, and minister to France in the 
trying period from 1791 to 1794. It was Gouverneur Morris who endeavored to 
save the life of Louis XVI., failing in which he loaned two hundred thousand 
francs to Louis Philippe, and performed many other generous acts towr.rd the 
French people. Mr. Stout married the eldest daughter of General Meredith Read, 
great-great-granddaughter of George Read the signer of Independence, who sur- 
vives him, also his widowed mother at the age of eighty-seven in full possession of 
her vigorous faculties, and a sister, Madame de Vaugrigneuse, widow of Baron de 
Vaugrigneuse, formerly French charge d'affaires at various European courts." 



THE EXHIBIT OF AMERICAN HISTORY 

One of the largest exhibits at the World's Fair, and one that will give great 
satisfaction, is that of American history, from the earliest archaeological times to 



MINOR TOPICS 227 

to-day. It is in charge of Professor Putnam, of the Peabody Museum of American 
Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University, and will occupy the large space 
of one hundred and sixty thousand feet in the building of manufactures and the 
liberal arts. The exhibit will include archaeology, history, cartography, and a 
Latin-American bureau, together with various collective and isolated exhibits. 
The archaeological exhibit will be specially interesting. Until lately, it was thought 
that man was of far more recent origin in America than in Europe, but some late 
discoveries have proved to the contrary, and the oldest traces of mankind on earth 
have been found in America. 

The second prehistoric period will be represented by objects from shell heaps, 
ancient village sites, burial places, mounds, earthworks, ancient pueblos, cliff 
houses, caves, and the ruined cities of Mexico, Central and South America, etc. 
Tire most distinctive earthworks and mounds of the central portion of this country, 
to which Professor Putnam has given special study, will be represented by sets of 
accurate models. Various state historical societies will make valuable contribu- 
tions in this line. Portions of the famous great stone structures of Central Amer- 
ica, Mexico and South America will be shown in actual reproduction from molds, 
with their elaborately artistic architecture. There will also be plans, photographs 
and paintings, illustrating many details, together with casts and photographs of 
inscribed tablets. A reproduction of the great " Portal of Labna " will form an 
imposing entrance to one portion of the exhibit. The material collected this year 
by the Peabody Museum Honduras expedition, including molds of the enormous 
monoliths and altars of the ancient ruins of Copan, elaborately ornamented with 
figures in high relief and strange hieroglyphs, will be loaned. 

Much will depend upon what the Latin-American countries will do in this 
matter ; for with proper cooperation from them, we may hope for a brilliant dis- 
play. The ethnological section will show the primitive modes of life, customs and 
arts of the Esquimaux, Indians, Aztecs, and other natives. There will be repre- 
sentatives of the tribes of four hundred years ago, and of every Indian tribe living 
to-day. 

The historical section will illustrate not only our political history but our 
artistic, architectural, etc., development ; the inventions made ; changes from the 
early log-cabin — of which there will be a perfect fac-simile — to the palaces of to- 
day ; and from the primitive furniture to that now in use. In fine, there will be 
a complete exhibit of the history of America, there being but one limitation, that 
all exhibits relating to the civil war are to be excluded — perhaps a wise action. 

When we consider that the exposition is held for the purpose of commemorat- 
ing the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America and to show the 
progress the country has made during these four centuries, it must be frankly 
admitted that this is the most important exhibit of all, and it is fortunate that it 
promises to be so complete and satisfactory. — The Times-Democrat, New Orleans. 



228 MINOR TOPICS 



WISCONSIN'S PRICELESS HISTORIC TREASURES 

The state Historical Society of Wisconsin is the trustee of the state, and is in 
many respects on the same footing as the state bureaus. In the management of 
this society no consideration is given politics, it being absolutely free from political 
control. It is a great public institution in which all take pride, and which 
embraces a membership made up of all shades of political and religious opinion. 
Those who visit the library expecting to find current literature stacked upon its 
shelves will be disappointed. The collection is purely historical. It is a great 
reference collection, the finest in some respects on this continent. It contains 
treasures that money could not buy stored away for the information of posterity — 
rare manuscripts, books and papers of inestimable value. From the files of Wis- 
consin newspapers a pretty fair history of the state might be compiled. In them 
are printed the tales and reminiscences of the pioneer antedating the advent of the 
press in the state. The old-fashioned advertisements tell the simple story of com- 
merce in the days when men traded for value received, and when grain was bought 
and sold without knowledge of option trading. What people ate, drank and wore, 
what it cost to live and to die and be buried before the advent of railroads in the 
wilderness, or steamboats upon the lakes, can be found in the old territorial prints. 
And there is a wealth of them in these historical rooms. 

In the eighty-five thousand volumes which line the shelves of the library are 
many rare books. The collection of seventy thousand pamphlets is almost as 
valuable, while the gallery of portraits and curios enchains attention. But the 
student of Dutch literature will find the Tank library the greatest collection of its 
kind on the continent. It is principally in the Dutch language, and was given the 
society in 1866 by Mrs. Otto Tank, now deceased, of Fort Howard, Wisconsin. 
The books, some five thousand, came to her by will of her father, and cost the 
society nothing except the freight from Amsterdam, where Mr. Van der Meulen 
died. Many are finely illustrated, and nearly half of them are bound in vellum 
and printed on paper that will hold the fadeless ink for ages. There are old edi- 
tions of the classics, atlases, charts, several Bibles, historical works, early lexicons, 
religious prints, etc. The oldest printed book owned by the society is the sermons 
of Albert Magnus, issued at Cologne in 1474. Surely the art of printing was born 
full grown, for this rare old work, issued but nineteen years later than the first 
printed book in existence (dated 1455), can be studied by type founders with 
profit to-day, after four hundred and eighteen years of progress in the art. A 
medical treatise by Savonarola in 1479, and a rosary of sermons by Bernardino in 
1503, The Nuremburg Chronicle, a huge six-hundred-page hogskin-bound folio, 
with twenty-two hundred and fifty illustrations by Wohlgemuth, printed in 1493, 
are also worthy the time given in seeing and describing. Possibly the Chronicle 
is the quaintest book in existence. It purports to be a history of the world from 



MINOR TOPICS 229 

the advent of man to the day of judgment, and the illustrations of what has been 
and is to come are simply indescribable. The prophetic and religious thought 
stands at a wonderfully higher level now than when the compilers of this old 
curiosity lived and dreamed. 

Of the Lyman Draper collection of old manuscripts one might study it for years 
and not exhaust the subject. Very few of these have been published, but it doubt- 
less will some day find an editor. They cover the entire history of the struggle for 
the northwest from the first fight (1742) with the Indians in the Virginia valley to 
the battles in 1813-14, when the Creeks were vanquished, and in one of which 
Tecumseh was sent to the happy hunting grounds. 

The society is rich in autographs and letters from the famous men of America. 
The most notable collection is that of the signers of the declaration of indepen- 
dence and the constitution. There are but twenty-two complete sets of these in 
the world, and it is scarcely possible that another can at this late day be added. 
The first set was completed in 1835 D Y Dr. Sprague, of Albany, after twenty years 
of labor. It took sixty years of research to secure the sets now completed, these 
consisting not merely of signatures, but comprising letters or other documents in- 
scribed by these old patriots, whose memories will live as long as the nation en- 
dures. The society is especially strong in Wisconsin documents, old merchandise 
accounts, books, etc. Of fur trade manuscripts alone there are about one hundred 
and twenty thick folios, which form quite a storehouse of information of value re- 
garding pioneer families and early days. The society has published eleven five- 
hundred-page volumes of Wisconsin historical collections, and these will be added 
to as data accumulate. 

The ethnological museum and the portrait gallery are places of absorbing in- 
terest, but the bound files of old newspapers are the centre of attraction. Dating 
from 1720 to this morning one may here study an unbroken series of American and 
foreign newspaper files. The thread of continuity has been preserved for a period 
covering about one hundred and seventy years. Publishers and publications have 
come and gone, but the records of the years and of their labors are here preserved 
so that some files cover every day of the time. About five thousand five hundred 
of these files are of papers printed outside of the state ; many of them are from 
various foreign countries. In most cases the files date with the first issue of the 
papers and often end with the last, for newspapers, like men, have both a beginning 
and an end. The oldest American newspaper, if it can be so classed, that is shown 
at Madison is a religious weekly. It is a four-page leaflet in make-up, styled the 
Philadelphia Independent Whig. The numbers are from January to December, 
1720, and bound in one thin volume. The modest editor says he wishes that 
others more gifted had essayed his task, but as they had failed of their duty his 
was clear. He was bound to reform the people, as they needed religious reforma- 
tion very badly. His paper is filled with lay sermons and advertisements of relig- 
ious books and tracts, in which the depth and intensity of the fires of Hades were 



230 MINOR TOPICS 

given occasional mention. Next in point of age comes the Boston Gazette, weekly, 
of February 17, 1724. This paper was right up to time with news from Paris, its 
advices being only six months old and dated August 14, 1723. Its London budget 
left that historic town just one month later. The first copy of the old Boston 
Gazette was issued Monday, December 21, 17 19, but the Historical society does 
not possess that number. 

The first newspaper printed on Wisconsin soil, then a part of the territory of 
Michigan, was the Green Bay Intelligencer. The initial number of this semi- 
monthly was issued December n, 1833, and the editors were J. V. Suydam and 
A. V. Ellis. Navarino was the point of publication, and the Intelligencer was a 
very creditable four-column folio, neat typographically and well edited. The edi- 
tors state that the " advancement of the interests of the country west of Lake 
Michigan" is their object in going into the newspaper business, and promise to issue 
the paper weekly "after navigation opens," if they are favored with due support. 
They spell it " Wiskonsin " and have no space for local pick-ups or personals, but 
find room for a fair amount of display advertising. There are about two thousand 
volumes of Wisconsin newspapers in the library, and now every publication of 
value in the state is received for binding. 



MOSES HOPKINS, OF CALIFORNIA 

Achievement may or may not be in consequence of ability, for much depends 
upon environment. I was struck by the recent remark of a friend : " How I would 
enjoy some knowledge of an unknown Roman ! I have heard so much about 
Caesar and the rest of his kind that I am tired of it." This brings me to the 
threshold of a biographical study of a man of substantial prominence in the 
metropolis of the Pacific seaboard. The family name of Moses Hopkins is a 
part of the history of this western world. His lineage is traced through an un- 
broken line of ancestry to England, and members of the Hopkins family exer- 
cised an important influence on the early history of New England. Among the 
potent agencies which were felt for years in the formative period of civilization 
in California — and the present is a part of that period — that of Moses Hopkins 
was pronounced and far-reaching. It is for the interest of the state, and of man- 
kind, that he should be known and remembered. He was born in 1818, and in 
1 85 1 went to California with his brother, Mark Hopkins, who was one of the 
pioneers to that land in 1849, an d they had many ventures in common. To plan 
and start the work, and to keep it going and finish it, are two different kinds of 
energy ; and if Mark was fertile in conception, Moses was not less able in perform- 
ance. To go forward with confidence and vigor constituted the distinguishing 
trait in the character of Mark Hopkins, and perhaps entered as largely into his 
great success as a factor in the development of the Pacific coast as any other 
force. — Hubert Howk Bancroft's Chronicle of the Builders. 



NOTES 

NOTES 



231 



GOUVERNEUR MORRIS IN PARIS On 

the 14th of December, 1789, Gouverneur 
Morris jotted the following in his diary : 
" At Madame de Chastellux's to-day we 
have a large breakfast party, and the 
Abbe Delille reads, or rather repeats, to 
us some of his verses, which are fine and 
well delivered. Go to the Louvre. The 
bishop is there ; he mentions a plan for 
issuing billets d'etat, bearing interest. I 
show him the folly of such a measure. 
He says it is a plan of Montesquieu's, to 
which I reply that as none of the plans 
likely to be adopted are good, they may 
as well take that of M. Necker, since 
otherwise they enable his friends to say 
that the mischief arises from not having 
followed his advice ; that, besides, if 
paper money be issued, that of the 
Caisse is quite as good as any other. 
He says that by taking a bad step 
France may be ruined. I tell him that 
is impossible, and he may tranquillize 
himself about it ; that whenever they 
resort to taxation credit will be restored, 
and, the credit once restored, it will be 
easy to put the affairs of the Caisse in 
order. Go to the Palais Royal, not hav- 
ing been able to leave Madame de Fla- 
haut till four. I arrive when dinner is 
half over. After dinner the Abbe De- 
lille entertains us with some further repe- 
titions. Go to the club, and thence to 
the Comte de Moustier's. Sit awhile 
with him and Madame de Brehan. Go 
together to Madame de Puisignieu's. 
Spend the evening. Conversation chiefly 
with De Moustier. I find that, notwith- 
standing public professions as to the 
public proceedings of America, both De 



Moustier and Madame de Brehan have a 
thorough dislike to the country and its 
inhabitants. The society of New York 
is not sociable, the provisions of America 
are not good, the climate is very damp, 
the wines are abominable, the people are 
excessively indolent." 



Canada weather in 1777 — In a pri- 
vate letter from an officer in Canada, 
dated March 9, 1777, the writer says: 
" Canadians unite in declaring that they 
have never experienced such a winter as 
the one we have just passed through. 
As for ourselves, we have noticed no 
perceptible difference between the cold 
here and that of our own country, though 
we were astonished at the even tempera- 
ture. Since the 27th of last November, 
when we had our first snow and ice, we 
have had neither rain nor thaw ; in con- 
sequence of which the snow and ice 
have been with us ever since. There 
have been numerous and heavy falls of 
fine, dry snow, which seldom last longer 
than twelve hours. It can therefore 
easily be imagined that the earth be- 
comes covered with ice and snow to a 
depth of five or six feet. The natural 
weight of the snow, and the sun, which 
is warmer in Canada than with us at 
home, contract the snow into a solid 
mass, upon which you can walk, and ride, 
if necessary, on cold days." — Revolution- 
ary Letters, translated by Wm. L. Stone. 



Teaching history— The following 
suggestions are the result of wide expe- 
rience, and come to us from a notable 



232 



QUERIES — REPLIES 



teacher : " Bear constantly in mind that 
the mere statement of historic facts will 
create no interest. Do not require your 
pupil to recite in the exact language of 
the text-book. An event always has a 
cause ; you should induce your class to 
find the immediate, material, remote, and 
original cause of an important event in 
every instance where practicable, and 
thus teach intelligently the principles of 
research after truth. Make thinkers of 
your pupils, and encourage inquiry at all 
times. The conversational method in 



the class is usually an advantage, as it 
awakens enthusiasm and obviates the 
dullness of simple recitation. Study 
history, from time to time, through biog- 
raphy. Be prepared at all hours to as- 
sist your pupils in the acquisition of the 
knowledge of civil government. Call 
attention to the dates of great events 
through the celebration of their anniver- 
saries. Encourage reading by selecting 
and recommending the clearest and most 
simply written historical books and es- 
says." 



QUERIES 



Great literary men among the 
ancients — Editor Magazine of Ameri- 
can History : Will you or some of your 
readers, through your priceless maga- 
zine, inform me who stated that the 
greatest Pelasgian was Homer ; the 
greatest Hebrew, Isaiah ; the greatest 
Roman, Juvenal ; the greatest Italian, 
Dante ; and the greatest Briton, Shake- 
speare? And if the statement is sup- 
posed to be authoritative ? 

P. C. Dillingwood 

New Orleans, Louisiana 



First great painting in the world 
— What picture is said to be the first 
picture in the world, and by whom was 
it painted ? 

Teacher 

Madison, Wisconsin 



The most important invention — 
What is the most important invention 
ever made by man ? 

Americus 

Bar Harbor 



REPLIES 



Origin of the name cuba [xxviii, 75, 
152] — To the Editor Magazine of Ameri- 
can History : In reply to the question by 
Mr. Ware, contained in the July number 
of your magazine, and in which he asks 
for the origin of the name Cuba, I have 
much pleasure in transmitting the fol- 
lowing : The Indian name of the island 
was Cubanacan, which means, literally, 



the middle or centre. The Spaniards 
dropped the termination nacan, and so 
Cuba remained. 

R. M. Bartleman 
Legation of the United States 
Caracas, July 19, 1892 



The tub of diogenes [xxviii, 75] — 
This tub was a great earthen jar that 



REPLIES 



^33 



had been thrown away after much use in 
holding wine or oil for the sacrifices of 
the temple. It was long enough and 
large enough for Diogenes to lie in it at 
full length, and he kept house in it, so to 
speak. As Diogenes was a Greek phi- 
losopher who lived about 470 B.C., and 
wrote a work on Nature, it is interesting 
to note his philosophy of life at that 
early period in the world's history. 
When he went to Athens he visited and 
studied with Antisthenes, the founder of 
a society of philosophers called " Cyn- 
ics " — the Greek word meaning "like 
a dog " — the members being severely 
democratic, despising the riches and arts 
of life. Diogenes dressed in the coars- 
est of clothing, and accustomed himself 
to endure all sorts of hardships : in or- 
der to be able to bear both heat and 
cold, he rolled himself in the hot sand in 
summer, and in winter embraced statues 
covered with snow. His whim of living 
in an old discarded jar was not his whim 
alone. The poor are said to have used 



such vessels for dwellings before and 
after his time. Diogenes would often 
walk out in mid-day with a lighted lan- 
tern, peering round as if looking for 
something, and when questioned would 
answer gravely : " I am searching for an 
honest man." One morning Alexander 
the Great saw him sitting in his tub in 
the sunshine, and in an arrogant tone 
said : " I am Alexander the Great." 
The philosopher curtly replied : " I am 
Diogenes the cynic." Alexander in- 
quired if he could do him any service. 
" Yes," said Diogenes, " don't stand be- 
tween me and the sun." Alexander, 
much surprised, remarked : " If I were 
not Alexander, I would be Diogenes." 
The philosopher was once captured by 
pirates, and offered for sale as a slave in 
the market in Crete. Some buyer asked 
him what he could do. " I can govern 
men," was his prompt reply, "and should 
be sold to some one who wants a master." 

worthington harebell 
Chicago, Illinois 



HISTORIC AND SOCIAL JOTTINGS 

The coming- Columbian Exposition has now assumed proportions that the wildest 
stretch of imagination could hardly have anticipated a few months ago. The nation is 
deeply involved in its success, and the whole world is vigorously preparing to participate 
in its developments. Even in prospect it is vividly bringing to the front in every variety of 
pictorial and written language the knowledge that was possessed by the early discoverers 
of this western continent ; and the extraordinary enthusiasm that is pervading every class 
of society, from ocean to ocean, is but the simple and eloquent expression of American 
intelligence and appreciation. The light which is being turned on to illuminate the cen- 
turies gone by will shine into the future with a brilliancy little anticipated by the projectors 
of this gigantic celebration. 



Patriotism is a simple but very musical word of four syllables. The small boy defined 
it as " loving me-self lots," and when its meaning was carefully explained to him, he asked 
wonderingly and innocently, "isn't me-self me-country ? " It may be that children of 
mature growth sometimes misplace self in their estimate of services for the public welfare ; 
possibly have learned the little couplet by heart at some period of their early education : 

" Be self your first and greatest care, 
From all reproach the darling spare," 

and unify themselves so completely with their country as to lose the power to distinguish the 
relative magnitudes of the two ingredients. Heroism is consciousness of might. Patriot- 
ism is the us-e of power for the defense of country irrespective of self-interest. It is love in 
its highest and best sense, directed to the noblest of all objects. In the language of one of 
our greatest divines, " we are thrilled with a presentiment of the wider years and vaster 
ages of American history that are surely forward of us, and that in serious measure are to 
be determined in their character and in the quality of their pressure upon the world at 
large by living Americans. Civilization now has moved clear to the sunset. There 
remains no longer any new continent westward whither we can retreat in defeat, and 
try the experiment of civil liberty over again. All the world is congregating here, and the 
world's battles are to be fought to the finish here. A live American helps to make 
American history. A true American patriot helps to belt the globe with a better civiliza- 
tion. There is no work like that done at the constraint of long motives. Great achieve- 
ment, like good sailing, is on the line of the great circles." 

Patriotism should at this crisis take firm and ruling possession of every heart. It 
means more this year to be an American than ever before in our history. Things de- 
preciate in the human mind in the ratio of the forgetfulness of their cost. It is well to 
brush up one's knowledge of American history ; to become familiar with the country in 
its deep sleep of unconsciousness, when no voice disturbed its silence but that of the bird, 
the savage and the storm. What of those bold navigators who ventured in the vast un- 



HISTORIC AND SOCIAL JOTTINGS 235 

known ? Compare that early picture with the sweeping inundation of population, civili- 
zation and commerce, and note the terrific energies that have been at work for four hun- 
dred years ! Look at the great Chicago Exposition, if you please, in all its magnificence ! 
You have the two views thus placed in juxtaposition — the successive glimpses of one con- 
tinuous history — an eloquent and impressive lesson. 



It is not enough that the schools are devoting more time and attention this year to 
American history than ever before. Every community and clique in the land should take 
it up in its literary and historical societies and clubs, if it has any, or in its social circles. 
The patriotic organizations of men and women should look to this, and show by their ac- 
tivity and usefulness that they are really what they claim to be, patriotic. If they wish to 
honor the founders of the country, now is their opportunity. If they wish America, their 
own beautiful country, to hold its proud place among the nations of the earth, now is the 
time to lend their influence, their efforts, and their material aid. We live under the only 
government that ever existed which was framed by the unrestrained and deliberate consul- 
tations of the people. We are reminded that we are in the presence of a commanding 
past. History is but a series of tales of men and women, says one. Yet not to know even 
such tales places us at great disadvantage, says another. Natural abilities, be they ever so 
great, will always do better with information. The true spirit of patriotism forces its way 
to recognition and commands attention through its magnificent accomplishments. Organ- 
izations can always do more than individuals. In this great tide of patriotism sweeping 
over the country let there be no friction, no heart-burnings, no jealousies ; let organizations 
unite in one common cause. There is a larger incentive in a consolidated community 
and much greater enthusiasm than several communities can produce in themselves. The 
spirit of love and brotherhood is the genuine outcome of patriotism. 



Columbus is beginning to rise before us more real and extraordinary than when we 
responded to the all-important question in childhood, "Who discovered America ? " As 
ordinarily instructed what primary pupil has any possible interest in Columbus or his dis- 
cover}- ? A New York school-teacher vouches for the following as a bona-fide composi- 
tion written by an eleven-year-old boy in a Harlem grammar school, entitled "Columbus." 

"Columbus discovered America in 1492 October 12. 

The people was going to drowned Columbus when they did not see no land he had 
three voyages. 

They tooked three days and three nights to go to America. 

Columbus discovered america as far as Columbus Avenue he could not go no farther." 

The voyages of Columbus teem with romance and never-failing interest, and we trust 
the author of the above quotation has ere this learned something concerning them to touch 
his heart and memory and show him that it was no commonplace event that made the exist- 
ence of New York and Columbus avenue possible. The time is drawing near when the 
advent of Columbus is to be celebrated in all the schools of all the states. What sort of 
compositions will the boys and girls write after that ? Will not the teachers give them a 
few extra lessons in advance, and make them understand the significance of the occasion 
and the bearing of the discovery of America upon the progress of the world ? Any child 
of eleven years is old enough to appreciate the magnitude of the first voyage, when noth- 
ing whatever was known of the size of the earth and the perils of ocean sailing. 



236 HISTORIC AND SOCIAL JOTTINGS 

Emilio Castelar, the famous scholar and orator of Spain, occupant of the chair of his- 
tory and philosophy for many years at Madrid, who has written so ably and well of Colum- 
bus in the Century, says, "When Columbus, greatest of discoverers, appears in an era 
when the intellects of men are ripening, and when mind and nature are becoming recon- 
ciled under the influence of religious and scientific reformation, his personality stands out 
in such exact proportions, drawn in colors so bright that it can never be confounded with 
another, or be hidden behind the glamourous mists that hang around other prominent 
historic characters, who, less fortunate, have never, with all their worth, risen so high as 
Columbus rose, nor won what he won — universal remembrance and recognition. I attrib- 
ute the historical good fortune of this portentous hero to his martyrdom; or, in other words, 
to the virtue and efficacy involved in the nature of suffering. That persistent struggle of 
the discoverer with superstition, prior to his wonderful success, and that other struggle, 
after his wonderful success, with his own errors and with ingratitude encircled his brow 
with a crown of thorns, of which every barb that pierced his temples while he lived 
became at his death a shining ray of glory." 



Alluding to the fabulous aspects of the career of Columbus, Emilio Castelar says, " I 
attribute the exceptional treatment of Columbus to the fact that discoveries and discoverers 
exert a potent influence upon the imagination ; and yet they hold a lesser place in popular 
history than statesmen or warriors. How much more important would it be to know who 
invented the flour-mill than to know who won the battle of Arbela ! The fact is that, 
comparing the volumes devoted to statecraft and to war with those treating of labor and 
industry, one is astounded and dismayed at the incredible disproportion. I can under- 
stand why this should have been so in ages when manual toil was considered degrading, 
and when trade, relegated to the common sort, who were politically debarred from coping 
with the patrician classes, was despised. But even in our day, transcendently the age of 
labor and of industry, while the names of great commanders are borne on the world-wide 
wings of fame, those of discoverers fall with the utmost ease into ungrateful oblivion. 
For one Galvani, one Franklin, one Daguerre, one Edison who has spread his renown 
among all classes and stamped an invention forever with his name, what a vast number of 
unremembered or unknown glories! The peoples of the future will not be so ungrateful. 
Without the astrolabe, invented by the Arab schools of Cordova and Seville for the study 
of the heavens ; without the science of algebra, so greatly facilitating the labor of cal- 
culation ; without the mariner's compass, which fixes a sure point to guide the bark lost 
in the infinitude of sky and sea ; without the printing-press, which within a short half-cen- 
tury after its invention had already become a potent auxiliary to the development of the 
human intellect ; the discovery of the New World — itself the logical result of a slow but 
sure evolution, wrought out in successive stages like all great human achievements, and 
not by sudden chance — could never have taken place.'' 



BOOK NOTICES 

BOOK NOTICES 



■37 



MEMORIAL HISTORY OF UTICA, NEW 
YORK, FROM ITS SETTLEMENT TO 
THE PRESENT TIME. Edited by M. 
M. Bagg, M.D. Royal octavo, pp. 736. 
Syracuse, New York, 1892 : D. Mason & Co. 
It is well known that Dr. Bagg wrote, some 
seventeen years ago, the only history of the 
city of Utica that has heretofore appeared in 
print, and it is pleasant to find that he has 
incorporated much of that interesting material, 
in an abbreviated form, into this more extended 
and handsome volume. The early history of 
Utica is exceedingly interesting. Dr. Bagg 
begins with old Fort Schuyler and " Cosby's 
manor," which formed a part of what was known 
as German flats in Montgomery county, and 
introduces the procession of settlers coming 
from New England and elsewhere. The growth 
of the little town was slow for many years, but 
substantial at every step. In 1789 arrived one 
of the most remarkable men that new countries 
are apt to produce, Peter Smith, the father of 
the celebrated Gerrit Smith, and he first bought 
for himself a log-house with a few pounds of 
Bohea tea. By the year 1798 Utica had become 
a pretty village of some fifty houses, which 
stood mostly on a single street parallel to the 
river. In the spring of this year it received a 
new christening, with a village charter. Dr. 
Bagg says that Rev. Timothy Dwight, D.D., 
president of Yale College, visited the place that 
summer, and wrote of it : " Utica is built on the 
spot where Fort Schuyler formerly stood. Its 
site is the declivity of the hill which bounds 
the valley of the Mohawk, and here slopes 
easily and elegantly to the river. The" houses 
'about fifty) stand almost all on a single street. 
The settlers are almost wholly traders and 
mechanics, and it is said that their business 
has already become considerable. Their ex- 
pectations of future prosperity are raised to 
the highest pitch, and not a doubt is enter- 
tained that this village will at no great dis- 
tance of time become the emporium of all the 
commerce carried on between the ocean and a 
vast interior. They labor (however) under one 
serious disadvantage. The lands on which they 
live are chiefly owned by persons who reside at 
a distance, and who refuse to sell or to rent 
them, except on terms which are exorbitant." 

In April, 1805, the second village charter was 
granted to Utica. and Dr. Bagg traces the 
growth and development of the place until it 
received its third village charter in 1824. and 
was triumphantly incorporated into a city in 
1832. The influence of the Erie Canal upon 
the progress and prosperity of Utica is clearly 
shown. We have in this excellent and well- 



prepared volume what may truthfully be called 
the biography of Utica, irrespective of the 
numerous biographies of its principal men with 
which the work abounds. Many citizens of 
Utica bore a conspicuous part in the civil war, 
not least among whom was Governor Horatio 
Seymour, whose portrait and an extended bi- 
ography grace the volume. The schools, 
churches, financial institutions, the courts, 
charities, libraries, manufactures, street rail- 
ways, and whatever is involved in the health- 
ful development of such a city, finds a place 
in Dr. Bagg's narrative. The fifteenth chapter 
is entitled " The Press," and opens with the 
earliest newspaper issue of Utica, the White- 
stone Gazette, commenced in July, 1793, a copy 
of which — its initial number — is in possession of 
the Oneida Historical Society; Dr. Bagg then 
gives a general account of all the principal 
Utica newspapers down to date. The chapter 
on the "Bench and the Bar of Utica" is per- 
haps one of the most readable and valuable in 
the volume, the sketches of Chief Justice 
Joshua A. Spencer, Judge William I. Bacon, 
Roscoe Conkling, Judge Greene C. Bronson, 
and many others, having been ably and discrimi- 
natingly written. Part I. contains the narrative 
history of Utica in 632 pages. Part II. em- 
braces 94 pages devoted to brief biographical 
sketches. The work contains some fifty- five 
steel-plate portraits of Utica's prominent men, 
and other illustrations of interest. The work 
is, as a whole, a most valuable contribution to 
the history of the state of New York. 



THE OLD SOUTH. Essays, Social and 

Political. By Thomas Nelson Page. Pp. 

344. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

1892. 

Mr. Page's stories and essays have within a 
few years won him an enviable reputation as 
a writer for the magazines, and no doubt the 
present volume, in which eight of the best of 
them are issued in book form, will be favorably 
received by the public. Several of the essays 
here collected were, as the author informs us, 
delivered as addresses before literary societies, 
and to use his own words, "revision has not 
wholly availed to clear them from the rhetoric 
which insensibly crept into them." One and all, 
they have to do more or less with that "Old 
South " of former days, which will be remem- 
bered as the feudal period of American history. 
Mr. Page is very strong in descriptive power. 
His pictures of plantation life in its best phases 
are altogether charming; and even a New-Eng- 
lander cannot but recognize their beauty. Such 
a reader, however, cannot help reflecting when 



2 3 8 



BOOK NOTICES 



told that the " Old South " has lain long under 
a misapprehension, that such misapprehensions 
are almost common property. Yankee and Fire- 
eater alike are convinced that their respective 
sections are misunderstood and misrepresented. 
So probably it will be till the end of the chapter ; 
but generations are growing up now that are far 
more catholic in tastes and more temperate in 
judgment than were those who faced one an- 
other in battle thirty years ago. There were 
vital and irreconcilable differences then between 
the social systems of Virginia and Massachu- 
setts, but they have drawn nearer together now, 
and another half century will see perhaps only 
friendly rivalries like those that subsist to-day 
on English cricket fields between Lancashire 
and York. Such writers as Miss Wilkins and 
Mr. Page can do much to remove the asperities 
of the past, but neither can reasonably hope 
that the other will admit wilful misrepresenta- 
tion as among the sins of their forefathers. 



A STUDENT'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 
From the Earliest Times to 18S5. By Sam- 
uel Rawson Gardiner. Crown Svo, pp. 
1023. Three volumes complete in one, with 
378 illustrations. Longmans, Green & Co., 
London and New York. 1892. 
This work is intended for schools where the 
pupils already have an elementary knowledge 
of the main facts of English history, and it is 
excellent in every respect. It is much more 
comprehensive than most books of its class, and 
is so skillfully and clearly written, and made 
withal so interesting, that any student of aver- 
age ability may read it for itself, not merely as 
a text-book. It is brought down to 1885, 
though the last eleven years, from 1874, is little 
more than a terse record of facts, omitting any 
expression of the author's views. A word 
should be said of the illustrations, which are re- 
markably good, while in order to secure the best 
portraits of famous men and women the histo- 
rian has sought and obtained permission to re- 
produce many paintings held in private collec- 
tions. Two such portraits are engraved from 
pictures in Queen Victoria's gallery at Windsor 
Castle, with her permission, while Earl Spen- 
cer, the Earl of Essex, the Earl of Carlisle, the 
Earl of Warwick, and a number of other noble- 
men and gentlemen have contributed from their 
collections. The absence of maps in the volume 
is compensated by the preparation of a School 
Atlas of English History, edited by Mr. Gar- 
diner himself and intended as a companion to 
this work, which contains, in addition to historic 
maps of the British Isles, many of continental 
countries, or districts connected more or less 
closely with English history. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS PAINE. With a 
History of his Literary. Political, and Relig- 
ious Career in America, France, and England. 
By Moncure D. Conway. Two volumes 
Svo, pp. 380, 4S9. New York ; London, 
1892 : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
" There has been a sad absence of magna- 
nimity among eminent historians and scholars in 
dealing with Paine," says Mr. Conway in his 
preface to these volumes, adding the forcible 
words : "In writing the Life of Paine I have 
not been saved much labor by predecessors in 
the same field. The interest that led me to the 
subject has increased at every step : the story 
has abounded in thrilling episodes and dramatic 
surprises." Mr. Conway's enthusiasm in any lit- 
erary undertaking, as well as his freedom from 
partisan prejudice, is well known, and he has 
produced a biography creditable alike to the 
author and the enlightened age in which we live. 
It has been a difficult and a very laborious task 
to get at the historical truth about Paine, and 
place him before the world as he really was. As 
a part of Paine's unhappy destiny, it would seem 
that the calumnies of his enemies formed public 
opinion concerning him Yet he did not owe all 
his misfortunes to such malice or the apathy of 
friends. With all his political and financial 
ability, he evidently had not the capacity to ad- 
minister his own affairs wisely, that is, according 
to purely worldly standards. He might have laid 
the foundations of a handsome fortune with the 
profits of his famous pamphlet Commo?i Sense, 
but he chose to make a virtual gift of it to this 
country. The result was, that after more than 
two hundred thousand copies had been sold he 
found himself indebted to the publisher. He 
did not understand human nature, or he would 
have known better than to put dependence 
upon public gratitude. He really believed that 
it was unnecessary to make any provision for his 
own future, and that the people he had helped to 
save would take care of him. What must have 
been the thoughts of Washington's friend and 
companion at Valley Forge when, a few years 
after "the time that tried men's souls.'' he 
found himself hooted and pelted in the very 
vicinity of Trenton ? Mr. Conway gives a 
graphic sketch of Paine's early life and Quaker 
training in England, and shows its influence 
upon his subsequent career. " He was born in 
a time semi-barbaric at its best, and savage at 
its worst. When he was a lad the grand gentle- 
men who purloined parks and mansions from 
the Treasury were sending children to the gal- 
lows for small thefts instigated by hunger. In 
his thirteenth year Paine might have seen the 
execution of Amy Hutchinson (ten miles away), 
aged seventeen, for poisoning her husband — ' her 
face and hands smeared with tar and having a 
garment daubed with pitch; after a short prayer 



BOOK NOTICES 



239 



the executioner strangled her, and twenty min- 
utes after the fire was kindled and burnt half 
an hour.' Against the prevailing savagery a 
human protest was rarely heard outside the 
Quaker meeting." Paine himself says, in some 
of his casual reminiscences : " My parents were 
not able to give me a shilling beyond what they 
gave me in education My father being of the 
Quaker profession, it was my good fortune to 
have an exceeding good moral education. The 
natural bent of my mind was to science. I 
happened when a school-boy to pick up a 
pleasing natural history of Virginia, and my in- 
clination from that day of seeing the western side 
of the Atlantic never left me." 

Paine came to America a few years before the 
Revolution. He had a letter from Franklin to 
Franklin's son-in-law. Richard Bache, and was 
not slow to make his way. He soon wrote 
his Common Sense, which, as Barlow afterward 
declared, "gave spirit and resolution to the 
Americans, who were then wavering and unde- 
termined, to assert their rights." Barlow further 
said, though with no little exaggeration, that the 
cause " owed as much to the pen of Paine as to 
the sword of Washington." Mr. Conway re- 
minds us that Paine's assistance to the cause 
was great in other ways. He not only enlisted 
and went into battle, but wrote some eighteen 
pamphlets that sold by the thousand, and gave 
the copyrights to the country. In securing the 
aid given by France, Paine also had a large 
share. But Paine had no worldly prudence. 
Wherever he saw a wrong he attacked it, and 
he let the consequences take care of themselves. 
Of course, this made him enemies, and tended to 
blight his career, a career which might be de- 
scribed as a career of making and then throwing 
away brilliant opportunities. It was not possi- 
ble for the author of The Riglits of Man and" 
The Age of Reason to avoid persecution or to 
live a happy life. The British government hated 
him, and stirred up the clergy to pursue him 
with rancor. In France he was handicapped by 
his ignorance of the language ; and he entirely 
missed the deep significance of the true Chris- 
tian doctrine of the sacrifice of Christ. He 
thought himself a reformer, and like all reform- 
ers overestimated the value of his own religious 
opinions. Yet his life is full of pathos, and his 
philanthropy was genuine. Mr. Conway has 
performed his task conscientiously and impar- 
tially, presenting a collection of facts that tell 
their own stories, and he is to be congratulated 
on his vigorous industry in seeking rare data and 
for the genuine excellence of this elaborate work. 



that work, comes what may be regarded per- 
haps as the most important, if not the con- 
cluding, personal history of that remarkable 
struggle. Ex-Governor Robinson gives two 
reasons for writing his experiences — first, the 
solicitations of friends, and, secondly, his own 
conviction that no one has yet written a true 
history of the Free State party. The author is 
a man of strong personality, a born leader, and 
does not hesitate upon occasion to denounce the 
acts even of John Brown himself . " Had the 
pioneers of Kansas," he says, " failed to make 
her a free state, slavery to-day would have been 
national and freedom sectional " The state- 
ment is rather startling, but may very probably 
have a considerable grain of truth in it. Cer- 
tain it is that in the Kansas conflict the domi- 
nant party, as it then existed, met its first 
serious check, and the Civil War that followed 
was the direct sequel of the "free soil" cam- 
paign. Governor Robinson's style is admirably 
adapted to his narrative, and his account of 
those half-forgotten days will prove most in- 
teresting to any one who may care to read of 
genuine pioneer life from the hand of a man 
who had a leading part therein. 



THE KANSAS CONFLICT. By Charles 
Robinson, ex-Governor of Kansas. i2mo, pp. 
4S7. New York : Harper Brothers. 1892. 
Following closely upon Thayer's Kansas 

Crusade, and indeed dedicated to the author of 



THE LIFE AND TIMES OF WILLIAM 
LOWNDES YANCEY. By John Wither- 
SPOON DuBose. Octavo, pp. xvi + 752. Bir- 
mingham, Alabama: Roberts & Son. 1892. 
Political Parties, 1834-1864, is the side- 
cover title of this handsome octavo, which 
bears within the imprint, somewhat unfamiliar 
to northern readers, of an Alabama publishing 
house. It is an evidence of the awakening en- 
terprise of the New South that such a work can 
be issued with a not unreasonable confidence in 
a remunerative demand from collectors of im- 
portant contributions to our political history. 
During the momentous decade that preceded 
the Civil War, the name of William L Yancey 
was a synonym at the South for patriotic states- 
manship, and at the North — at least among the 
anti-slavery element — -for all that was most ob- 
jectionable in southern partisanship. The period 
covered by his active public life included the 
inception and culmination of those great sec- 
tional interests that have resulted in a union of 
states more powerful, and probably more en- 
during, than any that has ever before existed 
under a popular form of government. The 
author has naturally surveyed his field of work 
with a mind somewhat predisposed in favor of 
the southern view of the questions involved, and 
doubtless there may be many among his readers 
who will be inclined to take issue with him, 
where — as must always be the case in questions 
touching international interests — facts, authori- 
ties, and conclusions are alike in dispute. Mr". 
DuBose has manifestly devoted many years of 



240 



BOOK NOTICES 



laborious study and research to the preparation 
of the work in hand, and from first to last he 
evinces a desire to be fair, even when, as in the 
great questions touching the sovereignty of 
states, '.he march of events has decided against 
him. With these phases of his work, however, 
we need not concern ourselves. The volume is 
a biography, and as such will no doubt stand 
forever as an authority to which students may 
confidently refer for information on matter not 
elsewhere to be found in such convenient shape. 

A brief sketch of Mr. Yancey may serve to 
indicate the important bearing that his life had 
on the events of his time. On his father's side 
he was of Welsh descent, four brothers having 
immigrated to Virginia in 1642. His mother, 
Caroline Bird, was of the prominent Virginian 
family of that name. He was born in Warren 
county, Georgia, August 10, 1814, and died at 
Montgomery, Alabama, July 27, 1863, just as it 
began to be evident, even to the most sanguine 
of the southern leaders, that the confederate 
cause was hopeless. Like nearly all young 
Southerners of talent and fortune, he early saw 
that politics offered the most attractive career, 
and that the law was the path that led naturally 
in that direction. His early manhood saw the 
rise and fall of the nullification heresy in South 
Carolina, and in 1841 he was elected to the leg- 
islature of Alabama, where he at once took an 
active part in the affairs of the day and laid the 
foundation of his fame as an orator. In 1844 
Mr. Yancey was elected to congress, and from 
that time forward was identified with national 
affairs, and became more than any one man the 
recognized leader of the southern movement 
which resulted in the secession of the slave 
states and the disastrous war that desolated 
the South and ended negro slavery in the great 
American republic. 

Mr. Yancey's career is full of meaning for the 
young men of our time. His speeches, here 
reported in their more noteworthy passages, 
present the argument for secession in its most 
seductive shape ; and were it not for the inex- 
orable verdict of defeat it might well seem to 



the interested reader that the success of the 
South was a foregone conclusion — a logical 
necessity. The reading of Mr. Yancey's life 
does not afford quite the education that one 
would select for a young American of the pres- 
ent day, but, taken in connection with the dis- 
astrous failure of the cause that he so ably 
championed, it should teach a lesson of patri- 
otism on both sides of the line that was once so 
deeply dyed with the best blood of the land. 



OCEAN STEAMSHIPS : A Popular Account 
of their Construction, Development, Manage- 
ment, and Appliances. By F. E. CHADWICK, 
U.S.N.; J. D. J. Kelly, U.S.N. ; Ridgi.ey 
Hunt, U.S.N. ; John H. Gould, William 
H. Rideing, A. E. Seaton. With ninety-six 
illustrations. Svo, pp. 29S. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons, New York. 

The value of such a work as the one before 
us is too apparent to need any special words of 
commendation. The volume has been designed 
for the general reader, and its information on a 
subject of the first interest will be welcomed all 
over the land. The chapters embrace such con- 
spicuous features of the theme as " The Devel- 
opment of the Steamship ' ; " Speed in Ocean 
Steamers" ; " The Building of an Ocean Grey- 
hound" ; "Ocean Passenger Travel"; "The 
Ship's Company " ; " Safety on the Atlantic " ; 
" The Ocean Steamship as a Freight Carrier " ; 
and " Steamship Lines of the World." The 
illustrations are very effective in style and sub- 
ject, and contribute largely to the pleasure and 
instruction of the student. The region of ice 
and its perils, for instance, is forcibly shown by 
a picture of a vessel among the icebergs ; while 
the text discloses the source of field ice, the 
chief origin of the bergs, and the months when 
they are the most likely to appear. The earnest 
scholar will find himself within reach of a mine 
of important knowledge as he turns these hand- 
some pages, particularly if he intends to make 
the tour of the world at any time in the future. 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 

Vol. XXVIII OCTOBER, 1892 No. 4 

HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

WHITE PLAINS IN THE REVOLUTION 

CENTRALLY located between the beautiful Hudson river on the 
one side and Long Island sound on the other, less than a dozen 
miles above the present city limits of the metropolis of the western con- 
tinent, is a picturesque village that will always hold an honored place in 
American history. It is built on rolling land, with broad streets, and 
spacious gardens and grounds about its pretty dwellings, and is surrounded 
with hills of all sizes and shapes which have echoed to martial music and 
the roar of embattled hosts, and its whole surface is shaded more or less 
with venerable trees that might tell of many a heroic deed, if gifted with 
speech. It was the arena of some very important events in the early part 
of the Revolution touching the whole future of our country, and while very 
little for popular information has ever been published about the place, its 
name and its thrilling associations are well known to all historical scholars. 
The aggressive measures of the British government which provoked 
the colonies into resistance form no part of the concern of this paper. 
The war had actually begun. The year 1775 had come and gone. The 
year 1776, one of the most romantic and remarkable years for its sequence 
of civil wonders in the history of the world, was rolling by. The greatest 
of all these civil wonders was the critical step from the past into the 
untried future through which the American colonies entered into the 
business of founding and governing a nation for themselves. Naturally, 
the public mind was intensely strained and apprehensive because of the 
undefined features of the new life in prospect, and the obstacles to be 
overcome in securing it. Never was there a community more blunder- 
ingly misapprehended than New York at this juncture. She stood out 
alone, as it were, a distinct character among the colonies. Possessing a 
certain vital force acquired unconsciously through ceaseless contentions 
with royal edicts, and with moderation, inflexibility, and an inherited pre- 
dilection for republicanism, she instituted and conducted a self-organized 
government side by side with that of the king, from the birth of the 

Vol. XXVIII.-No. 4.-16 



242 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

famous committee of " Fifty One," in the spring of 1774, until the final 
overthrow of British power. Lieutenant-Governor Colden wrote despair- 
ingly to Dartmouth : " You will not be surprised to hear that committees 
and congresses are established here and acting with all the confidence and 
authority of a local government. It is not possible to prevent such 
measures ; they are supported by individuals in their private characters, 
and do not come within the energy of the laws." New York encountered 
difficulties which had no parallel in any of the other colonies, yet it should 
be remembered that a responsible body was constantly in session which 
represented the people ; whenever this local congress adjourned, for how- 
ever short a time, a committee of safety delegated from its members 
managed affairs in the interim. Among the leaders were trained jurists 
who understood the English laws, and who could boast of an ancestry 
which had proven to the world that a small people under great discourage- 
ments could found a republic. In their elections they were scrupulously 
careful that all power should visibly and actually come from the people. 

The British ministry regarded New York as the geographical and finan- 
cial backbone of the rebellion, and resorted to every possible device for 
breaking it. George III. was amazed when told that the sessions of the 
revolutionary New York congress were opened and closed with prayer by 
the leading clergymen of the city, those of the Episcopal church officiating 
as well as those of other denominations ! He knew that New York had 
more at stake in the contest than either New England or Virginia, with- 
out realizing that she was much better prepared through generations of 
schooling in the methods of government to cope with British power. He 
was confident of crushing New York into subjection, but at that very 
moment her daring sons were preparing to make the age illustrious in 
defiance of his authority. As the time drew near for the momentous 
decision of independency, the New York members of the continental con- 
gress were doubtful about the powers that had been conferred upon the 
third New York congress in the matter of qualifying them to act for the 
province on the serious question of the total dissolution of all ties with the 
mother country : John Jay advocated implicit obedience to the popular 
will, and with rare legal acumen pointed out the breakers ahead if they 
should exceed the authority in them vested. On the motion of John Jay, 
June 11, the New York congress called for a new election of deputies, 
who should have full powers for administering the government, framing a 
constitution for New York, and deciding for her the great question of the 
hour. This election, turning on the pivot of independency, occurred on 
June 19, and nearly all the former members were returned ; its object was 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 



243 




THE VILLAGE OF WHITE PLAINS FROM CHATTERTON HILL, 1892. 



to give free scope to the latest wishes of the New York voters, and it was 
called and conducted with the knowledge that the British were already in 
possession of the harbor, that Canada was teeming with military prepara- 
tions, and that the shadow of a great horror was hanging over the defense- 
less northern frontiers of the province with its countless savage warriors — 
when, indeed, the public fever was at its highest ebb in view of expectant 
calamity. Without ceremony and with great secrecy, on Saturday, June 
30, the very day that the British landed on Staten Island, the treasurer 
and secretary of the new congress (or convention, as it was called), Peter 
Van Brugh Livingston and Robert Benson, conveyed its money and its 
papers to White Plains, where it was thought best for it to hold its ses- 
sions for a time. 

White Plains was then a part of the township of Rye ; it was a tract 
which had been purchased from the Indians in 1683, and derived its name 



244 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

from the white balsam tree which grew there in great abundance. Its 
soil was rich and its inland situation delightful. Its area was about eight 
and one-half square miles. The Bronx river bathed its western boundary, 
and its sweet-scented fields had attracted prospecting farmers and caused 
its early improvement and settlement. Branches of many of the ancient 
families of Rye planted homes within its limits — nearly all of its original 
settlers were of the educated class. As early as 1697 it had a broad, level 
street laid out, a mile or more in length, then named and still known as 
Broadway, which rivaled in its proportions the far-famed streets that 
characterized the New England villages in those historic times. So 
rapidly did the population increase that in 1725 White Plains elected its 
own town officers, and assumed the care of its own public affairs, although 
it was not constituted a town by law until 1788. The first minister was 
Rev. John Walton, a Yale graduate, who bought an extensive farm partly 
bordering on Broadway, from which he donated about three-quarters of 
an acre as a site for the first Presbyterian church, which was built in 1727. 
He was a man of marvelous activity, preaching on Sundays and devoting 
the rest of the week to divers secular enterprises. 

A school-house had been in existence so long that it was old in 1737, 
and a new one was built. In 1749 Dr. Robert Graham, a young physician 
of genius, came to dwell in White Plains from Woodbury, Connecticut. He 
was the son of Rev. John Graham, a Scotch clergyman, whose father was 
the marquis of Montrose, and he was probably a brother of the James 
Graham who was the first recorder of the city of New York, in 1683, and 
subsequently attorney-general of the province, speaker of the assembly, 
and a stirring member of the royal governor's council. Dr. Graham bought 
a farm in White Plains and at once became interested in whatever con- 
cerned the welfare of the town, and through his energy, public spirit, and 
learning he was for more than thirty years the ruling spirit in ail matters 
of common interest. It was chiefly through his efforts that the county 
courts were removed to White Plains from Westchester in 1759, and he 
gave the land on which the first court-house was erected in Broadway. 
He also built the first country store in the town, which stood for more 
than half a century opposite the old court-house; and he stocked it, and 
must have watched with intense satisfaction the uses made of it by the 
farmers of the region who came to sell their produce, and then loitered to 
gossip and discuss the politics of the period. Dr. Graham was a member 
of the New York congress, as were also Stephen Ward, and Major Ebenezer 
Lockwood of White Plains. 

The old court-house had been well dedicated to liberty prior to July 9, 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 



245 




THE SECOND COURT-HOUSE, WHITE PLAINS. 

[Built on the site of the ftrst court-house and stood until about 1872.] 



1776 when the fourth New York congress assembled under its roof. Judge 
Isaac Newton Mills, in his eloquent address on July 9, 1892, one hundred 
and sixteen years later, said : " All the more important meetings of the 
patriots of this county had been held there, and the daring and patriotic 
resolves of those meetings had become widely known throughout all the 
provinces. On the nth of April, eight days before the battle of Lexington, 
the patriot freeholders of Westchester county had assembled within i'ts 



246 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

walls, and, in spite of a large body of the loyalists headed by the cele- 
brated Isaac Wilkins, had passed bold resolutions and elected delegates 
to the first provincial congress. Since that date the old court-house had 
often echoed with the patriotic eloquence of Lewis Morris, Stephen Ward, 
John Thomas, Jr., and other noted leaders of the Revolutionary party. 
The edifice, by its associations, traditions, and recent history, was in itself 
an inspiration to bold, independent, and patriotic action. It was the 
' Fanueil Hall,' the ' cradle of liberty,' of Westchester county." 

Thirty-eight men of strong character and sound judgment, who repre- 
sented the Dutch, English, and Huguenot elements of the province, and who 
were not only well known to the people but not afraid to do their whole 
duty, comprised the congressional body, and nearly all were present on the 
hot summer morning of July 9, 1776, at the old court-house, and were called 
promptly to order by the president, General Nathaniel Woodhull. This 
brave, generous patriot was then fifty-four years of age, had served as a 
colonel under Amherst in the French war, 175 5-1 763, and was many years 
a member of the New York assembly. His wife was Ruth, sister of Wil- 
liam Floyd, an active member of the continental congress, who had just 
signed the Declaration of Independence. They were children of Nicoll 
Floyd, grandson of the noted Matthias Nicoll, first secretary of the 
province of New York. The illustrious John Jay was present, who, it is 
well said, was " perhaps all in all the most eminent citizen this state has 
ever had " ; also Colonel Pierre van Cortlandt ; the two energetic Morrises, 
Lewis and Gouverneur ; two Livingstons, John Sloss Hobart, John McKes- 
son, Major Ebenezer Lockwood, Robert Benson, those mentioned in pre- 
ceding paragraph, and others whom history delights to honor. The news 
of the final action of the continental congress at Philadelphia had traveled 
slowly, for there were no long-reach telephones in those days, and a man 
on horseback found it a hard road to travel over with celerity from Phila- 
delphia to New York, and then thirty miles further to White Plains. The 
document was read at the head of each brigade of the army in New York 
and vicinity that evening (July 9) at the same time and hour that it was read 
at Nassau Hall, Princeton, which was grandly illuminated for the occasion. 
The rules of the continental congress were such that its action in declaring 
independence needed confirmation by the provincial congresses or conven- 
tions, and New York has the distinction of being the first among the thir- 
teen colonies to officially adopt the immortal state paper, the confession of 
faith of a rising empire. It was a solemn moment when John Thomas, Jr., 
in front of the White Plains court-house, read in a ringing voice these and 
other impressive words: "Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 247 

long established should not be changed for light and transient causes ; and 
accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to 
suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the 
forms to which they are accustomed. But, when a long train of abuses and 
usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce 
them under absolute despotism, it is their right — it is their duty, to throw 
off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. 
We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, 
in general congress assembled, do, in the name, and by the authority of 
the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these 
united colonies are, and of right ought to be FREE AND INDEPENDENT 
STATES ; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and 
that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain, 
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved ; and that as free and independent 
states they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, 
establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent 
states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a 
firm reliance on the protection of DIVINE PROVIDENCE, we mutually pledge 
to each other, our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor." 

It is impossible for us to fully appreciate the courage of these men or 
the perils they confronted. The bill of rights was before them for human- 
ity at large and for all coming generations, without any exception what- 
ever. They knew its meaning and the train of immediate consequences 
that it must necessarily involve. And there was no faltering, even while 
impoverishment and death stared at them from every side. Resolutions 
of approval were drawn up by a committee of five, with John Jay at the 
head, and passed without delay, by which the vassal province of New 
York became a sovereign state. A messenger, seated upon a restless 
horse, waited at the court-house door for the letter to be written empow- 
ering the New York delegates at Philadelphia to vote for the people of 
New York, and as he rode swiftly away he also bore orders from the con- 
vention for the declaration to be proclaimed with beat of drum in every 
district throughout the new state. This was done from the city hall in 
Wall street, on the 18th of July, in the most public manner, and in the 
very face of the enemy's guns ; and at the same time the king's coat-of- 
arms was brought from the court-room and burned, amid the most raptur- 
ous applause. 

There is a curious irony in these facts. New York has for one hundred 
and sixteen years given them so little attention that they have buried 
themselves, so to speak, from public view, as if to aid, with incomparable 



^/ : ^pOTRi. 







C 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 249 

generosity, the other states in commemorating their own glorious deeds. 
Now they suddenly blossom in the strong light like a revelation, and all 
the world is shown that New York was not only intensely patriotic as a 
community, but bold and powerful in the most painful emergency of the 
conflict. 

Events crowded upon and overlapped each other during that never- 
to-be-forgotten summer of 1776. The city was like a furnace, and there 
was sickness on every side. Alarms were perpetual. It was confidently 
rumored that the British intended to " put all to the sword." It was sup- 
posed that they would attempt to surround Manhattan Island. The 
convention in the court-house at White Plains had almost as many conun- 
drums brought to it for solution as Washington himself. Governor 
William Livingston, wrote that the British army " had eaten up all the 
cattle on Staten Island, and were now killing and barreling the country 
horses for food " ; and the convention ordered General Woodhull to pro- 
ceed with a troop of horse to places eastward of the British encampment, 
and, as far as practicable, prevent foraging incursions. Judge Jones, 
writing contemporaneously from the tory point of view, says : " The 
rebel army that entered England headed by the Pretender, in 1745, though 
perfectly undisciplined, were martinets compared to the rebel hosts in 
New York, who are badly clothed, half armed, and without discipline — 
such an army of ragamuffins no general ever commanded (the arch-rebel 
Washington excepted)." From the patriots' point of view was an armada 
in the bay outnumbering in both ships and men that which Philip II. 
organized for the invasion of England in 1588, and it was snugly anchored 
in a safe haven between Sandy Hook and Staten Island, with no possi- 
bility of being scattered by any providential storm. Thirty-seven men-of- 
war and four hundred transports formed a spectacle of surpassing brilliancy. 
It was currently reported that the British force numbered forty thousand 
disciplined warriors. What would be their place and mode of attack it 
were impossible to predict. 

White Plains, situated in the very heart of the neutral ground so 
graphically described by Cooper in The Spy, was affected seriously by the 
arrival of the British army. The tories were numerous, and they were 
tempted with bounties and became insolent and boastful. Foraging par- 
ties of the enemy came into the sound with small vessels to intercept 
-provision-boats, and frequently landed and plundered from the farmers 
along the coast. Rye suffered severely, but the troubles of Westchester 
county had only begun. The battle of Long Island occurred on the 27th 
of August, and there were plenty of people to murmur and complain 



250 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

because of the results. Disappointment makes men captious. General 
Howe was not, however, applauded by England for his apparent conquest. 
Why did he allow an army of nine thousand troops, with all their muni- 
tions of war, to retire successfully from a position in front of his victorious 
legions, so near that ordinary sounds could be distinctly heard ? He was 
himself impressed with the fact that the movement of Washington was 
conducted with great military skill. There seemed to be little or nothing 
thereafter to prevent Howe from sailing up both rivers, landing, and 
extending his lines across Manhattan Island, thereby cooping up the 
patriots without means of exit even by the sea. 

Yet nearly three weeks passed before the British made any further 
advance, being evidently unwilling to precipitate the destruction of the 
richest city in America. Washington and his generals decided that it 
would be folly to attempt to hold New York, and one of the most thrill- 
ing chapters of revolutionary history is that which records the evacuation 
of the city on the 15th of September by the patriot army, and its occupa- 
tion by the British. The battle of Harlem Heights, which occurred on 
the next day, was the most important in far-reaching historical results of 
any fought during the Revolutionary war, for the victory of the patriots 
in a well-contested action with the flower of the British soldiers gave them 
confidence in themselves, and very much embarrassed the subsequent 
movements of the enemy. Howe wrote to the ministry concerning the 
encampment of Washington on Harlem Heights: "He is too strongly 
posted to be attacked in front, and innumerable difficulties are in the way 
of turning him on either side." 

The British generals took ample time for consideration, and then made 
elaborate preparations to throw their army in the rear of Washington by 
way of Westchester. In the meantime, they published another address 
to the people, promising pardons and favors to all who would join them 
and fight under their flag. This cunning scheme gave the congress at 
White Plains great trouble. Robert R. Livingston wrote from there : 
" We are constantly engaged in the detection of treasons, yet plots multi- 
ply upon us daily, and we have reason every moment to dread an open 
rebellion." William A. Duer wrote from the same body : " The committee 
to which I belong make daily fresh discoveries of the infernal practices of 
our enemies to excite insurrections among the people of New York." 

Washington held the lines of interior communication with New Eng- 
land, and the Hudson river, which controlled the approaches to New 
Jersey and the southern colonies, and he watched and guarded every 
headland, point, and inlet, along the main land to the east. He was much 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 



251 



in the saddle, visited all these outposts, and explored the entire ridge of 
hills to the west of the Bronx river as far as White Plains, and beyond, 
and laid out intrenched camps to be occupied by his troops when Howe 
should make it necessary. All his movements were dependent on those 
of the enemy, which were not yet developed, and might change at any 
moment. On October 11 great activity was observed within the British 
line : on the 12th that army was in motion. Ships passed up the East 
river, and flat-bottomed boats with bright scarlet burdens floated upon 




THE MILLER HOUSE : WASHINGTON S HEADQUARTERS AT WHITE PLAINS. 

[7'he homestead 0/ Elijah Miller, adjutant of Drake's regimetzt of militia.} 

the bosom of the shining waters. Their first landing-place was at Frog's, 
or Throg's, Neck, practically a tide island, then connected with the main 
land by a bridge over a mill-dam, built by Caleb Heathcote in 1695. The 
patriots were there to receive them : Colonel Edward Hand, with his rifle- 
men, pulled up the planks of the bridge, and Colonel Prescott, of Bunker 
Hill renown, and his command, from behind breastworks hastily thrown 
up, resisted every attempt of the enemy to cross. Knyphausen, who was 
in the lead here with his Hessians, finally fell back and threw up earth- 



252 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

works. After losing five days of precious time about this point, the 
British general reembarked his troops and effected a landing at Pell's 
Neck, a few miles above, but they were opposed and worried on their 
march to Eastchester by Colonel John Glover's brigade, and others, in a 
sharply contested action. The British halted near New Rochelle on the 
i8th, with their left on Hutchinson's river, and remained two days for 
Howe to study the geography of the region and make arrangements to 
advance with military precision. 

Meanwhile Washington's forces were moving north with celerity on 
the other side of the Bronx, having the advantage of a shorter route : one 
brigade was folded behind another, dragging guns by hand, and carrying 
luggage on the shoulder, keeping along the ridge of high ground which 
Washington had designated, and throwing up a continuous line of 
intrenchments with each day's progress. Both armies were deficient in 
the means of transportation. During the whole march to White Plains 
Howe was hindered by the destruction of bridges, the felling of trees 
across the roads, the difficulty of obtaining food for his troops, and the 
dashes upon his outposts by the resolute patriots. It took him longer to 
overcome these obstructions than it did Washington to throw up stone 
walls and cover them with earth. His chances for getting across the path 
of his foe at the north grew less each day. He resumed his march on the 
2 1st, passed New Rochelle to the high ground two miles to the northwest 
of the village, and then encamped on both sides of the road to Scarsdale, 
remaining there until his men had drank the wells dry and ate all the 
mutton in the vicinity. Washington's army was nearly abreast with him 
on the 2ist, and out-marched him and out-maneuvered him by moving 
on. It was a novel proceeding, these two hostile armies traveling in the 
same direction, side by side, in those balmy October days. Howe was in 
a perpetual state of alarm, being in the dark about Washington's exact 
movements ; and all his marching was in solid columns, and all his encamp- 
ments were well guarded by artillery. Colonel Tilghman, Washington's 
military secretary, wrote : "We press him close to the sound, from which 
he has made no westing, in the sea phrase, and if he makes much more 
easting and endeavors to stretch across, he will need as large an army as 
that of Xerxes to form a line." 

On the 23d Washington was in White Plains. General Heath had 
arrived there at four o'clock on the morning of the 22d and thrown up a 
few earthworks on Chatterton hill, the commanding eminence west of the 
Bronx river, and, leaving troops at that outpost, he had commenced work 
on the intrenchments for the main army under the direction of a French 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 253 

To S , - (.'reetuk ■ 



W. v 



tod 
\ irti 



Attc!. 




^*J 



FACSIMILE OF THE COMMISSION OF ADJUTANT ELIJAH MILLEK. I775. 



engineer, which consisted of a square fort of sods in the principal street, 
with breastworks on each side, running westerly over the high land to the 
Bronx, and easterly across the hills to Horton's pond, with covering 
positions on either flank. Washington's headquarters were established in 
a house at the foot of a lofty hill, which was then surrounded by dense 
woods. It was the home of Elijah Miller, adjutant of Colonel James 
Drake's Westchester regiment of minute men,* a frame building covered 
with clapboards, with the roof on the southeast front projecting so as to 
form a pretty portico, the same pattern, architecturally, as many of the 
country cottages of that period. It is still standing, well preserved, and 
an object of much historic interest to visitors. 

On the 25th General Howe halted at Scarsdale, with his right only 
four miles from the American lines at White Plains ; but he did not even 
then seem to realize that the whole American army was before him, already 

* Miller's commission as adjutant was signed by General Nathaniel Woodhuil, president of 
the New York congress, and dated October 27, 1775. Before the war Miller held a commission 
as first lieutenant of Captain Fowler's company of foot, Westchester county militia, signed by 
William Tryon, governor, under King George, of the province of New York, and dated June 25, 
1772. Both of these commissions are still extant in good condition, and owned by Mr. F. L. 
Halsted, of Brooklyn, a descendant of Adjutant Miller. His sword was in existence until a 
few years ago, when, unfortunately, the silver hilt was taken off, melted up, and made into silver 
spoons for heirlooms. 



254 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

faced about and awaiting an attack. He made no further movement of 
any importance for three days. 

The convention at White Plains had information of every move in the 
military game, and naturally changed its own base of operations to more 
northern and safer quarters; but not in haste, for it had multifarious 
duties to perform. Mindful of the danger to which the public records 
were exposed, lodged in private houses in different parts of the county, a 
committee was appointed, October 15, to collect and remove them to 
Kingston, in Ulster county, of whom were William Miller, Theodorus 
Barton, and John Cozine, who were authorized at the same time to call 
for a military guard " to attend the said records in their removal," to be 
delivered to Dirck Wyncoop, Abraham Hasbrouck, and Christopher 
Tappan, in Kingston. The convention, as far as possible, took care of the 
live stock, by causing it to be placed in pastures further north, and saved 
in various ways the agricultural productions of the finely cultivated farms 
in the county, that the enemy might be deprived of them. On the same 
15th of October mentioned above, John Jay obtained leave of absence 
from the convention to assist in the removal of his aged parents, with 
their effects, from their home in Rye to a place of safety. On the 19th 
of October the convention assembled in Fishkill. The majority of the 
inhabitants of all the towns in the line of the enemy's march vacated their 
houses and sought temporary refuge in the woods, or among friends in 
remote localities. 

On the morning of the 28th Howe's troops moved forward in grand 
style, as if expecting to fight a great battle. Sir Henry Clinton and the 
brave De Heister commanded the two chief divisions. At Hart's corner 
they drove back a party under Major-General Spencer who had been sent 
out to delay their progress, and paused on high ground opposite Chatter- 
ton hill, within a mile and in open sight of Washington's army between 
two parallel lines of intrenchments, in order of battle, waiting for them 
with apparent confidence. Howe carefully measured his chances: should 
he carry one line there would remain another; if he scaled both, the 
northern hills would provide for the retreating soldiers — " the rebel army 
could not be destroyed." When Howe was called before a committee of 
the House of Commons a few months later to defend his conduct at White 
Plains, he said : " If the assault had been made, and the lines carried, the 
enemy would have got off without much loss; and no way had we, that I 
could ever learn, of cutting off their retreat by the Croton bridge. The 
ground in their rear was such as they could wish for securing their retreat, 
which, indeed, seemed to be their particular object." 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 



255 




THE HISTORIC MITCHELL HOUSE: 
ADJOINING AND OVERLOOKING THE SITE OF THE OLD COURT-HOUSE.* 

[From a photograph made July 9, 1892.] 

But having come so far, the great general must do something; thus he 
ordered four thousand warriors to dislodge the little command from its 
position on Chatterton hill. His main body, as well as that of Washing- 
ton, looked on as spectators. The red-coated division waded through the 
Bronx, and ascended the rocky steep through a deadly shower of bullets 

* The Mitchell house was built in the early part of this century by Minott Mitchell, and is a 
relic of the period when domestic architecture was in a transition state, neither colonial nor mod- 
ern, yet partaking of the elements of both. 



256 HISTORIC HOMES AMD LANDMARKS 

from above. Artillery on either side was useless, as the British guns 
could not be elevated, nor the American depressed for an efficient fire. 
The conflict was too unequal to be long sustained ; the assailants num- 
bered six times as many as the defenders of the little outpost, who per- 
formed their duty satisfactorily to the commander-in-chief. The wonder 
is that, without the support of defensive works, and with the British 
climbing the hill at several points, they were not cut off entirely from the 
main body of the army; but McDougall conducted them safely over the 
Bronx bridge and by the road to the American lines. The acquisition of 
the hill was of no consequence to Howe. It really enfeebled him, by 
dividing his forces. No attempt was made to pursue McDougall ; but the 
tired conquerors prepared dinner, to do which they tore down and burned 
a barn belonging to John Hunt. The next morning it rained. Howe 
watched the skies, waiting for fair weather. Washington spent the day 
in removing the sick and his stores to the hills some two miles north in 
his rear, where he was also throwing up strong fortifications, the traces of 
which may yet be seen. The 30th was unfavorable for Howe's progress 
and favorable for Washington's plans. On the morning of the 31st there 
was another drenching rain, which gave Howe a valid excuse for inactivity. 
That night Washington silently " swung back " to the new position he had 
prepared, where the enemy could not approach him without certain defeat. 
Howe saw that he was completely out-generaled by the commander of the 
forces whom his associates in arms had so contemptuously ridiculed. He 
gave orders for the occupation of the lines from which the Americans had 
withdrawn, but another pouring rain interposed, and the project was 
abandoned. At a later hour in the day, however — November 1 — the 
Hessian grenadiers were moved from Chatterton hill to the deserted lines 
in the village. All day on Saturday, November 2, the belligerent armies 
remained passive, looking at each other, within long cannon shot. In the 
night time the British lighted up a vast number of fires, some on the level 
ground, some at the foot of the hills, and some on the tops which seemed 
to mix with the stars. The American sentries heard the rumbling sound 
of carriages to the southeast on Saturday night, and again on Sunday 
night, November 3, which was supposed to be that of moving artillery. 
On Monday night, November 4, the entire encampment of the British was 
broken up, and in the early morning of Tuesday, November 5, the whole 
of Howe's army was on its march towards Dobbs Ferry and New York. 

About twelve o'clock that night, the glare of a conflagration in the 
village of White Plains illuminated the skies, and shocked Washington in 
his camp as well as the inhabitants of the surrounding country, for the 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 



257 




HOWITZER PEEPING FROM AN EARTHWORK, AT WHITE PLAINS, l8q2. 






historic court-house was being converted into dust and ashes ; also the 
Presbyterian church and several dwellings, including that of Dr. Robert 
Graham. The torch had been applied by a scouting party of the Amer- 
icans, without orders, and under the singular delusion, as afterwards 
expressed, that it " would strike terror into the tories." Washington con- 
demned the act in severest terms. The second court-house in White 
Plains, of which we give a picture, was subsequently built upon the same 
site. Washington left White Plains on Sunday, November 10, to take 
command of the divisions of his army that had already crossed the Hud- 
son, and he was presently engaged in the disastrous retreat through the 
Jerseys. 

The fair fields, the foliage, and the flowers of White Plains to-day do 
not suggest the sites of battles and the munitions of war. Yet in driving 
along its principal street the visitor's attention is attracted by the remains 
of a strong earthwork, bearing an old revolutionary howitzer en barbette, 
near the site of the first meeting-house — upon which has gracefully arisen 
a worthy modern successor — and the relics of fortifications are to be seen 
in many other places not far away. It can never be forgotten that White 
Plains was a town of soldiers as well as statesmen, at a momentous crisis 
in American history. Almost all the distinguished men of the Revolution 
were associated with White Plains in one way or another. The military 
characters that loom up before us in the foreground are peculiarly inter- 
esting. Many of those who subsequently became famous were young' in 

Vol. XXVIII. -No. 4.— 17 



258 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

1776. Alexander Hamilton was but nineteen — a slight, boyish-looking 
youth to command an artillery company. Aaron Burr, the aide of Gen- 
eral Putnam, was only twenty. Samuel B. Webb, Washington's private 
secretary, who was wounded at White Plains, was twenty-three. Benja- 
min Tallmadge was a brilliant young brigade-major of twenty-two, under 
General Wadsworth. William Hull, afterwards governor of Michigan, 
was then twenty-three, and a captain in Colonel Charles Webb's regiment, 
participating in the fight on Chatterton hill. Colonel Hand, who figured 
with so much bravery on the march, was thirty-two, of fine martial figure, 
and one of the best horsemen in the army ; after the war he was a member 
of congress, and his name is affixed to the Pennsylvania constitution of 
1790. Knox, the artillery colonel, although brave as a lion, or any braver 
thing, was only twenty-six, and fresh from a Boston bookstore. General 
Heath, the born organizer, who was an officer of parade and discipline, 
breathing the very spirit of control, was not yet forty, nor corpulent nor 
bald-headed as yet ; and General Parsons, the Lyme lawyer and military 
genius, who divided with the untiring Wadsworth the honor of command- 
ing the flower of the Connecticut soldiery, was only thirty-nine. General 
McDougall, the hero of Chatterton hill, had just rounded his forty-fifth 
year; after the war he was elected to congress, was in the New York sen- 
ate, and became the first president of the New York Society of the Cincin- 
nati. Lord Stirling was fifty, and had the most martial appearance of any 
general in the army save Washington himself, was quick-witted, far-seeing, 
and vociferous among his troops ; but his vanity concerning the title of 
lord gave rise to many humorous anecdotes. The story was told how, "at 
the execution of a soldier for desertion, the criminal at the gallows cried 
out, ' Lord, have mercy on me ! ' Lord Stirling exclaimed, with warmth: 
' I won't, you rascal ! I won't have mercy on you ! ' " 

General George Clinton when so active in White Plains was but 
thirty-seven years old, and the next year was elected governor of the new 
state, and for twenty-six subsequent years was the most conspicuous figure 
in the annals of New York. Adjutant-General Joseph Reed, who had 
been in 1775 the president of the first Pennsylvania convention, was thirty- 
five. General Nathaniel Greene, who became so famous later on, was 
thirty-four. The oldest of the major-generals was General Joseph Spencer, 
then sixty-two, with valuable experience in the French wars. An incident 
occurred in connection with his exploit in trying to check the advance of 
the British on their approach to White Plains, October 28, that was 
amusing. Major Tallmadge describes the retreat of the detachment, the 
fording of the Bronx, and the fierce pursuit by the Hessians. He says: 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 259 

" Being in the rear and mounted on horseback I endeavored to hasten the 
last of our troops, the Hessians being within musket shot ; when I was 
about to enter the river our chaplain, Rev. Dr. (Benjamin) Trumbull, 
sprang up behind me on my horse, with such force as to carry me with my 
accouterments together with himself headlong into the river. This so dis- 
concerted me that by the time I reached the opposite bank the Hessian 
troops were about to enter it, and considered me their prisoner." Tall- 
madge escaped, however, by way of " Mill lane " and the road to Dobbs 
Ferry, and reached headquarters in safety. The clerical Trumbull, then a 
man of forty-one, was the pastor of North Haven, and became an author 
and historian of eminence. 

General Israel Putnam was at White Plains, with his wide experience 
and fifty-eight years of life, possessing all the elements of character except 
caution to successfully engage an enemy ; he was a great comfort to 
Washington because of his readiness at all times to confront serious 
emergencies. His cousin, Colonel Rufus Putnam, the famous engineer, 
aged thirty-eight, was there also, and he was sent by Washington on the 
20th to make a personal reconnoissance of the enemy's strength and posi- 
tion, which he accomplished through traveling over the roads alone in 
disguise ; he reached Washington's headquarters in White Plains at nine 
o'clock the evening of the 21st, and his report and sketches led to the 
removal of army supplies to a point farther north, a matter of the utmost 
consequence. Colonel John Glover, who so ably opposed the landing of 
the enemy at Pell's Neck, and harassed him with vigor on the march to 
Eastchester, was forty-one, diminutive in person, but quick in thought and 
action, and ranked among the brightest and the bravest of the young 
officers. General Sullivan reached White Plains with his command on the 
22d. He was a lawyer of thirty-six, who had won the good opinion of 
congress by the fearless execution of certain important trusts, and had 
been made a major-general, with enthusiasm, while older and more pre- 
tentious military characters held less important posts. General Scott was 
ten years older, and invaluable from many points of view, but more 
valorous than discreet, and violently headstrong under excitement. And 
the strange, whimsical, scoffing General Charles Lee left his footprints 
upon White Plains soil. He abused congress vehemently for not giving 
him a separate and independent command, instead of ordering him to the 
camp of Washington. He said : " Congress seems to stumble at every 
step. I do not mean one or two of the cattle but the whole stable." He 
took possession of a house in White Plains, near the road which Wa.sh- 
ini^ton frequently traveled, who one day with his aides called and took 



26o HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

dinner. After they departed, Lee said to his men : " You must look me 
up other quarters or I shall have Washington and his puppies calling till 
they eat me up." The next day he ordered his servant to write with 
chalk on the door, " No victuals cooked here to-day." 

The entire American army, except the troops who had been left at 
Mount Washington and at Kingsbridge — about fourteen hundred of the 
former and six hundred of the latter — was concentrated at this time at 
White Plains, and its masterly leadership in the face of a powerful and 
well-disciplined enemy reflects the greatest honor on Washington, and on 
the intelligent men he so ably commanded. In 1778, after the battle of 
Monmouth, a portion of the American army was quartered for three 
months in White Plains, from the middle of July until the middle of Sep- 
tember. Washington again established his headquarters in the old his- 
toric town at the Miller house, and had his usual number of officers and 
aides in his military family. He went to West Point frequently, and was at 
the various posts in New Jersey from time to time. Dr. Thacher, in his 
journal, speaks of visiting Washington's camp in White Plains in August 
of that year, in company with Gouverneur Morris and Dr. Brown, the 
surgeon-general, and dining at headquarters. Lafayette was there in the 
early part of September, and a most welcome guest at Washington's 
table. The Miller family have cherished many reminiscences of these 
events. Adjutant Miller had seven children — Sarah, Martha, Zipporah, 
James, Elijah, John, and Abraham. His eldest daughter, Sarah, was the 
wife of Captain Samuel Cornell, was married October 19, 1774, and was 
living in her father's house while General Washington was there. The 
Miller farm was covered with tents, and, as it included the highest land 
thereabouts, it was chosen for a permanent fortification, which overlooked 
the house in the rear, and was in frequent use until the close of the war. The 
road passing the house was traveled by both armies, and by the cowboys 
and the skinners at their pleasure. "At one time Mrs. Elijah Miller and 
Sarah were sitting in the kitchen, when they heard some cowboys riding up 
to the door, and knocking with their muskets demanded admittance. 
Mrs. Miller had that day received some money in gold and she threw it 
through the window into the garden. It struck a heap of stones and 
the clink was heard in the house. When the cowboys were admitted they 
ordered supper, which was provided for them, and before they left the 
captain snatched a shawl from off Sarah's shoulders, wrapped it around 
his throat and disappeared. Just after the departure of Washington in 
October, 1776, the Miller family discovered that their cattle had been 
stolen, and Sarah mounted her horse and rode to the remaining army 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 



26l 



encampment demanding their restoration. She encountered General Lee, 
who, struck with her beauty and address, permitted her to reclaim all 
bearing her brand." Mr. Thomas L. Cornell, to whom our readers are 
indebted for these anecdotes, further says : " While the British troops 
were passing the Miller house one day, an officer rode up on horseback 
and demanded a drink of water from Sarah. She gave it to him from a 
dipper. He, a surly fellow, kept in check by her dignity, said, 'You 
should give a British officer a glass to drink out of.' She replied, 'Your 




SUMMER RESIDENCE OF WHITELAW REID : OPH1R FARM, WHITE PLAINS. 

soldiers have stolen them all.' One of her nephews wrote regarding her: 
' I have heard her speak of many officers, whose names I cannot recall. 
As the headquarters of Washington were at her house, she spoke often of 
seeing Lafayette. Many anecdotes of revolutionary times are fresh in my 
memory. I have heard her talk of Washington's fondness for her chil- 
dren, and of his taking them in his arms.'" Adjutant Miller died in the 
latter part of 1776, and his sons John and Elijah both died that year. 
His widow lived to be ninety-six years of age, dying in 18 19. Mrs. Sarah 



262 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

Miller Cornell lived until August 29, 1838, and died at the age of eighty- 
four ; thus it would seem that she was married at the age of twenty. 

During the spring and summer of 1781 White Plains had a new and 
agreeably varied experience. The allied armies occupied the town and 
vicinity, and the ceaseless tramp of soldiery gave the inhabitants tranquil- 
lity instead of alarm, for there were no depredations. Every inch of the 
ground had long been familiar to Washington, and it is not surprising that 
he should have chosen Chatterton hill for the encampment of the legion 
of Duke de Lauzun. This French nobleman was not only of illustrious 
birth and courted by the most exclusive aristocracy of Europe, but he was 
a conspicuous figure in the revolutionary drama of Europe as well as 
America. He was in his thirty-fifth year when he received the command 
of the legion which bore his name, and was distinguished for the elegance 
of his person and the fascinating charm of his manners. His headquarters 
at White Plains were in the Falconer house, in Broadway. The encamp- 
ment of the commander-in-chief of the French army, Count de Rocham- 
beau, was among the rocky heights at North Castle, which some one has 
described as "rolling land on an elevated plateau, below which lies the 
famous White Plains, on which an army might deploy in perfect sym- 
metry." Rochambeau's headquarters were at the house of Colonel John 
Odell, a little to the west of Hart's corners. The tents of the French 
made a fine display, stretched among the rugged hills in almost every 
direction. Some of the young officers vied with each other in the cultiva- 
tion of little flower gardens in the vicinity of their tents, and in decorating 
their encampments. The uniform of the Frenchmen was a delight to the 
eye. Their white coats were immaculate, and their white, red, and green 
plumes set them off to great advantage. Their artillerymen wore iron- 
gray coats, with lapels of red velvet. 

The brothers Viomenil held the highest rank in the French army after 
Rochambeau, both being major-generals. The Chevalier de Chastellux 
had been a brigadier-general since 1769, and was one of the famous French 
Academy of Forty. The regiment of Bourbonnais, formed in 1595 of the 
ancient bands of Montferrat, was under the command of the Marquis de La- 
val, assisted by the Vicomte de Rochambeau, son of the commander-in-chief. 
Each of the general officers was attended by a large and brilliant staff. An 
old chart was found in Paris some years ago, showing with remarkable 
precision every detail of the encampment of the French army in White 
Plains and vicinity, and is even now a complete guide to the ground — 
each elevation and depression, every road, etc., being plainly indicated.* 
* Magazine of American Histoi-y for January, 1880 [iv. 12]. 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 263 

The American forces were encamped in two lines, the right resting on 
the Hudson. Washington's headquarters were at the old Livingston 
house, at Dobbs Ferry. He was frequently in White Plains, and was 
entertained with great ceremony by the French officers. When he dined 
with Rochambeau in the Odell house, long tables were spread for the 
military staffs in the stables, for want of room elsewhere, and the manger 
was the repository for hats and coats. Several balls were given at head- 
quarters, in which the young people of White Plains participated with 
enthusiasm. The drills and the reviews brought the French and Ameri- 
can soldiers into sharp contrast, and the French were astonished at the 
admirable discipline of the Americans, and the Americans were charmed 
with the perfect equipment and martial array of their allies. The famous 
reconnoissance of the country between the Hudson and the Sound by 
Washington and the French officers kept all parties busy and mystified 
the British. For several long summer weeks New York was tossed in a 
tempest of apprehension. Five thousand American and French troops 
paraded, July 22, on the heights north of the Harlem river, their arms 
flashing in the morning sunshine, and the flags of both nations unfolded to 
the breeze. The Count de Dumas was constantly engaged in reconnoiter- 
ing the roads about the army encampments, and has left some records 
concerning them that are worth preserving. The French ambassador, 
Chevalier de la Luzerne, visited White Plains and spent part of a day 
with Lauzun, on Chatterton hill. " Our situation," writes Dr. Thacher, 
"reminds me of some theatrical exhibition, where the interest and expec- 
tations of the spectators are continually increasing, and where curiosity is 
wrought to the highest pitch." Suddenly, on the 19th of August, the 
powder-horns went into their packing-boxes, and the troops of both armies 
started for Virginia. White Plains must have been as dull thereafter as 
any summer resort at the end of a brilliant season. 

In the autumn of 1782, when New York was threatened by the allied 
forces to prevent the British from attacking the French possessions in the 
West Indies, White Plains and the entire region between the Hudson and 
the sound was picketed and patrolled. The injuries inflicted on the 
people in the absence of regular soldiers caused the greatest suffering. 
The cowboys were chiefly refugees on the British side, and their vocation, 
stealing cattle and driving them to New York, suggested their name. 
The skinners generally professed attachment to the American cause, and 
lived within the American lines ; but they were treacherous and vicious, 
and more detested by the patriots than their avowed enemies, the cow- 
boys. One day they would be skirmishing and fighting with the cowboys, 




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HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 265 

and the next in league with them in plundering their own friends, and 
the proceeds of sales were divided. The unfortunate residents of the 
neutral ground were sure to be robbed by one party or the other: if they 
took the oath of fidelity to the Americans the cowboys punished them ; 
if they did not, the skinners called them tories, seized their property, and 
abused them without mercy. 

In the severe school of the Revolution there was a continual dramatic 
movement. During the entire seven years White Plains had very little 
exemption from trouble. From the outlook of the present nothing looms 
up more sharply in the foreground than the soldiers of three nations, with 
their uniforms blending into a gorgeous combination of colors, which only 
the autumn leaves and wild flowers could ever rival. But there are other 
features of the picture, of greater moment. The astute commanders and 
philosophers were masters of the situation through the sweep of vast 
impulses behind them. Standards of duty, rules of action, and habits of 
thinking destined to impart a tinge and a flavor to the broader culture and 
sweeter disposition of later days, were constantly bursting into life. The 
future was painfully uncertain ; the events of each day and month and 
year were of unknown value to the principal actors in them. They did 
not live to see our prosperity as a nation ; and they little dreamed of the 
magnitude and results of their operations. Their descendants have the 
knowledge which they had not, and after a sleep of one hundred and six- 
teen years they came together, July 9, 1892, led by the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion, and celebrated upon its exact site the anniversary of the magnificent 
performance by which New York became a sovereign state — the official 
adoption of the Declaration of Independence. One's chances of discover- 
ing new truths are exactly in proportion to one's knowledge of truths 
already discovered. The celebration has aroused an interest little ex- 
pected by its projectors — an interest destined to live and thrive peren- 
nially. It brought together a large army of citizens of distinction, nearly 
all of whom were descended from actors in the great drama of the Revo- 
lution, and White Plains suddenly regarded itself through a new lens. 
It was a felicitous suggestion of the orator of that memorable occasion 
that the grand event should be emphasized and its memory perpetuated 
by a suitable monument erected on the site of the old court-house, which 
was ably seconded by President Tallmadge, the grandson of Colonel Benja- 
min Tallmadge who, as we have seen, participated in the battle of White 
Plains. 

The historic landmarks of White Plains are not only too numerous for 
one chapter, but they touch the history of the entire country. As we 



266 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

study their associations, we seem in palpable connection with the long 
train of distinguished characters who have performed deeds of moral 
grandeur for millions of fellow-beings and for all time. 

The founders of the town of Rye, who were also the founders of 
White Plains, which for upwards of a hundred years was a part of Rye, 
represented the best blood of the countries beyond the sea from which 
they came; and they brought hither many of the best qualities that con- 
tribute to good citizenship. The first of the settlers were direct from 
New England, then in its infancy, and were sharp-sighted enough to see 
the advantages which the Rye coast offered. A beautiful island, about a 
mile in length, called by the Indians Manussing, invited their attention as 
just the spot for the commencement of a plantation, and it was purchased 
from the Indians in June, 1660, by Peter Disbrow, John Coe, and Thomas 
Stedwell. The first dwellings were built on this island the same summer, 
and the little village was called Hastings, after the famous seaport in the 
British channel. Seventeen or more families formed the village, and lived 
there three or four years, as it was comfortably safe from the wild beasts 
and Indians. But Peningo Neck was only separated from the island by a 
narrow creek, and enterprising new planters joined in the scheme, and the 
whole territory was shortly acquired from the natives now occupied by 
the town. One of the first buildings erected on the neck was a mill ; the 
first houses formed a suburb to the " old town," on the island, and it was 
named Rye by the Brownes, Thomas and Hachaliah, for their ancestor, 
Sir Anthony Browne, standard bearer of England, of Rye, Sussex county, 
England. These young brothers were friends of Peter Disbrow ; and Dr. 
Baird says they were "men of substance," styled " gentlemen," and grew 
up with the town among the most public-spirited and prominent of its 
founders. Hachaliah Browne built his first house on the bank overlooking 
the beach in order to be near his friends on Manussing island. His father 
was Peter Browne who with Governor Bradford and thirty others were in 
1652 the purchasers of Dartmouth, and his grandfather was Peter Browne 
who came over in the Mayflower in 1620, and died in 1633. The general 
court of Connecticut passed an act on the nth of May, 1665, to " conjoyn 
and make one plantation of the villages of Hastings and Rye, and call it 
by the appellation of Rye." Thus Manussing island was soon deserted, 
for it was desirable that the settlers should build substantial habitations in 
tolerably close proximity until there was less danger from the Indians. 
The families of Disbrow and Browne were among the most progressive of 
the beginners of Rye. Disbrow was young, active, intelligent, and self- 
reliant, the first delegate to the general court of Connecticut, and a born 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 



267 



leader in affairs. He acquired a large landed estate, as did John Budd, 
who was associated with him in some important transactions — who held 
Budd's Neck for sixty years under a distinct patent. Budd had been one 
of the planters in New Haven in 1637, and in Southold before coming to 
Rye. Among others who bought real estate largely were William Odell, 
John Ogden, Joseph Purdy, Joseph Horton, and the Brownes. Hachaliah 
Browne had shares in all the lands of the region, and was foremost amono- 
the purchasers and proprietors of White Plains. He and his son Deliver- 




HOMESTEAD OK Jl'DGE NEKEMIAH BROWNE. 

[Summer residence since 1855 of his daughter, Mrs. Samuel K. Satterlee, and family .] 

ance were on the committee to treat with Caleb Heathcote in the great 
historic controversy about the validity of the purchase. Hachaliah's son 
Peter married Martha, daughter of Peter Disbrow. The Brownes were 
the most extensive landowners of the period, and the vast property has 
been handed along to their descendants. The great-grandson of Hacha- 
liah Browne, Judge Nehemiah Browne, built the mansion of the sketch 
upon the site of the old homestead of his fathers, on the high ground 
overlooking not only the sound but a broad landscape of unrivaled. 



268 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

beauty. It has been the residence since 1855 of Judge Browne's daughter, 
Mrs. Satterlee, whose husband, Samuel K. Satterlee, was one of the 
founders of the St. Nicholas club in New York. 

In numerous other instances descendants of the parent settlers occupy 
ground purchased directly from the Indians. There were serious boun- 
dary troubles to afflict Rye. From 1664 to 1683 the town was under 
the jurisdiction of Connecticut, and sent a delegate every year to the 
general court. Then through a chapter of disputes about the boundary 
between the provinces, caused by the obtuseness of King Charles II. and 
his obtuser brother, James II., Rye was ceded to New York. In 1695 
John Harrison made a trade with the Indians for the tract comprised now 
in the town of Harrison, notwithstanding that Disbrow and his associates 
bought it of Indians, in good faith, in 1662 ! There was an animated 
quarrel, as a matter of course, and finally the governor of New York granted 
a patent to Harrison ! Rye was indignant, revolted, and went over to 
Connecticut. That is, the town claimed allegiance to and protection from 
Connecticut, and Connecticut smiled sweetly on Rye ; but persons living 
near the border refrained from paying taxes or voting in either province, 
and for some four years Rye was practically in a condition of rebellion, 
until in 1700 the reigning king ordered that the town be a part of New 
York. The boundary line was still unsettled, causing much dissension and 
inconvenience until about the year 1730. The history of this zigzag line 
between New York and Connecticut is of rare interest to the curious. 

About 1744 Peter Jay, son of Augustus Jay, the first of the family in 
this country, bought a large estate in Rye of the descendants of John 
Budd, and removed there from New York. His house stood on the site 
of the present Jay mansion, and it was where his son John, the eighth of 
his ten children — the future jurist and statesman — spent his boyhood. 
Both Peter Jay and his wife, the daughter of Jacobus Van Cortlandt, 
exerted a marked influence on the community. There is no more inter- 
esting historic landmark in Rye than the Jay mansion; and on the estate 
is the cemetery of the Jay family, where a monument may be seen to the 
memory of the illustrious John Jay. 

Slavery existed in Rye and White Plains all through the eighteenth 
century. In 1798 one hundred and twenty-three slaves were owned in 
Rye. The records show that for the punishment of trivial offenses Rye 
had the stocks and the ivhipping-post, and the town elected a " public 
whipper." The magistrate who administered justice was at first called a 
" commissioner," later on a "justice of the peace," as in New England. 

The inequality of the surface renders Rye a locality of varied attrac- 



HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 



269 




HOMESTEAD OF WILLIAM P. VAN RENSSELAER ON MANUSSING ISLAND. 

[With view of the waters 0/ Long Island Sound from the island.} 

tions, and it has naturally become a suburban centre for handsome villa 
homes. The clusters of wigwams in the wilderness which the pioneers 
found are literally succeeded by palaces as if by magic. The ex-king of 
Spain, Joseph Bonaparte, visited Rye in 1816 or thereabouts, in search 
of a building site. He is said to have been much pleased with Theall's 






270 HISTORIC HOMES AND LANDMARKS 

hill, but was unable to find sufficient land in one body for a park. The 
famous Ophir Farm is about half-way between the villages of Rye and 
White Plains, which is well known as the summer residence of Hon. White- 
law Reid. The town of Harrison, which was a part of Rye until 1788, is 
an odd-shaped bit of territory, jutting into the peculiar proportions of its 
neighbors on either side apparently at its own sweet will. But boundary 
lines are to be excused, even when they cross the highways without regard 
to angles, provided they do not tie themselves into knots. 

The period of settlement was a period of romance which nothing ever 
chronicled in the old world could eclipse. Manussing island passed 
through a series of incidents that has invested it with an inspiring atmos- 
phere of antiquity and enchantment. It was the site of an Indian village, 
and partially cleared and cultivated when the founders of Rye landed 
upon its soil. It was also the site of the first dwellings of the founders of 
Rye and White Plains, traces of which are not altogether obliterated. 
And it was the scene of a war about ownership of property in 1720, that in 
a small way rivaled the contests between New York and Connecticut, and 
Rye and Harrison. -About the middle of the present century Mr. William 
P. Van Rensselaer, of Albany, son of the patroon General Stephen Van 
Rensselaer, bought Manussing island, and established a permanent summer 
home upon it. Dr. Baird tells us that the summer-house in the extreme 
rear of the spacious grounds indicates about the site of the village of 
Hastings. When laborers were excavating the earth for gardens an 
Indian skeleton of extraordinary size was found, which had been buried 
in a sitting posture. Manussing island is suggestive of poetry rather than 
prose ; it is an instance of age and beauty symmetrically combined. 
Every window of the old mansion is the framework of a picture. The 
grounds slope to a wide expanse of water, while the house is guarded with 
the jealous foliage of stately trees, flowers blossom from tasteful beds, 
and choice shrubbery is nurtured tenderly. 

One can easily understand what this beautiful island must have been 
to the lone settlers who were bent on successful colonization. It was 
within easy reach of assistance from Greenwich in case of need, and the 
infant settlements of Hempstead, Oyster Bay, and Huntington were just 
across the sound, here only five miles wide. The island mansion is now the 
summer residence of the daughters of William P. Van Rensselaer, Mrs. 
Anson P. Atterbury and Mrs. Hamilton R. Fairfax, and their families. 

It would have made the ambitious founders of Rye happy could they 
have looked far enough into the future to survey the fine roads that con- 
nect Rye and White Plains at the present hour ; for of all their tribula- 



HISTORIC HOMES AXD LANDMARKS 



271 



tions the making of roads was the chief. They followed the Indian trails 
in exploring the inland country, and bridle paths of their own creation 
were for many years a luxury. There were roads constructed long before 
the Revolution, but they were narrow and rough when brought into com- 



MM^ 




GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



parison with their wide and smooth successors. Even as late as the 
beginning of the present century the favorite mode of traveling the thirty 
miles between Rye and New York was by sloop. The drives in all direc- 
tions are now numerous and delightful, and the homes both old and new 
with which the entire country is dotted are so embowered in their cher- 
ished seclusion that it is like looking for birds' nests among the forest leaves 
to pursue explorations for the old landmarks. This fruitful territory is in 
itself a perpetual reminder that it has had a romantic past. It has made 
marvelous progress in material things since Washington led his warrior 
hosts over its surface, but his stately and controlling presence at a critical 
hour will ever be its greatest source of pride and congratulation. 




COLUMBUS IN ROMANCE 

While so many historical works are being written and read about 
Columbus at this time of celebration of the four hundredth anniversary of 
his epoch-making discoveries, it may not be amiss to call to mind what 
has been said in his glorification by some of the poets, novelists, and 
dramatists of various countries. As he cuts a grand figure in historical 
literature, so too in the romantic literature of the world does he fill no 
inconsiderable place. 

In the English language the first poetical allusion to Columbus is 
thought to have been made by Baptist Goodall, who styles himself a 
merchant, and who published at London in 1630 a small quarto volume 
called The Tryall of Travel/. On its title page is the following quotation 
from Psalms cvii. 24: "They that travaile downe to the sea in shipps, and 
passe upon the great waters, such see the wordes of the Lord, and his 
wonders in the deepe." After a long interval, a century and a half, the 
famous discoverer was again poetically treated by Joel Barlow, and 
made the subject of what aimed to be a great American epic. Barlow's 
Vision of Columbus appeared at Hartford in 1787, and in the list of sub- 
scribers occur the names of Louis XVI., Washington, and Lafayette. 
This poem the author afterwards expanded into The Columbian 1 , which in 
1807 was published at Philadelphia in a fine quarto volume, with steel 
engravings after paintings by Fulton and Smirke. The Columbian 1 is 
divided into ten books, and is dedicated to Robert Fulton. Perhaps this 
ambitious epic attempts altogether too much, for Columbus in it is simply 
used as a peg upon which to hang the whole history of America. He is 
shown lying in his prison at Valladolid, where Hesper, the guardian 
genius of the Western World, appears to him, and in a long series of 
visions discloses all that has happened and is to happen in the lands he 
discovered. Barlow's work was somewhat of a failure, and now it is only 
dipped into by the profoundest students of early American literature, 
but a contemporary critic wrote of the author in the Edinburgh Review : 
" We have no hesitation in saying, that we consider him as a giant, in 
comparison with many of the puling and paltry rhymesters, who disgrace 
our English literature by their occasional success." 

Another epic poem, with the same title as Barlow's, but not so well 
known, is The Columbiad, by the Rev. James L. Moore, master of the 
Free Grammar School in Hertford, Herts. It was published at London 
in 1798, and an article in the Critical Review of that year calls it one of 



COLUMBUS IN ROMANCE 273 

the dullest books remembered, and says that Joel Barlow, though not a 
great poet, rises into respectability when compared with Mr. Moore. This 
Columbiad, the one that was fired off in England, begins with Columbus 
at the end of 1492, when " The Passions that like Daemons afflict man- 
kind, occasion the destruction of his ship, which splits on a rock," and in 
the course of the poem the Almighty sends the angel Raphael to give the 
explorer a vision of America's future; and when the Orinoco is discovered, 
a spirit rises up out of the waters and declaims a tedious history of the 
American Revolution in a couple of books or cantos. 

The poet of the American Revolution, Philip Freneau, is said to have 
meditated an epic on Columbus before leaving Princeton College, and 
perhaps his short poem, Columbus to Ferdinand, may be a fragment of 
it. In the edition of his poems issued from his own press, Monmouth, 
N. J., 1795, there is a longer effort, called The Pictures of Columbus, in 
sixteen sections, bearing the date of 1774. As a sea-captain, a country 
editor, and a captive of the British in a New York prison-ship, Freneau 
certainly had a varied experience of life ; but most singular of all was his 
end, the old man of eighty attempting towards evening to walk across 
lots to his New Jersey home and getting mired in a bog meadow, where 
his corpse was found next day. 

The English banker-poet, Samuel Rogers, published in 1812 The Voyage 
of Columbus, purporting to be from an old Castilian manuscript by one of 
the discoverer's companions. This poem aims higher than it often attains, 
is hardly more than a fragment, and was alluded to by its author as the 
least valued of his works. In the illustrated edition of Rogers's poems, the 
engravings for this piece, after Turner and Stothard, are very fine, the first 
in order being Columbus and his son begging at the monastery gate. At 
one of Rogers's famous breakfasts he remarked, sarcastically, of Irving's 
life of Columbus, " It's rather long," when Cooper, the American novelist, 
turned on him and said, sharply: "That's a short criticism." 

In 1 82 1 the British poetess, Joanna Baillie, put forth a volume of 
Metrical Legends, one of which was called The Legend of Christopher 
Columbus. In sixty-two stanzas it races through the discoverer's entire 
life, and the accompanying notes embody many excerpts from the old 
Spanish historian Herrera. Perhaps these lines on the effect of Columbus's 
achievement are a fair specimen of the work : 

" No kingly conqueror, since time began 
The long career of ages, hath to man 
A scope so ample given for trade's bold range, 
Or caused on earth's wide stage such rapid mighty change." 
Vol. XXVIII.-No. 4.-18 



274 COLUMBUS IN ROMANCE 

Considering Miss Baillie's eventless life of retired spinsterhood, it is a credit 
to her intellectual strength that she could grapple at all successfully with 
so great a theme. 

One of the chief of American poets, James Russell Lowell, wrote a 
poem on Columbus. It is something in the nature of a soliloquy, but 
the ideas enshrined in it must be regarded as proceeding from Mr. Lowell 
rather than from the adventurous Genoese navigator. Another great 
writer on this subject is Tennyson, whose Columbus represents the hero 
bedridden, and in a continuous speech giving some account of his woes 
to a visitor. 

Many poetical pens less known to fame have sought inspiration in 
Columbus, and among them may be noted poets of college commence- 
ments, forgotten geniuses, and some authors of considerable merit. Thus, 
George Waddington, of Cambridge University, wrote a poem entitled 
Columbus in 1813. John Headlam, of Durham University, was the author 
of The Discovery of America, published in 1835 at Richmond. Columbus 
in Chains is an Oxford prize poem of 1848. J. V. Huntington delivered 
a poem on America Discovered before the Alumni Association of the 
University of the city of New York in 1852, and it was afterwards 
printed. Another and a longer poem, with precisely the same title, said 
to be "by an American," appeared at New York in 1850. Archibald 
Tucker Ritchie published The Columbiad, a poem, at New York in 
1843. A volume came from the press at London in 1797, bearing the 
seductive title of Reflections on the Tomb of Columbus ; by a Lady. James 
Freeman Coleman's The Knightly Heart, Boston, 1873, also has a place in 
Columbian romantic literature. Under the pseudonym of Britannicus, Mr. 
Robert Smith published in London about i860 a poem with the title of 
Columbus ; or, The New World. " Ada," whoever she may be, is put down 
as the writer of a poem, running through several numbers of the Dem- 
ocratic Review of 1848, and called The Adventures of Christopher Columbus, 
the opening stanza describing the hero as follows, being neither better nor 
worse than the rest : 

" What form is that, of stately port, 
Athwart my mind that beams, 
With visage grave, and eye of fire, 
That, as a meteor, gleams ? " 

Among Mrs. L. H. Sigourney's poetical works there is a piece on 
Columbus before the University of Salamanca. Miss Lucy Hooper wrote 
a short poem, entitled The Jeivcls of Castille, alluding to the story of Queen 
Isabella's pledging her jewels to aid Columbus. H. H. Brownell's War- 



COLUMBUS IN ROMANCE 275 

Lyrics and other Poems includes an effusion on The Tomb of Columbus. 
In Volume 25 of the Magazine of American History, S. H. M. Byers 
has a poem of five pages, called The Ballad of Columbus. By Sir Aubrey 
de Vere there are three sonnets on the subject of Columbus, and doubt- 
less much other fugitive Columbian verse might be unearthed by an 
exhaustive search through English and American literature. 

Just a hundred years ago, in 1792, Thomas Morton began his career as 
a successful dramatist by having a historical play performed and printed 
in London, with the title of Columbus ; or, A World discovered. Five 
years later, September 15, 1797, it was first produced in .New York city at 
the old Greenwich street theater. The well-known actor and playwright, 
John Brougham, wrote a burlesque entertainment, afterward published, 
called Columbus el Filibustero, and it was brought out in New York at 
Burton's new theater on the last day of 1857, with the author in the part 
of Columbus. 

The most famous novelist that has ever woven the adventures of Colum- 
bus into a romance is assuredly James Fenimore Cooper. His Mercedes 
of Castile ; or, The Voyage to Cathay appeared November 24, 1840. It has, 
perhaps, an excess of moralizing and introductory matter, and the inevi- 
table love story is not wildly exciting, but the account of Columbus's first 
voyage, embodied in the novel, is given with all the accuracy of a naval 
historian, and makes the work peculiarly interesting. Some recent writers 
of fiction have essayed to follow in Cooper's footsteps. Mr. John R. 
Musick in 1891 put forth a little book called Columbia: a Story of the 
Discovery of America, the heroine of which, Christina Ovilares, marries 
Hernando, the son of Columbus. Then, among later publications, there is 
a novel by Miss Constance Goddard Du Bois, entitled Columbus and Bea- 
trix, relating to the discoverer's second marriage, about which historians 
have been unable to find anything recorded. And juvenile literature has 
recently been enriched by a story called Diego Pinzon, by Mr. John Russell 
Coryell, having something to say about Columbus's memorable voyage. 

A feminine Joel Barlow is first to be noted in French. Madame du 
Boccage was her name, and she made a bid for immortality by writing a 
poem in ten cantos — La Colombiade, published at Paris in 1756. Voltaire 
praised this fair poetess to the skies, put a laurel crown on her head 
when she visited him, said she united the empire of beauty to that of 
mind and talents, and some of her other admirers enthusiastically declared 
that she was in person Venus and in art Minerva. A certain Monsieur 
Bourgeois, of La Rochelle, to relieve the tedium of his long residence in 
San Domingo, dropped into poetry concerning the hero of that island to 



276 COLUMBUS IN ROMANCE 

the alarming extent of twenty-four cantos, or about twelve thousand lines, 
and his work, Christopher Columbus ; or, America Discovered, was printed 
in two volumes at Paris in 1773. The New World is the title of an extrav- 
agant Columbian poem appearing at Paris in 1782, and its author, Robert 
Martin Lesuire, was vain enough to confess that he regarded himself as a 
man of extraordinary genius. There seems to have been an epidemic of 
poetical frenzy in France on the subject of Columbus in this same year 
of 1782, for the Chevalier de Langeac then issued his Columbus in Chains, 
supposed to be the discoverer's epistle to the Spanish monarchs in response 
to their invitation for him to appear at court ; and there was published 
also a work by Pierre Laureau, entitled America Discovered, and described 
as a sort of poem in prose. 

The story of Columbus has more than once been dramatized by French 
authors. Lemercier wrote in verse his historical play, Christophc Colomb, 
and when it was first put upon the Parisian stage, in 1809, the riotous stu- 
dents so hissed it for its violation of the three unities that the police and 
soldiers were called in to preserve order, and several hundred students 
were arrested and sent off to serve in the army by command of Napoleon. 
A melodrama, entitled Christopher Columbus ; or, The Discovery of the 
New World, came from the facile pen of Guilbert de Pixerecourt in 181 5. 
Without collaborators, this dramatist wrote over a hundred pieces. He 
was called the Shakespeare or the Corneille of the boulevards. He col- 
lected a large and valuable library, and ever since he had to part with his 
beloved books in order to repair the loss of money incurred by the burn- 
ing of a theater, they have been eagerly sought after by bibliophiles, who 
pay high prices for volumes with his book-plate, inscribed with the motto, 
'• A book is a friend that never changes." Messrs. Eugene Mestepes and 
E. B-arre collaborated on the drama CJiristopJier Columbus, which in 1861 
was produced with success in Paris ; and Gustave Pradelle was the author 
of a play with the same title published in 1867 and 1869. 

An historical novel in French, called Ismaelbeti Ka'isar ; or, The Discov- 
ery of the New World, was in 1829 printed in Paris in five duodecimo vol- 
umes, and its author was Jean Ferdinand Denis, a traveler, and for a long 
time librarian of the Sainte-Genevieve library in the Latin quarter of 
Paris. 

In the literature of Germany, several Columbian dramas may be men- 
tioned. Besides writing a Faust to compete with Goethe's masterpiece, 
Ernst August Friedrich Klingemann was the author of a play on Colum- 
bus, that was printed in 1812. August Milo published his dramatic poem, 
Christ oph Columbus, in 1838 ; and a tragedy with the same title was put 



COLUMBUS IN ROMANCE 2J7 

forth in 1843 by Heinrich von Ampringen. The celebrated poet, Fried- 
rich Riickert, wanted to show the development of mankind in dramas, 
but the public esteeming them far less than his poems, he gave up the 
attempt, after the appearance in 1845 of his historical play, Christofero 
Colombo ; or, The Discovery of the New World. Karl Werder, professor 
of philosophy and writer on logic, was also the author of a tragedy, Cohan- 
bus, printed in 1858, and several times put upon the German stage. Con- 
siderable fame as a dramatist was acquired by Karl Kosting with his his- 
torical tragedy of Columbus, published and performed at Wiesbaden in 
1863. Another German tragedy called Columbus was issued in 1875 as 
the work of the lawyer and government official, Hermann von Schmid. 
In poetry, Schiller wrote a single stanza on Columbus, which has been 
translated into English by Buhver. The Swiss reformer of German litera- 
ture, Johann Jakob Bodmer, was the author of a poem entitled Die Colom- 
bonct, dealing with Columbus, and published in 1753. The muse of the 
Jewish journalist and poet, Ludwig August Frankl, is said to have reached 
its highest flight in the romantic epic of Christoforo Colombo, first printed 
in 1836. There appeared at Prague in 1861 a novel, historical in charac- 
ter, entitled Columbus and His Times, and written by Marie Norden. 

In Swedish, Frans Michael Franzen published a poem on Columbus at 
Stockholm in 183 1. 

Spanish literature, of course, is not deficient in Columbian romance. 
Juan de Castellanos wrote an interminable poem, extending to nearly 
ninety thousand lines, and called it Elegies of the Illustrious Men of the 
Indies. Only the beginning, however, has to do with Columbus, and this 
first portion was printed in 1589. The author was an ecclesiastic of New 
Grenada, and earlier in life, as a soldier, he had been in some of the coun- 
tries and battles he describes. Good poetry cannot usually be poured out 
in such a flood, so this work is more valuable as a chronicle than as a 
poem. In 1701, at Barcelona, an unfinished heroic poem was published 
under the title of The New World. Its author was Francisco Botelho de 
Moraes e Vasconcellos, a Portuguese gentleman of rank living in Spain ; 
but his work abounded in such extravagant allegories that it quickly 
dropped into deserved oblivion. Narciso de Foxa 'was the writer of 
Colon : Epic Canto on the Discovery of America, a short prize poem appear- 
ing at Havana in 1846. In a printed collection of Cuban poetry, Prieto's 
Cuban Parnassus, may be found two poems on Columbus ; a long one 
called Colon, by Francisco Iturrondo, and a shorter one by Jose Zacarias 
Gonzalez del Valle, entitled The Ashes of Columbus in Our Cathedral. 
Don Ramon Campoamor wrote the poem of Colon which was published 



278 COLUMBUS IN ROMANCE 

at Valencia in 1853, and again at Madrid in 1859. In the plays of Lope 
de Vega, Spain's greatest dramatist, Columbus is twice introduced. Inci- 
dentally only he appears in The Perfect Prince, but another drama is 
devoted entirely to his career — The New World Discovered by Christoval 
Colon. This latter work is said to be wild and extravagant, though marks 
of Lope's talents are not altogether wanting in it, and its scenes are laid in 
Portugal, the plains of Granada, Columbus's caravel during the mutiny, 
the West Indies, and the royal court of Spain. 

About a year after Columbus discovered America his exploit was com- 
memorated in Italian poetry. The printed Latin letter announcing the 
discovery was paraphrased in Italian verse by Giuliano Dati, a popular 
poet, and very probably his work was sung around the streets. Two edi- 
tions of this poor poem seem to have been printed at Florence in October 
of 1493, but it has now become excessively rare. The first stanza to 
mention the discoverer has thus been translated by Harrisse, the most 
thorough of Columbian scholars, in that mine of information, Notes on 
Columbus. 

"Back to my theme, O listener, turn with me, 
And hear of islands all unknown to thee ! 
Islands whereof the grand discovery 
Chanced in this year of fourteen ninety-three ; 
One Christopher Colombo, whose resort 
Was ever in the King Fernando's court, 
Bent himself still to rouse and stimulate 
The king to swell the borders of his state." 

Tasso refers to Columbus in Canto xv. of his great poem, Jerusalem 
Delivered. An Italian poem by Giovanni Giorgini, The New World, 
was published in 1591 and 1596, and early in the next century a long 
poem came out with the same title, by Tomaso Stigliani. A single canto 
appeared in 1602, of the poem Colombo, written by Giovanni Villifranchi, 
and but one canto exists, also, of Occano, which Alexander Tassoni hoped 
to make into a great poetical monument to Columbus. Cardinal Sforza 
Pallavicino is said to have celebrated the discoverer in verse in his 
Sacred Annals, 1637. Gabriel Chiabrera wrote an ode to Columbus. 
Ormildo Emeressio was the nom de plume under which Alvise Guerini 
published a poem, entitled The Admiral of the Indies, in 1759. Tamburini 
figures as the author of the heroic-mythological poem, The Columbiad, 
appearing in Corsica in 1823, and three years later a like-named epic was 
published by Bernardo Bellini. In 1846 Lorenzo Costa's poem, Cristo- 
foro Colombo, appeared at Genoa in a finely printed volume; and a play 



COLUMBUS IN ROMANCE 279 

with the same name, by Giorgio Briano, was published at Turin in 1842. 
Columbus ; or. The Discovery of the Indies is the title of a comedy by Fran- 
cesco Cerlone, printed in 1775 at Naples. Fifteen or more operas in 
Italian and other languages have Columbus for their hero ; and he is com- 
memorated in an ode-symphony by Felicien David, and an overture by 
Richard Wagner. 

While Latin was still the language of the learned, Columbus naturally 
came to be celebrated in Latin verse. Julius Caesar Stella, a precocious 
youth of a noble Roman family, composed a Columbian epic that was 
read to the cardinals at the Villa Farnese, and printed in 1585 and 1590. 
Spoiled by early success, the young poet thought he had done enough for 
the rest of his days, frittered away his life in idleness and pleasure-seeking, 
and at last was accidentally choked to death while drinking. Lorenzo 
Gambara was the author of another Latin poem, The Voyage of Chris- 
topher Columbus, editions of which appeared in 1581 and 1585. Atlantis 
Discovered ; or, The First Voyage of Christopher Columbus to America was 
the title of a Latin poem, printed at Hamburg in 1659 as the work of 
Vincentius Placcius. The Jesuit Ubertino Carrara published at Rome in 
1 71 5 the earliest of the three editions of his Latin epic, entitled Colum- 
bus, the twelve cantos of which are said to be more poetical in con- 
ception than in style. Last may be mentioned the very first of all the 
Columbian poems ever printed. This is the short Latin epigram, addressed 
" to the invincible King of the Spains " by the Bishop of Montepeloso, 
and appearing in the early editions, 1493, of the Columbus letter. It has 
been translated by Harrisse as follows: 

" Less wide the world than the renown of Spain, 
To swell her triumph no new lands remain ! 
Rejoice, Iberis ! see thy fame increased ! 
Another world Columbus from the East 
And the mid-ocean summons to thy sway ! 
Give thanks to him — but loftier homage pay 
To God supreme, who gives its realms to thee ! 
Greatest of monarchs, first of servants be ! " 



iS>. S\. <&,u^Xo^k t 



Astor Library. 



A BIT OF COLLEGE HISTORY' 

HOW YOUNG MEN WERE EXPELLED A HUNDRED YEARS AGO 

The condition of a country, intellectual and moral, may be said to be 
mirrored in its institutions of learning. Looking back at the customs and 
ideas of our Puritan ancestors, we find that the spirit in which our colleges 
and schools were at that time conducted was much the same as that which 
is so vividly brought before us in the pictures of those sedate gentlemen, 
as they sat in straight-back chairs with their black suits and large collars, 
waiting for a funeral service to be performed or a Thanksgiving turkey to 
be served. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century the Puritans of New Eng- 
land had lost much of that religious fervor for which they had been so 
famed. Under the influence of an established church there were few dis- 
putes to enliven ecclesiastical affairs ; the arguments and reasoning, being all 
one-sided, caused no ill feeling and much general satisfaction. The pastors 
preached their orthodox sermons and the congregations listened in the 
orthodox fashion, the men dozing, the womenfolk rustling with their 
fans or giving an occasional poke at their delinquent helpmates, who, in 
spite of their Sunday clothes, could not but sleep in the ordinary noisy 
manner. But it only required a Whitefield to awaken the country from 
its dreamy monotony and to add new fire to the smoldering embers of 
New England faith. The party of " New Lights " under the inspiring 
influence of such a leader quickly increased in number, while the " Old 
Lights " became even more conservative than formerly. The excitement 
due to this religious struggle spread throughout the country. Every 
village was wrought with religious dissension. Nearly every one became a 
member of one party or the other. The village store, usually monopolized 
by those who talked of farming matters or carried on political discussions 
before an easily impressed audience, was now turned into a meeting- 
house, where the quoter of scripture was held in high esteem. At home 
and abroad the same interest was taken in church matters. The younger 
members of society imbibed party zeal and party opinions, and left home 
with strong party feeling. The students returning from college became 
accustomed to discuss this leading topic of the day at every opportunity, 
and went back to their classmates with the desire and material for a 



A BIT OF COLLEGE HISTORY 



281 



verbal bout with all unbelievers. And so the war going on outside could 
not but be carried within the college walls. In general, this difference of 
opinion regarding the church only gave rise to discussions among the 
students. 

But at Yale it went further. This institution was indeed considered 
by some to be a " religious society." The founding of the college was 
claimed to have been by " several well-disposed and Publick spirited per- 
sons," who desired that there should be a collegiate school where youth 
might be educated for " employment in Church and Civil State." Placed 
in a position of much importance, it was considered necessary that a 
decided stand be taken. The president at the time, the Rev. Dr. Clap, 
was a zealous advocate of the " Old Lights," and as, with few exceptions, 
the members of the faculty were conservative, it was natural that the 
college should be opposed to the " Separatists." The students, impressed 
by the fiery eloquence of Whitefield, were forbidden to attend " Separa- 
tists' " meetings, and, a chapel having been built, attendance at college 
services became compulsory. But the students rebelled against this 
infringement on their liberty. They regarded their college course as 
decidedly distinct from a religious training, and, as rules are at best little 
less than a challenge for their violation, it was not long before the faculty 
felt themselves compelled to take severe measures to stay the " intemper- 
ate and imprudent zeal " of some of the students. 

About the time of these disturbances, when the usual calm of college 
life was being interrupted, there were two brothers at Yale — John and 
Ebenezer Cleaveland. One had just entered on his first year, while the 
other had reached the dignity of a senior. They were both rather given 
to their books and not at all men who would be picked out as offenders 
against the rules of the college. As their diaries afterwards showed, they 
were also religiously disposed and were what would now be termed 
"devout young men." But, with the rest of their fellow students, they 
chafed under the restraint imposed upon them. Nothing seemed to 
be left undone which might increase the general dissatisfaction. A 
" Separatists' " meeting happened to be held within a few blocks of the 
college, and the students, who were not allowed to attend, became all the 
more aggravated. Even then nothing of importance had taken place of 
which the faculty might complain. But in the midst of exciting debates 
the students sometimes forgot themselves, and did not pay the respect to 
the opinions of the instructors which was thought their due. As the com- 
mittee appointed to look into the " unhapie circumstances of the Colege " 
reported : " Some of the Students have fallen into the practice of Rash 



282 A BIT OF COLLEGE HISTORY 

Judging and censuring others, even some of the Governors, Teachers, and 
Instructors of the Colege." In this account the faculty threatened to 
expel any one who spoke against the religious views of the college 
officials. 

Offenders against such a rule were easily found, and soon one David 
Brainerd was overheard to remark, in regard to the praying of a certain 
tutor, that " he had no more grace than his chair." For such remark 
Brainerd was immediately expelled, but although obliged to leave college 
for a religious offense, he, in after years, ended his life as a missionary 
among the Indians. This example for the time daunted the students, who 
became more careful of what they said, although one is supposed to have 
very pithily stated that he had not attended chapel on account of the 
coldness of the building and of the preacher. 

When the vacation time had arrived the students, as usual, dispersed to 
spend the holidays with their families or among friends, and the Cleavelands, 
with the rest, left for their home in Canterbury, a small town in the north- 
ern part of Connecticut. After the strict discipline under which they 
had been living, the liberties of home were fully appreciated. All restric- 
tions were for the time removed, and those views which, at college, they 
held but were afraid to express, they there had ample opportunity to 
defend. For even as far as Canterbury the dissension in the church had 
spread, and in that small village the parish had been divided. The greater 
part of the congregation had seceded and established a party of " New 
Lights." But there they were met with the difficulty of obtaining a 
preacher, and in lack of an ordained minister, they were obliged to install 
a layman, Solomon Paine, in the pulpit. The parents of the Cleavelands 
had joined this church and, when their sons returned from college, had 
expressed the desire that they should meet where their parents met. 
The two brothers therefore attended with their family the meetings held 
by Paine, little dreaming of the fearful crime they had committed. 

As soon as college had again opened, the faculty seemed resolved to 
carry out their plans to the last point, and command observance of all 
rules, however oppressive to the student body. Not long after the Cleave- 
lands returned to the college, they were charged with " going to hear a 
neighboring minister preach, who is distinguished in this provence by the 
name of a New Light," and were threatened with expulsion. One may 
well imagine the state of mind into which the two brothers were thrown. 
Obliged to leave college for having principles and living up to them ! 
Nowadays it is the great grief of many parents that their sons do not 
attend the service of any church. Then it was considered an offense to 



A BIT OF COLLEGE HISTORY 283 

worship God in any but the conventional manner. A petition was sent to 
the faculty which was probably the first of its kind. In this the clemency 
of the college authorities was earnestly, and indeed meekly, entreated, as 
the offense had been committed unwittingly — one clause reading: " Hon d 
fathers, suffer me to lie at your feet and entreat your compassionate for- 
giveness to an offending child, wherein I have transgressed." The young 
Cleavelands expressed their ignorance of any law which excluded them 
from the church where the majority of their village met for social wor- 
ship. After waiting for a time in suspense, they were called before the 
president, and told to make what defense they could. At first they 
attempted to justify their course by citing precedents out of the Old 
Testament ; but when they found that they were making little impression 
on their judges by this course, one of them replied that he did not see 
how they could expect to stay in college in any case, for if they pleased 
their parents and themselves, the college would expel them, while if they 
did not do as their parents wished, they would have no means of support. 
Finally, it was decided that the offenders be pardoned, if they publicly 
proclaimed that they had acted " in violation of the laws of God, and of 
the colony, and of the college." With this demand they could not com- 
ply, and still be innocent in their own sight of breaking the college rules 
and sacrificing their own beliefs to those of others. They were accord- 
ingly expelled. Thus, within four years three students were obliged to 
leave college on account of what seems to us a petty disagreement. 

The story of David Brainerd and the two Cleavelands brings before us 
one of the great questions which even now agitate the college world in 
America. We can see the different manner in which religious matters 
were regarded by the men of a hundred years ago and by society of 
to-day. Our grandfathers disputed whether a student might attend any 
church but the college chapel. Now the advisability of compelling stu- 
dents to attend church at all is doubted. At the time of the Cleavelands, 
Yale and the other institutions of the same character were in a transition 
period. The collegiate school was just becoming accustomed to the new 
title of college, and was endeavoring to meet the greater obligations im- 
posed upon it by this name. Now the college is casting aside its old garb, 
and struggling with the more important and more dignified questions 
which confront a university. 



st^^e^' -\7T^ (^j^-^^£c^2^^ 



New Haven, Connecticut. 



CAREER OF GENERAL JAMES HOGUN 

ONE OF NORTH CAROLINA'S REVOLUTIONARY OFFICERS 

North Carolina in the Revolution furnished ten regiments to the regu- 
lar service — the continental line. Five of the colonels of these became 
general officers, the only generals North Carolina had in the regular 
service. They were General Robert Howe, who rose to be major-general 
— our sole major-general — and four brigadiers — General James Moore, 
who died early in the war; General Francis Nash, killed at Germantown 
and buried near the field of battle — a brother of Governor Abner Nash ; 
General Jethro Sumner, and General James Hogun. 

The lives and careers of the first three named are well known. For 
some reason the data as to the last two have been neglected. The Hon. 
Kemp P. Battle, by diligent search in many quarters, was able to restore 
to us much information as to General Jethro Sumner, of Warren county, 
and, indeed, to rehabilitate his memory.* As to General James Hogun, of 
Halifax county, the task was more difficult. Little has been known 
beyond the fact that he v/as probably from Halifax county, and that he 
was a brigadier-general. The late Colonel William L. Saunders requested 
the writer to investigate and preserve to posterity whatever could now be 
rediscovered as to this brave officer. 

It may be noted that North Carolina has not named a county, or town- 
ship, or village, in honor of either of the four generals — Howe, Moore, 
Sumner, or Hogun. Moore county was named in honor of Judge Alfred 
Moore, of the United States supreme court. General Nash was the only 
one of the five thus honored, the county of Nash having been formed in 
1777, the year of General Nash's death at Germantown. 

General James Hogun was born in Ireland, but the year and place of 
his birth are unknown. The name is spelt Hogun, though usually in Ire- 
land, where the name is not uncommon, it is written Hogan — with an a. 
He removed to Halifax county, in this state, and to the Scotland Neck 
section of it. He married, October 3, 175 1, Miss Ruth Norfleet, of the 
well-known family of that name. In the provincial congress which met at 
Halifax, April 4, 1776, and which framed our first state constitution, James 
Hogun was one of the delegates for Halifax county. He was appointed 

* Magazine of American History for December, 1891 [xxvi. 415—433 1. 



CAREER OF GENERAL JAMES HOGUN 285 

paymaster in the third regiment (Sumner's), but the 26th of November, 
1776, he was elected colonel of the seventh North Carolina regiment, and 
December 6th of that year an election was ordered to fill the vacancy in 
congress caused thereby. Colonel Hogun marched northward with the 
seventh and Colonel Armstrong with the eighth, and both regiments 
arrived in time to take part in the battles of Brandywine and German- 
town. Colonel Sumner was appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of General Francis Nash. For the vacancy caused by the promo- 
tion of General Howe from brigadier-general to major-general, our legisla- 
ture recommended Colonel Thomas Clark, of the first regiment ; but 
General Washington stated that, while not undervaluing Colonel Clark's 
services, Colonel Hogun by his distinguished gallantry at Germantown 
had earned the promotion, and he was therefore elected and commissioned 
a brigadier-general, January 9, 1779, and continued to serve with the army 
at the north. When Charleston was threatened, all of the North Carolina 
line which had not previously gone south with General Lincoln, under 
Sumner, was ordered to that point. Owing to losses, the North Carolina 
regiments then north were consolidated into four, and General Hogun 
placed in command. At the head of his brigade he passed through Hal- 
ifax and Wilmington in February, 1 780, and took part in the memorable 
defense of Charleston. When General Lincoln surrendered that city on 
May 12, 1780, though he surrendered five thousand men, only one thou- 
sand eight hundred of them were regular troops, and the larger part of 
these were General Hogun's North Carolina brigade. General Sumner, 
our other brigadier, who had commanded that part of the North Carolina 
line which was at Charleston before General Hogun's arrival, was home on 
furlough, as were many officers that had lost employment by the consoli- 
dation of the depleted companies and regiments. With that exception, 
North Carolina's entire force was lost to her at this critical time. The 
surrendered militia were paroled, but the regular troops, headed by Gen- 
eral Hogun, were conveyed to Hadrell's Point, in rear of Sullivan's Island, 
near Charleston. There they underwent the greatest privations of all 
kinds. They were nearly starved, but even a petition to fish, in order to 
add to their supply of food, was refused by the British. These troops 
were also threatened with deportation to the West Indies. General 
Hogun himself was offered leave to return home on parole. Tempting as 
was the offer, he felt that his departure would be unjust to his men, whose 
privations he had promised to share. He also knew that his absence 
would aid the efforts of the British, who were seeking recruits among 
these half-starved prisoners. He fell a victim to his sense of duty, and 



286 CAREER OF GENERAL JAMES HOGUN 

fills the unmarked grave of a hero. History affords no more striking inci- 
dent of devotion to duty, and North Carolina should erect a tablet to his 
memory, and that of those who perished there with him. Of the one 
thousand eight hundred regulars who went into captivity on Sullivan 
Island with him, only seven hundred survived when they were paroled. 

We do not know General Hogun's age, but as he had married in 175 1 
he was probably beyond middle life. In this short recital is found all 
that careful research has so far disclosed of a life whose outline proves it 
worthy of fuller commemoration. Could his last resting-place be found, 
the tablet might well bear a Lacedaemonian inscription. 

General Hogun left only one child, Lemuel Hogun, who married Mary 
Smith, of Halifax county. To Lemuel Hogun, March 14, 1786, North 
Carolina issued a grant for twelve thousand acres of land in Davidson 
county, Tennessee, near Nashville, as " the heir of Brigadier-General 
Hogun." In October, 1792, the United States paid him five thousand 
two hundred and fifty dollars, being the seven years' half-pay voted by 
congress to the heirs of brigadier-generals who had died in service. In 
1814 Lemuel Hogun died, and is probably buried at the family burial 
ground. General Hogun resided in Halifax county, North Carolina, about 
one mile from the present village of Hobgood. In 1818 the widow of 
Lemuel Hogun, with her children, moved to Tuscumbia, Alabama. 
Numerous descendants are to be found in that state, and in Tennessee and 
Mississippi. In the late war General Hogun's papers, which might have 
furnished materials for history, were seized by the federal troops and 
presumably destroyed, though it is barely possible they may be yet pre- 
served in some northern historical collection. It is known that among 
these papers was at least one letter from Washington to General Hogun. 

These five heroes — Howe, Moore, Nash, Sumner, and Hogun — were, as 
has been said, the only generals from this state in the regular service. 

We had several generals who commanded militia, ordered out on three 
months' tour or on special service, at sundry times, such as General Grif- 
fith Rutherfurd and General Davidson, for whom those counties have been 
named ; Generals Butler and Eaton, and others. General Davidson had 
been a major in the continental line, but was a brigadier-general of militia 
when killed at Cowan's Ford. There were others, as Colonel Davie, Major 
Joseph Graham (who commanded the brigade sent to Jackson's aid 
against the Creeks in 1812), and several who acquired the rank of general 
after the Revolution. 

The militia figured more prominently in that day than since. The 
important victories of King's Mountain and Ramsour's Mills were won 



CAREER OF GENERAL JAMES HOGUN 287 

solely by militia, and Cowpens and Moore's Creek by their aid. Rutherfurd 
and Gregory commanded militia brigades at Camden, as Butler and Eaton 
did at Guilford Court House, and as General John Ashe did at Brier 
Creek. It may be of interest to name here the colonels of the ten North 
Carolina regiments of the continental line: First regiment, James Moore. 
On his promotion to brigadier-general, Francis Nash. After his promo- 
tion, Thomas Clark. Alfred Moore, afterwards judge of the United States 
supreme court, was one of the captains. Second regiment, Robert Howe. 
After his promotion to major-general, Alexander Martin. He being 
elected governor, John Patton became colonel. In this regiment Hardy 
Murfree, from whom Murfreesboro, in North Carolina and Tennessee, are 
named, rose from captain to lieutenant-colonel; and Benjamin Williams, 
afterwards governor, was one of the captains. David Vance, grandfather 
of Governor Vance, was a lieutenant. Third regiment, Jethro Sumner. 
After his promotion it was consolidated with the first regiment. In this 
regiment Hal Dixon was lieutenant-colonel and Pinketham Eaton was 
major, both distinguished soldiers ; and William Blount, afterwards United 
States senator, was paymaster. Fourth regiment, Thomas Polk. General 
William Davidson, killed at Cowan's Ford, was major of this regiment, 
and William Williams, afterwards prominent, was adjutant. Fifth regi- 
ment, Edward Buncombe, who died of wounds received at Germantown, 
and for whom Buncombe county is named. Sixth regiment, Alexander 
Lillington, afterwards Gideon Lamb. John Baptiste Ashe, of Halifax, 
who was elected in 1802 governor but died before qualifying, was lieu- 
tenant-colonel of this regiment. Seventh regiment, James Hogun. After 
his promotion, Robert Mebane. In this regiment, Nathaniel Macon, after- 
wards speaker of congress and United States senator, and James Turner, 
afterwards governor, served together as privates in the same company. 
Eighth regiment, James Armstrong. Ninth regiment, John P. Williams. 
Of this regiment William Polk was major. Tenth regiment, Abraham 
Shephard. The state had in the continental line a battery of artillery com- 
manded by John Kingsbury, and three companies of cavalry, led, respec- 
tively, by Samuel Ashe, Martin Phifer, and Cosmo de Medici. 

My object in writing has been to give the few details which, after labo- 
rious research, I have been able to exhume as to General Hogun, his origin, 
his services, and his descendants. I trust others may be able to bring to 
light further information, so that an adequate memoir may be prepared of 
so distinguished an officer. 



Raleigh, North Carolina. 




SOME RELICS OF JOHN HOWARD THE PHILANTHROPIST 

i 726- i 790 

At this late day, these are very scarce and meagre. The great philan- 
thropist left but few behind him. That ubiquitous, persistent creature, 
the modern autograph collector, finds it almost impossible to obtain any 
of his manuscripts. 

Howard wrote but little, excepting his works on prisons, and letters to 
a small circle of chosen friends. The pen was not his forte, and Pie had no 
place amongst the literati* 

His name has become generic for philanthropy. This was the grand, 
absorbing idea of his life, and everything was subservient thereto. Fame 
and reputation he despised, and nothing so grieved him as any attempt to 
perpetuate his actions and memory. His individuality was strongly devel- 
oped ; so was his isolation of character. All his energies were concen- 
trated, to use his own language, upon his "jail schemes." He was a 
wanderer over Europe, as Burke declared, " not to survey the sumptuous- 
ness of palaces, or the stateliness of temples, but to dive into the depths 
of dungeons, to plunge into the infection of hospitals, to take the gauge 
and dimensions of misery, to remember the forgotten, to attend to the 
neglected." This being the case, he collected no pictures, gems, books, or 
articles of vertu. His correspondence, never large, reflected his occupa- 
tion. He looked with disdain upon curios, musty tomes, and kindred 
objects. Is is not natural, then, that but few mementos of him exist ? 
The earliest in the writer's possession is an autograph letter, of which 
the following is a verbatim copy : 

"Sir: In answer to yr favour have wrote to Mr. Price of Houndsditch 
my surveyor to begin the Repairs as soon as the Weather will permitt, as 
to the Workmen being about and of consequence some litter that you 

* John Howard was born September 2, 1726, at Hackney, near London. He spent his youth in 
the study of medicine and in traveling, but having come into public notice through his schools and 
model cottages for the peasantry, he was elected sheriff in 1773. This brought him into an 
acquaintance with the miserable condition of the jails. He traveled through the whole kingdom, 
visited all its prisons, and in 1774 presented a report to the House of Commons, which resulted in 
the passage of reform bills. He then visited all the French, German, Holland, and other prisons 
of the continent, and wrote his famous works on prisons after his return, the immediate result of 
which was the adoption, on trial, of the hard-labor system in some of the English prisons. Later on 
he made a tour through Turkey and Asia Minor, and wrote his Account of the Lazarettos of Europe. 



SOME RELICS OF JOHN HOWARD THE PHILANTHROPIST 289 

must expect as the present Tenant had who entered just as you do at Lady 
day. The Lease Sir you know is customary the Tenants expence so may 
at yr leisure leave the draft at Mr. Barmardistons as I shall be in Town 
for ten days the beginning of April, permitt me to wish you & yrs Health 
& Happiness therein, as I know but few so comfortable Habitations. 

The best of Water goods soil dry House no smoaky Chimney, excuse 
me if partial to a House I truly love more than all my other Houses. 

I am Sr 

Yr m £ Hum Serv'. 

John Howard. 

Watcombe, Feb. 6, 1760. 

To Mr. Rosewell in Angel Court, Throgmorton Str'. London." 

The house referred to was doubtless his favorite residence at Carding- 
ton. Mrs. Howard's health was delicate, and her husband had purchased 
a property at Watcombe, where this letter was written, in hopes that a 
change of air and scene might restore the fair invalid. Howard's chirog- 
raphy reveals his character. All the letters are large, carefully formed- 
and almost like copperplate ; there is no evidence of haste or impulse, 
The paper was not ruled, although the spaces would so indicate, as they 
are remarkably regular and even ; the z's and /'s are dotted and crossed 
with the greatest precision. There is a total absence of flourishes. A 
peculiarity is observable in the formation of the letter d wherever it ends 
a word. Its terminus is invariably brought up over the letter. The 
manuscript is perfectly legible, yet characterized by a certain stiffness, 
indicating a lack of freedom in the use of the pen. Both orthography and 
spelling were at fault with Howard, and far below the present standard. 
His correspondence, particularly, shows great abruptness and want of con- 
tinuity. His sentences are short and awkward, and abbreviations are of 
constant occurrence. The next letter was written twenty-two years later; 
it is addressed to Doctor Farr, London. 

"Great Ormond St., 
Nov. 1 1, 1782 

SIR : When I had the pleasure of seeing you at Plym° you favoured 
me with the acceptance of an Appendix, may I now request your accept- 
ance of the former part as a small testimony of my esteem ; with my best 
ComplimV to your Lady I am Sir Yr Mt. Ob. Serv' John Howard. 

P. S. Should the drawing of your Hospital be finished & a sketch of 
the Cradles, or any improvem' you think might be made in them, it may 
be sent by Coach or Post." 

Vol.. XXVIII. -No. 4.-IC, 



290 SOME RELICS OF JOHN HOWARD THE PHILANTHROPIST 

Howard eventually presented the doctor with his two famous works, 
The State of Prisons in England mid Wales, and An Account of the Principal 
Lazarettos in Europe. 

They each bear this inscription on the title pages : " W. Farr : ex dono 
Auctoris. I. H Amici, virtute, clarissimi." Both are in the writer's pos- 
session. 

Howard had no eye to pecuniary gains or literary honors in the publi- 
cation of his books ; they were altogether pro bono publico, and the outlay 
was very great. Whilst many copies were sold, he distributed gratuitously 
a large number to persons whose official position or rank in life would 
assist him in the furtherance of his philanthropic labors. A fly-leaf from a 
presentation copy of The State of Prisons, now owned by the writer, reads 
thus: Mr. Howard requests Mr. Devaynes will be kind enough to accept 
this book from him, as a small testimony of his esteem." This gentleman 
was a member of parliament in 1786 and 1787, and active in the suppres- 
sion of the slave trade. 

Howard not only thus circulated his own works on prisons and lazaret- 
tos, he was ever on the alert to seize any opportunity to make known their 
wretched condition, and, whilst abroad, met with a pamphlet exposing the 
horrors of the Bastile. The author, now unknown, had been an inmate, 
and after his escape wrote this brochure. It aroused the wrath of the 
government, which prohibited its sale under the severest penalties, and it 
became almost impossible to obtain it. The argus eyes of the police were 
searching for it in every direction ; but Howard, at great risk, bore off a 
copy in triumph to England, had it translated and scattered broadcast. 
This is another instance of considerable expenditure without any remunera- 
tion. It is an octavo of thirty-three pages, with an excellent plan of the 
Bastile, and now quite scarce and seldom seen. It was published by Cadell 
in London at sixpence, and ran through two editions. 

Howard's patriotic spirit may be seen in the preface he wrote for it, in 
which he says : " It soon occurred to me, that it would be acceptable to my 
countrymen : and this not merely as an object of curiosity, from the cele- 
brated name of the place it describes, but as affording a very interesting and 
instructive comparison between the horrors of despotic power, and the mild 
and just administration of equal laws in a free state. I therefore procured 
a faithful translation of it to be made: and if its publication shall in any 
degree tend to increase the attachment and revenue of Englishmen to the 
genuine principles of their excellent Constitution, my purpose will be fully 
answered." 

In 1786 there was a book published in Pisa, which, when brought to 






SOME RELICS OF JOHN HOWARD THE PHILANTHROPIST 29 1 

Howard's notice, impressed him so favorably that he had it also translated 
and published gratuitously. This was the Edict of the Grand Duke of 
Tuscany for tJie Reform of Criminal Law i?i his Dominions. It bears this 
singular imprint: "Warrington. Printed by W. Eyres, 1789. A few- 
copies to be had gratis of Messrs. Cadell, Johnson Dilly and Taylor. This 
Pamphlet not to be sold." A copy belonging to the writer has the following 
inscription in Howard's own hand : "The Gift of Mr. Howard the Editor. 
Never published for sale." 

Leopold was far in advance of the age when he framed this admirable 
code. Its mildness and leniency are apparent throughout, and contrast 
vividly with the severity of English criminal jurisprudence at that period. 
This now almost forgotten volume is an octavo of sixty-seven pages, hand- 
somely printed, and espensively bound in full calf with elaborately tooled 
edges, at no small expense. The author deserved a better fate than 
awaited him. Wraxall says he was presented with poisoned confectionery 
by a lady at a masquerade, and died in consequence. 

Notwithstanding Howard's reserve and fondness for retirement, he had 
now become a public character, and he was beset in every direction. He 
was the apostle of philanthropy and prison reform, and honors were freely 
accorded him, which he positively refused. They pained and annoyed 
him excessively, and he shunned his kind tormentors. Dr. Lettsom was 
active in raising a fund for a statue commemorative of his labors, and over 
one thousand pounds were secured, but Howard would not sanction it, and 
the matter was kept in abeyance. Two poems, in large type, quarto, called 
The Triumph of Benevolence and The Vindication of Fame, appeared in con- 
sequence of this effort, but all was lost upon their hero, who cared for none 
of these things. The following letters, from the pen of the celebrated 
Dr. Richard Price, copied from the originals in the writer's possession, 
will best show the views of Howard on this well-meaning but injudicious 
measure : 

" Newington Green, Nov. 3rd, 1786. 

Dr. Price presents his respects to Dr. Lettsom and requests his atten- 
tion to the following copy of part of a letter which he has just received 
from Mr. Howard. He hopes it will engage Dr. Lettsom and the other 
gentlemen belonging to the Committee for erecting a Monument in honour 
of Mr. Howard to give up this design, and to apply the whole money sub- 
scribed to the Fund for prison charities and reforms. But should they 
not consent to this, Dr. Price will think himself bound to publish, for the 
information of the public, the letter he has received, and to employ every 
other method in his power to prevent a design from being carried into 



292 SOME RELICS CF JOHN HOWARD THE PHILANTHROPIST 

execution which he knows will hurt Mr. Howard extremely. Copy of part 
of a letter from Mr. Howard to Dr. Price, dated from the Lazaretto at 
Venice, Oct. 13, 1786: 

' My difficulties have hitherto left me in possession of my usual 
resolution and calm spirits. But alas now, since the receipt of my 
letters from London, they have forsaken me and I can hardly lift 
up my head. Could not my friends have prevented this sad event? 
Can nothing now be done ? To a statue or public picture I have a 
great dislike. When desired some time ago to sit for the latter, I de- 
clared my aversion to it. Any advertisem' you will put into the papers 
with my name ag st this design I will confirm. That long friendship with 
you which I esteem my honour and happiness must make you fully 
acquainted with my temper. I will have no bust, nor will I ever sit for 
any picture. P. S. My truest and best and most intimate friends have I 
see by the papers been so kind as not to subscribe to what you so justly 
term a hasty measure. Indeed, indeed {sic) if nothing can be done (I 
speak from my heart) never was a poor creature more dragg'd into public 
view. Yet I have my hope that some happy expedient will occur to you.' ' 

Dr. Price's second letter reads : " Dear Sir : I have received with pleasure 
your letter and return you thanks for your attention and candour. I know 
so well the delicacy of Mr. Howard's feelings and the purity of his views 
as to be assured that a perseverance in the design to erect in any form a 
statue or monument in honour of him would be a discouragem* and pun- 
ishm' to him. He has authorized me to endeavour to prevent such a 
measure; but I am glad to learn from the letter with which you have 
favoured me, that I need not give myself any farther trouble. 

The establishm 1 of such a Fund for prison charities and reforms must 
I apprehend, give him pleasure; and he will probably (should a kind Prov- 
idence continue to protect him till his return about Christmas next) be 
very ready to give his advice and assistance with respect to the best 
method of carrying such a design into execution. But I fear he will not 
admit of its being called the Howardian fund. It would undoubtedly 
be best, as you observe, to preserve the principal of this fund and to 
apply only the interest. The chief objection to this seems to be, the 
smallness of the capital, and consequently the insufficiency of the interest 
to give any considerable relief, but it may be well hoped that the capital 
will in time become much larger than it is. 

With great regard I am, Dear S r 

Your very obed' and humble Servt 

Newington Green, Nov. 8 th , 1786. RlCH D PRICE 

To Dr. Lettsom, Basinghall Street." 



SOME RELICS OF JOHN HOWARD THE PHILANTHROPIST 293 

Like ali famous men, Howard's likeness was in great demand, but he 
would never sit for his picture. He declared to one of his friends: "It 
has cost me a great deal of trouble, and some money to make this insig- 
nificant form and ugly face, escape a pack of draftsmen, painters, &c that 
are lying in wait for me. I have detected a fellow at work upon this face 
of mine, even as I have walked in the streets of London." He eluded 
him by jumping into a hackney coach and driving home. Before, as well 
as after his death, the magazines and journals of the day printed numer- 
ous so-called portraits of him, which bore little resemblance, however. 
Indeed, many were but caricatures. Out of a large number collected by 
the writer, but very few give any correct idea of his features. The only 
authentic portrait was taken by Thomas Holloway, an artist of reputation, 
and a friend of Howard's, and even this was drawn from recollection. It 
was engraved by Freeman for Baldwin Brown's Life of John Howard, pub- 
lished in London in 1818. Whilst an admirable specimen of the engraver's 
art, it does not convey an accurate view of the features, as may be seen 
on comparison with the original in India ink, beautifully executed, in 
possession of the writer of this article. The difference is quite perceptible. 
This is the basis of the best portraits. Nearly all agree in one particular, 
the prominent nose resembled that of the Duke of Wellington. 

In 1788, about two years before Howard's death, there was an engrav- 
ing published in London from a drawing by the celebrated Gillray, in 
size about twenty-four inches by twenty-two, representing Howard in a 
prison, handing an unfortunate military officer a purse of gold to relieve 
his necessities. The victim is seated on a bench, supported in his illness 
by his faithful wife, and surrounded by a number of young children. 
This picture is well executed in every particular, excepting the featttres of 
the philanthropist. Here, the artist has failed. They are widely different 
from the original. It is now very scarce and difficult to obtain. 

In April, 1790, three months after Howard's death, there appeared 
another picture, painted by Wheatley, and engraved by James Hogg, far 
superior to the former, and about the same size. It shows Howard in a 
jail of enormous strength, accompanied by the obsequious keeper, and 
revealing a sick, old, gray-haired man, in the arms of his daughter, attended 
by a numerous family, children and grandchildren. Despair, hunger, and 
poverty are accurately depicted. Two attendants are seen, one bringing 
bedding, the other, provisions. Howard, of course, is the central figure. 
He is dressed in knee breeches, long, closely buttoned coat, ruffled wrists, 
and cocked hat. He is pointing to the miserable beings around him as he 
addresses the jailer, who stands hat in hand, and holding the ponderous 



294 SOME RELICS OF JOHN HOWARD THE PHILANTHROPIST 

prison keys. His features agreed exactly with those delineated by Hollo- 
way in the India ink portrait already referred to. 

This is one of the most expressive pictures of the kind ever taken, and 
tells the story of Howard's work at a single glance. It is extremely rare, 
and now almost impossible to obtain. The writer has two impressions, 
and another is in the Philadelphia library where it has been from time 
immemorial. 

Among the intimate friends of the philanthropist was the Rev. 
William Lawrence Brown, D.D., professor of theology in the Marischal 
college, Aberdeen, who furnished many anecdotes and reminiscences for 
Brown's Life of Howard. Dr. Brown's original manuscripts of sixty-nine 
pages, attested by his autograph, belong to the writer; as its contents have 
already appeared in the Life, of course they are not repeated. The intro- 
duction, however, may be appropriately quoted. " I regard it as one of 
the most pleasing circumstances of my life to have formed the acquaint- 
ance of this illustrious character, and as one of the most honourable and 
advantageous, as far as mind is concerned, to have acquired his attach- 
ment and friendship." 

One of Howard's greatest admirers was the poet William Hayley, who 
wrote the Eulogies of Howard, a vision. The original manuscript of this 
curious production in Hayley's hand is now before the writer, a quarto of 
sixty-nine pages. In a letter to Nichols, the author says: "The chief 
aim of this performance is to honour the memory of our departed friend, 
the excellent Howard, with a view to quicken and extend the generosity 
of the nation in subscribing to his monument. To show how much all 
ranks of men are interested in his glory, I have represented, in this visionary 
form, persons of different professions pronouncing different panegyrics on 
his incomparable character." 

Briefly stated, this resembles somewhat an apotheosis and a rhapsody, 
but diametrically opposite to the hero's wishes had he been consulted. 

The most interesting relic in possession of the writer is a fragment of 
Howard's memorandum book, found amongst his effects after his death at 
Cherson, January 21, 1790, and brought to England by his servant, who 
died in an infirmary in Liverpool. The paper is small, and stained with 
age and exposure, but otherwise in excellent preservation. On the top of 
one page is the following sentiment, in Howard's own large hand, in ink: 
" God grant that I may not be ashamed of, or a shame to my profession ; 
but may I be faithfull unto death holding fast the profession of my faith 
without wavering." 

Then come these detached sentences in pencil, faint, but still discern- 



SOME RELICS OF JOHN HOWARD THE PHILANTHROPIST 295 

ible : " My salvation will be of free, rich grace. Is my main care to appear 
great in the eye of Man, or good in the Eye of God ? What you have 
once wisely purposed, stick to as a Law not to be violated without Guilt, 
and mind not what others say of you ; Fix your character and keep to it 
whether alone or in company : How happy shd. we be of saving our fellow 
Creatures from misery. All Drs. [Debtors] be by their Crs. [Creditors] to 
state a Bill; reasons for it in my publn. [publication]. The Lord my 
Helper & deliverer may I live to Thy Glory & made fit for ye better 
world endear thy word & ordain to. to. Psa 1 30. I v. read it inc. He was 
I, describe this trouble 2 means to be delivered. Convict of Sin : 
2 more dependence of. 3. from an awful apprehension of the displeasure 
of God. 4. ye sense he has of his own impotence * it is various in its 
degree. 4 the action is ye accuser of ye brethren. 5. it is a most salutary 
affliction." 

Numerous half-penny tokens, commemorative of Howard, were put 
into circulation. Strange to say, his likeness on these was far more accu- 
rate than the engravings. One bore the motto, " Remember the Debtors 
in Gaol," and a device of Howard opening a prison, exclaiming, " Go 
Forth!" 

Such are some of the relics of John Howard, who, in the cause of 
philanthropy, traveled fifty thousand miles, and spent thirty thousand 
pounds. 



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 



Howard Edwards 



A HISTORIAN IN COLOR 

On the pages of colonial history the figure of John Trumbull stands out 
unique and interesting. He is unique because he was imprisoned in Eng- 
land on suspicion of being an American Andr6, because Edmund Burke 
and Benjamin West were his bondsmen, because the French David wrested 
him from Parisian authorities, because he was an unsuccessful picture 
dealer and wine merchant. He is interesting as the son of a governor of 
Connecticut, as a university man, as an aide-de-camp of Washington, as a 
founder of art at Yale. Living in a land of soldiers, and in an atmosphere 
laden with the fragrance of true patriotism, his life in the field lost all 
novelty. It was not so with art. As his father once pithily remarked, 
"Connecticut is not Athens." Art and artists had no existence in the 
war-enamored towns of New England. Thus to find in Trumbull not 
only a painter of repute, but one whom Thackeray called " the head of 
American art," is certainly a phenomenon, and when considered in con- 
nection with his military service makes him a noteworthy character. 

Biographies of artists read alike, particularly those portions which relate 
the deeds of their childhood. They invariably decorate, as best they may, 
whatever surfaces admit of ornamentation. Trumbull was no exception 
to this rule. His father's sand-covered floor served as his canvas, and it 
requires little effort of imagination to fancy the admiration or jealousy of 
the Uncas chief, Zachary, as he compared the rude sketches of the pale- 
faced child with the barbaric color creations of his own squaw. Yet the 
proper development of these talents was no easy task. Copley had left 
Boston, leaving no one in America capable of giving instruction. With a 
wild zeal for art, the young man hastened abroad and placed himself in 
the jaws of the British lion, from which he barely escaped. In this way he 
became a pupil of West, and thus he learned his profession. It is as a 
historian, however, that he is conspicuous, and it is interesting to see how 
the medley of circumstances in which his life was spent influenced him in 
this direction, and affected his success. 

War always leaves its impress strongly stamped upon the mind of the 
soldier. No one can gaze upon the realistic canvases of Verestchagin and 
fail to realize that the painter himself witnessed the awful realities of bat- 
tle. So it was with Trumbull. Oftentimes the grandeur of a scene, even 
though accompanied by defeat and horror, touched his sense of beauty. 



A HISTORIAN IN COLOR 297 

arousing that admiration for bursting shell and blazing city which made 
him essentially a war painter. His whole being was tinged by the Revo- 
lution. Perhaps this was due to the fact that he had seen various phases 
of the struggle. While he had shared the luxury of the headquarters at 
Cambridge, he had also endured the campaign on Lake George, where he 
beheld the sufferings of the fever-stricken army as it slowly retreated to the 
Hudson. 

Nor was his life abroad without its effects. In New England the 
Trumbull family bore a proud name, and doubtless the home of the colo- 
nial governor was the rendezvous of many of the most prominent men in 
the political arena of those days. Thus in Europe there awaited the 
young artist the warm friendship of men no less famous than the habitues 
of his father's house. Lafayette he knew intimately. In fact, the French 
general placed such confidence in Trumbull that he commissioned him to 
inform Washington regarding the true condition of France. This insight 
into the affairs of the country, together with the ghastly picture of the 
French Revolution which the streets of Paris presented, made the artist 
more thoroughly American and inspired him to push on in an enterprise 
dear to his heart. Long before he had conceived the plan of painting a 
series of pictures commemorating the most noteworthy scenes of the 
American Revolution, his own army experiences were engraven on his 
mind. The battle-field seemed easy to picture. As to the men who 
should loom up in the foreground — they were his friends. Paris, Berlin, 
and Dresden had already been enthusiastic over his works. Thomas Jef- 
ferson and John Adams had heartily commended his scheme. Everything 
promised success. At home there was a different feeling ; there art 
afforded but a precarious foothold to the painter. Trumbull, however, 
believed that in the newly born republic there would be a demand for the 
engravings from these historical works. The result was contrary to his 
expectations. The infant nation recovering from war, and establishing 
herself in commercial lines, had no leisure to attend to the memorials of 
her own achievements. On this account the number of his subscribers was 
limited, but a more royal list could not at that time have been secured. 
Washington's name was followed by those of Samuel Johnston, Alexander 
Hamilton, and John Jay. 

As a historian through his brush, Trumbull obtained a triumph in 
1798, when he was commissioned by the government to paint four large 
pictures illustrative of prominent scenes of the struggle for independence, 
to be placed in the capitol at Washington. This was indeed an oppor- 
tunity to immortalize the Revolution. It required seven years of labor, 



298 



A HISTORIAN IN COLOR 



yet it was labor well spent and well paid for. It is evident, however, that 
the artist had little conception of the importance of the work. His 
friend, L'Enfant, had just planned the city of Washington ; the country 
was bounded by narrow limits; the capitol seemed rather the meeting 
place of local politicians than the assembly house for the senate and 
representatives of a vast nation. Doubtless it would have been a surprise 
to the artist if he could have looked forward a century to find these 
paintings gazed upon by the countless throngs which year after year 
pass through the rotunda of that important edifice. With untiring 
energy he continued in his work as a historian, intermingling the scenes 
of war with the portraits of many a distinguished officer and statesman, 
thus arousing that interest in Americana which at the present time exists 
so widely throughout the country. As Trumbull grew old, poverty bore 
heavily upon him. A number of unsalable pictures were on his hands. 
How it must have grieved the old artist to part with scraps of plate and 
furniture which were perhaps the last relics of his early home at Lebanon. 
It suddenly occurred to him that some institution of learning might desire 
to have his collection. He writes : " I first thought of Harvard college, 
my alma mater, but she was rich and amply endowed. I then thought 
of Yale ; although not my alma mater, yet she was within my native state 
and poor." The university at New Haven was not slow to act. She 
gave him an ample annuity for life, at the same time securing for herself 
his valuable pictures. The present treasury building she reared as his 
gallery, and gave it his name. Finally, at his death his dust was made 
part of the campus, thus forever uniting Yale with one whom she affec- 
tionately calls an " artist and patriot " and whom she would be proud to 
claim as an alumnus. 

V-Z^-V/O — ~> • V^A-A^s^^wt-^. \ ^Art-^v JL>-<- — . 

New Haven, Connecticut. 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

" HORSE SHOE ROBINSON " 
\_Third Chapter, continued from page 214.] 

Captain Butler was finally conducted to his apartment, and a half-hour 
later Captain Jermyn came to break to him the unhappy tidings that he 
was to receive his sentence, and, being conducted back to the court, he 
was told that he was immediately to " be shot to death." 

" Here is a letter," exclaimed one of the officers of the court at this 
juncture, "which I have just found under my sword belt. It seems from 
its address to contain matter of moment. How it came here does not ap- 
pear ! " Upon the outside of this letter was written, For life or death, with 
speed ! All eyes were turned upon it, as Colonel Innis opened and read the 
enforced words of Edgar St. Jermyn. He at first pronounced it a clever 
forgery, with a smile of derision, but Captain St. Jermyn turned pale as he 
took it in his hand. " This is no trick ; it is my brother's own handwriting," 
he said, and he argued so eloquently that the execution was delayed. At 
this juncture a trooper rode into the camp with the startling news that 
Sumter had defeated three hundred of their men on the Catawba, cap- 
turing all who were not killed and fifty or sixty wagons of stores. On 
being asked if Sumter was approaching, the messenger said " no," he 
was still tending northward. 

Meanwhile David Ramsay had departed with Mary Musgrove for her 
father's mill, and Horse Shoe's horse had been quickly saddled, also one 
for Christopher Shaw and another for St. Jermyn, and they started for the 
" Devil's Ladder," a wild spot some twenty miles to the north, in a defile 
of the mountains known only to some of the woodsmen. The prisoner 
was bound by a surcingle to the horse's back, Horse Shoe remarking, with 
grim humor : " Fast bind, fast find, is a good rule in the dark: I take no 
pleasure in oncommoding you, but it is my intention to lead your horse 
by the rein to-night, and this friend of mine will keep in the rear. It is 
military punctilium to tell you this." They reached their destination 
about daylight, the last part of their journey following the ascending 
course of a brook, fringed with a profusion of bush and brier. On a 
high point among the cliffs they rested, and the prisoner was allowed to 
dismount, and rest and refresh himself, for Horse Shoe was provided with 



300 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

tempting eatables from Mrs. Ramsay's storehouse. The next morning, a 
little after sunrise, as Horse Shoe was holding the watch on the outer 
ledge, where he could see the approaches to the valley, he heard a noise 
as of something breaking through the bushes on the margin of the brook, 
and presently saw a man on horseback picking his way towards him, who 
every now and then hallooed cheerfully, as if in search of a lost com- 
panion. "Who goes there?" and the quick response, " A friend to 
Horse Shoe Robinson," disclosed a friend indeed. John Ramsay, on his 
way from Sumter with despatches to Colonel Williams, had turned aside 
to visit his parents, and thus learned of Butler's danger, and how well 
Mary Musgrove had played her part in the delivery of the letter from St. 
Jermyn which had delayed Butler's execution. He saw the whole situa- 
tion at a glance, and the necessity for immediate action. His home and 
family were in peril, and the absence of Christopher Shaw would bring the 
Musgroves into trouble. Thus he had briskly followed Horse Shoe to 
take Christopher's place, and send him home, and, if possible, take the 
prisoner to the camp of Williams. 

He was not long in laying his plans before Horse Shoe, and the hill 
was speedily descended. Christopher started for the mill, and Horse 
Shoe and Ramsay, with the prisoner, forded the Ennoree, and plunged 
into the deep forest beyond. In a few hours they reached an open 
country, inhabited chiefly by tory families, and rested in a thicket until 
after dark, prosecuting their tiresome journey slowly during the night. 
At break of day Ramsay ordered St. Jermyn to exchange clothes with 
him, and he was transformed into a gay young officer of the enemy's line. 
As they moved on, Horse Shoe surveyed the prisoner with a smile, then 
said, with austerity : " Ride now like the honest whig you look, or I mought 
find occasion to do a discomfortable thing by putting a bullet through and 
through you." 

They had not proceeded far when they heard voices and light laughter 
from among the trees by the roadside, and became in the next breath 
aware that a squad of loyalist cavalry were but a few paces distant. 
"They are upon us," exclaimed Ramsay; "take care of the prisoner, 
retreat rapidly, leave me to myself, meet me at the Blockhouse" (the 
appointed rendezvous with Williams) ; and while Horse Shoe wheeled his 
horse and struck that of the prisoner, whispering, " Fly, your life is in 
your horse's heels," Ramsay dashed across the open field in full view of 
the enemy with the speed of a whirlwind. The clever ruse was a success. 
The troopers thought they had aided in the escape of one of their own 
officers, and formed a platoon to cut of the pursuit, making no attempt 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 301 

to follow Horse Shoe. Ramsay did not pause until he had crossed the 
Saluda and advanced a considerable distance on the opposite bank, 
where, to his great delight, he met a look-out party of Williams's regiment, 
which had reached the Blockhouse the preceding evening; and Colonel 
Elijah Clarke, since the fall of Charleston employed in keeping together 
the few patriots in that part of Carolina near the Savannah who were 
ready to be mustered any moment at a preconcerted signal, and Colonel 
Isaac Shelby, who was prepared to summon followers from the mountain 
region, were fortunately with Williams, having just arrived by appointment. 
These three gallant officers were organizing that combination of resistance 
to British rule which proved such a striking feature in the history of the 
Revolution at the South, and which it was the special mission of Butler to 
promote. Ere long Horse Shoe came up with his prisoner, to the joy of 
all, having pursued his journey without molestation since the adventure 
of Ramsay. 

In the camp of Innis tidings came during the same day of the victory 
at Camden ; and rumors also that Sumter had been attacked by Tarleton 
and defeated. There was wild excitement throughout the camp. The 
officers formed themselves into groups and made merry over their cups, 
and the men drank and huzzaed. In the midst of the tumult Connelly's 
troopers returned and reported the successful escape, as they supposed, of 
young St. Jermyn; they had seen him burst away from his captors, with his 
horse's head turned toward Innis's camp; and they were handsomely com- 
mended by Innis for having favored his retreat, who, indeed, at once 
ordered the execution of Butler, saying : " We must get that job off our 
hands ; to-morrow we shall move towards Catawba." 

Mr. Kennedy's description of the tragic scene, when Butler was again 
led forth to be shot, is one of intense interest, and occupies several pages. 
He was denied the use of pen and paper, and treated with the utmost rigor. 
Of Captain Jermyn, whom he met outside his prison-door, he asked that 
he might be buried as then dressed, and with so much earnestness that the 
promise was given. The escort moved slowly across the plain towards 
the* river-bank where the execution was to take place, with funeral observ- 
ances. Meanwhile there was a sudden commotion at headquarters, caused 
by the hasty arrival of a mounted patrol, crying : " We are followed ; they'll 
be here in an instant ! " At the same moment a cloud of dust was seen 
rising above the trees in the direction of the road on the Ennoree, and by 
the time the commander had shouted " To arms ! " the cavalry of Williams 
came into full view and charged upon the royalists with telling force, while 
a second and third corps, led respectively by Shelby and Clarke, galloped 



302 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

upon the two flanks of the encampment. Never was a surprise more com- 
plete. Innis sprang to his horse and succeeded in inspiring a few of his 
men to fight, but they only took post behind trees and fired in a desultory 
fashion. The leaders of the continentals saw their advantage in the con- 
fusion of the royalists, and pressed forward. Side by side in the thickest of 
the battle, with a restless and desperate valor that nothing could withstand, 
were Horse Shoe Robinson and John Ramsay. But, to their great disap- 
pointment, Butler could not be found. When Innis saw that it was a total 
rout for his party, he fled as fast as spur and sword could urge his horse 
onward. But Horse Shoe was close behind him, and with one broad sweep 
of his sword dislodged him from his saddle and left him bleeding on the 
ground. Captain St. Jermyn, with Curry and some others who had 
mounted their horses to escort Butler to his doom, fled on the first 
approach of Williams, taking the prisoner with them. 

The condition of the country was such that Williams made no effort to 
carry off his prisoners, with the exception of three or four officers : the forces 
of the enemy were too strong in the vicinity. He simply buried the dead, 
cared for the wounded, allowed his troops to refresh themselves from the 
captured stores, and at daylight next morning there were no traces of the 
continentals to be seen on the field, which was abandoned to the loyalist 
prisoners and their wounded comrades. Williams had gone with much 
despatch to the mountains, and encamped in a sequestered nook called 
Fair Forest. This engagement is known in history as the battle of Mus- 
grove Mill, and was one of the important victories of the summer of 1780. 

Among the spoils Williams captured the document containing the pro- 
ceedings of the Innis court-martial, and perceiving its malignity, deter- 
mined to submit the whole matter to Lord Cornwallis and demand that 
Butler be placed at once under the protection of the laws of war. The 
spirited paper was prepared and an officer directed to proceed with it, 
under a flag of truce, to the headquarters of the British general. It was 
then decided that Horse Shoe and John Ramsay should venture back 
towards the Ennoree and apply themselves to the service of Butler. Horse 
Shoe was armed with a letter from Williams which was to inform the com- 
mandant of any post of the loyalists whom it might concern, that an 
application had been made to Cornwallis in Butler's behalf, and that the 
severest retaliation would be exercised upon the prisoners in Williams's cus- 
tody for any violence offered to an American officer. They shaped their 
course directly to the Ramsay farm, and were shocked to find the house 
had disappeared, and in its place a few upright frame-posts, scorched black, 
a stone chimney with its ample fireplace, and a heap of ashes, were all that 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 303 

remained. John Ramsay put spurs to his horse and galloped to the ruins. 
It was for him a moment of intense distress. " The savages have done 
their worst," he said. The barn — all the outbuildings, indeed — was gone 
also. In the distance, about a quarter of a mile, were some negro cabins, 
and with eager haste our horsemen rode to them, finding both Mr. and 
Mrs. Ramsay. They learned that a few of the retreating loyalists on the 
day of battle paused long enough to set the buildings on fire; and that 
Butler had been first taken to Blackstocks, but a day or two later was 
placed in Musgrove's house at the mill, to be kept a close prisoner there. 

Just after dusk that evening Horse Shoe and John Ramsay were guid- 
ing their horses cautiously by a tedious detour (partly through forest 
paths) towards the mill, hoping for some means of communication with 
the family of the miller. When within about two miles of the place they 
left their horses fastened in a thicket and maneuvered on foot. When 
they were near enough to see a light in the window, Horse Shoe seated 
himself under a tree, and Ramsay reconnoitered alone. It was after ten 
o'clock when Ramsay came back, accompanied by Mary Musgrove. It 
was the maiden herself who explained that she heard her lover's signal, 
and made an excuse to leave the room and slipped through the garden, 
and followed the whistling as folks say they follow a jack o' lantern ; 
" and so by a countermarch we came round the meadow and through the 
woods here," added Ramsay. Mary informed them that about twenty 
men were detailed to guard the prisoner, and that the orders were for 
him to be kept at the miller's house until it was settled what was to be 
done with him. Colonel Innis was ill and had been carried out of the 
neighborhood. " Can you give him a letter? " asked Horse Shoe. Mary 
explained that she had to pretend she knew much less about Butler than 
she really did, but she thought she could manage to have a letter placed 
in his hands. It was the piece of writing from Williams that Horse Shoe 
wished to have conveyed to Butler, as it might save him from harm ; and 
the girl was, if possible, to tell him personally that his faithful friends 
were in the neighborhood. "We will be here again to-morrow night," 
said Horse Shoe, " so that if he has any message for us he can send it by 
you. But be very careful how you are seen talking with him by the 
guards, for if they should suspect you it will spoil all." 

Allen Musgrove was allowed to visit the prisoner as a spiritual coun- 
selor, and was sometimes alone with him in his chamber. Mary told her 
father of her midnight interview with Butler's friends, and the good man 
placed the letter from Williams safely in the prisoner's hands. This pro- 
duced the most cheering effect upon Butler, and he resolved to write 'to 



304 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

Philip Lindsay and ask him to contradict the principal accusation against 
him, that which related to his pretended design of delivering Lindsay 
over to the wrath of the republican government. Whatever Lindsay's 
antipathy to him might be, he relied upon his high sense of truth for 
protection. He would appeal to Mildred, also, to fortify her father's state- 
ment, and thus satisfy Cornwallis of the groundless character of this 
charge. Mary Musgrove managed to convey writing materials to Butler — 
the paper in the family bible, and the ink-horn and pen in her pocket — as 
she spread his little table for dinner; and when the letters were written, and 
directions given for Horse Shoe to convey the two letters with all possible 
haste to the Dove Cote, the same were placed in her hands for delivery. 
But the course of her romantic interviews with Ramsay did not run 
smoothly on the second evening. She heard his signal as she stood on the 
porch of her father's dwelling ; some of the royalist officers were there 
also, and she could not go out unobserved. The whistling freshened upon 
the evening air and the tune came forth blithely and boldly, showing that 
the wayfarer was trudging down the main road towards the mill. It 
halted, and the whistling continued, with no symptom of retreat. Mary, 
while trying to exhibit her unconcern, was in an agony of mind. Pres- 
ently the officer on duty ordered two files " to patrol the road and see 
who was making himself so merry." " It is not worth your while to be 
sending after Adam Gordon: he is only half-witted; and almost the only 
thing he does for a living is to come down of nights here to the mill-dam 
and bob for eels. If it was not for that his mother would go many a day 
without a meal," said Mary, carelessly. " No matter, we will bring Adam 
in," said the officer. But after an absence of half an hour the patrol came 
back and reported that the person they were in quest of had left the 
place, and in the darkness they had no clew to follow him. 

Mary retired to her own room, but rose early in the morning and hur- 
ried to the mill to consult with her cousin Christopher, who, to avert 
suspicion from the family, had offered his services to the British, and 
been appointed quartermaster, or purveyor, for the little garrison during 
Butler's confinement — a post that did not interfere much with his daily 
work in the mill. He listened to Mary's story, and said he had provisions 
to collect in the vicinity and she might go with him, as if to buy eggs or 
something for the table, and they would go to David Ramsay with the 
letters. The guard suspected nothing, and soon the maiden and her 
escort were on their horses, cantering over the road. They found Horse 
Shoe and John Ramsay concealed in one of the negro huts, and after a 
consultation in David Ramsay's cabin, it was resolved that Horse Shoe 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 305 

should start at once for the Dove Cote, taking the route through the 
mountain country of North Carolina, as least likely to be invested with 
troops of the enemy. He was to travel at night only, through the most 
perilous part of his journey. The letters were sewed into a leathern 
pouch, which was buckled about his body by a strap inside his clothes ; 
his firearms were in order, and provisions stowed away for himself and 
horse, and when daylight disappeared he rode forth with as stout a heart 
as ever went with knight of chivalry to the field of romantic renown. 

The days rolled by — many of them. One bright September morning, 
as Mildred Lindsay was riding with her brother Henry along the road at 
some distance from the Dove Cote, a flock of wild turkeys beguiled her 
escort into a race across the fields, and she waited in her saddle by the 
roadside for his return. Presently she saw a traveler on horseback 
approaching, both man and horse bearing the marks of long and fatiguing 
service. With respectful salutation, the rider paused and addressed her. 
" If I mought be so bold, ma'am, how far mought it be to a river they call 
the Rockfish ? " " It is scarce two miles away," she said. " And there is, 
if I don't disreme-mber, a house kept by the widow Dimock — the Blue 
Ball — and about two miles beyont is Squire Lindsay's, a place they call 
the Dove Cote ? " he continued, inquiringly. " Does your business take 
you there ? " asked Mildred. " Beg pardon, ma'am, but I am an old 
sodger, and warry about answering questions that consarn myself. I sup- 
pose I mought see Mr. Lindsay ? " " Pray, sir, tell me what brings you 
here, and who you are. I myself live at the Dove Cote," exclaimed the 
lady. " Then, mayhap, you mought have hearn of one Arthur Butler? " 

" Horse Shoe Robinson ! " shouted Henry, rushing into the road with 
a large turkey in his hand which he had shot, and greeted the traveler 
warmly, asking in the same breath with his sister about Butler. They 
soon learned what the reader already knows, and all three rode toward 
the Dove Cote with celerity. The letters were read and reread, and the 
situation of Butler discussed with anxious faces. Horse Shoe learned 
that Squire Lindsay was absent, that he had left home in company with 
Mr. Tyrrel, whose servant, James Curry, had been concerned in ambush- 
ing Butler at Grindall's Ford. Horse Shoe suspected Tyrrel was on 
mischief bent, and Mildred, alive to the possibility of Tyrrel's villainy, 
declared she would go to Cornwallis herself and expose the whole 
affair to his lordship. Horse Shoe tried to dissuade her from such an 
expedition in vain. " It is onpossible for you to know what you would 
have to put up with. Mr. Henry and me can take the letter," he said. 
"I may not trust my letters — I must go myself; my brother and I wrll 

Vol. XXVIII.-No. 4.-20 



306 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

form some good excuse that shall take us through safely : and you will 
protect me?" " Sartinly, ma'am ; I will stand by you through all chances, 
if you go." As Horse Shoe disappeared, to rest and refresh himself at 
Mildred's order, Henry said : " Sister, you never thought a better thought, 
and you never contrived a better act than just taking this matter in hand 
yourself, under mine and Horse Shoe's protection. We can finish the 
thing in two or three weeks, and when I have seen you safe home I'll go 
and join the Rangers." 

The following day the little party started on their hazardous and uncer- 
tain journey, accompanied by Isaac, the trusty gardener. They were well 
provided with necessaries, and the saddle-bags of Horse Shoe were stuffed 
with a plethora of provisions. Mildred left a letter to be handed her 
father should he return before herself, but no information was given to 
any one in the household concerning the object or route of their travels. 
There were then few inns in the thinly settled districts; thus Henry took 
it upon himself to learn where the gentlemen's seats could be found, that 
they might secure accommodations whenever his sister's comfort required 
it. They followed the mountain paths chiefly, and not until the fifth day 
from the Dove Cote did they cross the river Dan and enter North Caro- 
lina, where they took quite a detour to avoid meeting any part of Gates's 
shattered army at Hillsborough. They were told that Cornwallis was near 
the Waxhaws. The country over which Mildred rode was a dreary waste 
of pine forest, through which a sandy road crept in melancholy shade. A 
few huts were passed, the inmates exhibiting signs of squalid poverty; 
but the inhabitants lived chiefly on the banks of the streams, which were 
some twenty to thirty miles apart. After several days they came into an 
open country, where Horse Shoe posed as Mr. Lindsay's gardener, and 
was called Stephen Foster, and Isaac acted as Mildred's wafting man. 

The travelers stopped one night, very much fatigued, at the little cabin 
of a continental soldier named Wingate, who was serving under Francis 
Marion ; and they were all comfortably asleep except Horse Shoe, when 
about midnight an armed trooper rode furiously up to the door of the 
dwelling and struck several rapid blows upon it, shouting: " Mrs. Wingate, 
for God's sake open your door quickly : the tories are afoot — open to Dick 
Peyton ! " " Bloody Spur — is it you ? " cried the woman, appearing. He 
hurriedly explained that a gang of tories who had been thieving and burn- 
ing as far as Waggaman were on the road, and would reach that house in less 
than half an hour. " How many mought there be of them ? " asked Horse 
Shoe, awake in every fibre, and when told there were between two and three 
hundred, he roused his party without ceremony. For a few minutes 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 307 

everything was in confusion ; Bloody Spur sprang from his horse to help 
his comrade's wife remove a few articles of value, and drive the cattle into 
the swamp. Meanwhile the marauders were heard laughing and rattling 
their sabers not far distant, just as Mildred was placed on her horse and, 
with Henry by her side, rode into the darkness in an opposite direction, 
followed by Isaac and Horse Shoe, the latter taking the precaution to learn 
of Bloody Spur that about a mile distant a path struck into the woods on 
the right ; " it will lead you up the river to the falls of Pedee ; if you should 
meet any of Marion's men, tell them what you have seen — and say Dick 
Peyton will be along close after you." They rode swiftly, and from the 
diverging road, through an opening in the trees, saw the cabin on fire from 
which they had just escaped. For an hour or more in the black darkness 
they hurried on, totally ignorant of the country through which they were 
passing, when suddenly they were challenged at one of the outposts of 
General Marion's camp. Horse Shoe asked to see the general himself, say- 
ing he had a report to make to him for Dick Peyton, and they were guided 
through several thickets and across a morass to a thinly timbered piece of 
woodland, where were encamped in the rudest fashion of the bivouac some 
two hundred cavalry. Sentinels were pacing their limits on the outskirts, 
and small bodies of patrols on horseback moved across the encampment 
with the regularity of military discipline. The strangers were conducted 
to a large tree, near which a group of officers were seated on the ground. 
" Make way for a squad of travelers picked up on the road ; they wish to see 
General Marion," said the scout in a loud voice. Mildred alighted, and 
was conducted to a bank, where a few blankets were thrown down. " This 
is but an uncouth resting-place, though heartily at your service," said 
the officer in attendance. Presently Mildred observed an alert figure 
approaching with a quick step — a man who wore the blue and buff uniform 
of the staff, with a pair of epaulets, a buckskin belt, and a three-cornered 
hat. He was short, of delicate frame, with bright dark eyes and sharp, 
decided features. "General Marion, madam, is too happy to have his poor 
camp honored by the visit of a lady," was his courteous greeting. " They 
tell me the tories were so uncivil as to break in upon your slumbers to-night, 
and it adds greatly to my grudge against them." In the brief conversa- 
tion that followed, Mildred told him her father's name and of her travels 
under the protection of her brother and servants. But General Marion 
recognized Horse Shoe, and asked him to step aside and relate the 
particulars of the attack upon Wingate's cabin. 

( To be continued.') 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



[Continued from page 225] 
Arkansas 




One of the Southern central states. 
Area, 53,045 square miles ; 240 miles 
north and south, 285 miles east and 
west. Latitude, t,t,° to 36 30' N.; lon- 
gitude, 89 45' to 94 40' W. Arkansas 
is the French and Spanish spelling of a 
native local name (pronounced Arkan- 
saw ; see 1881), meaning, doubtful ; 
possibly " smoky water." State motto, 
" Regnant Populi " = "The people rule." 
Nicknames: "The Bear State," "The 
Toothpick State "• — the latter from "Ar- 
kansas' toothpick," i.e., a bovvie knife. 

1541, May. Hernando de Soto en- 
tered the territory at present covered by 
the state, ascending the St. Francis 
river and spending several weeks in ex- 
ploration. 

1673. Jacques Marquette and Louis 
Joliet descend the Mississippi to the 



Arkansas, and return to Canada. " Ar- 
kansas " first appears on Marquette's 
map. 

1680. Partial exploration by Louis 
Hennepin, the Jesuit missionary. 

1682. Robert Cavalier La Salle takes 
possession of Arkansas Post for the 
French crown. 

1685. A French settlement formed 
at Arkansas Post under the Chevalier de 
Tonte. 

1 7 18. John Law, the English finan- 
cier, obtains a grant of one hundred and 
forty-four square miles on Arkansas 
river, near Quapaw village, and estab- 
lished a colony of French and Germans, 
which was soon abandoned. 

1750 (about). A Spanish fort built 
on the Arkansas river, about sixty miles 
above its mouth ; site subsequently 
known as the " Fort." Don Carlos de 
Villemont, governor, succeeded by Val- 
liere, under the French regime, the whole 
region being known as Louisiana. 

1765. Louisiana, including Arkansas, 
ceded to Spain by France. 

1803. By purchase of Louisiana from 
France, Arkansas passes into the posses- 
sion of the United States and becomes 
the District of New Madrid. 

1806. Lieutenant Jas. B. Wilkerson, 
U.S.A., with a party in two canoes, ex- 
plores the Arkansas river from its head- 
waters to the mouth. 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



309 



18 10. Estimated population, 1,062, 
excluding Indians. 

1812. Missouri territory organized, 
including Arkansas as a county. 

1819. March 2. Territory of Arkan- 
sas formed, with the seat of government 
at Arkansas Post ; James Miller of New 
Hampshire as governor till 1825. 

1820. Population by fourth United 
States census, 14,255. 

182 1. Seat of government removed 
to Little Rock (Le petit Rocher, as 
distinguished from Le Grand Rocher by 
the French). 

" A Journal of Travels into Arkansas 
Territory during the year 1819." By 
Thomas Nutall, F.L.S. Published in 
Philadelphia. 

1S24. Forty families living at Little 
Rock. 

1825-1829. George Izard, governor. 

1829-1835. John Pope, governor. 

1830. Population by fifth United 
States census, 30,388. 

1835-1836. William S. Fulton, gov- 
ernor. 

1836, June 15. Admitted to the 
Union. James S. Conway, governor, till 
1840. Population by sixth United 
States census, 97,574. 

1 840-1 844. Archibald Yell, gov- 
ernor. 

1844— 1847. Thomas S. Drew, gov- 
ernor. 

1847. Publication " The Arkansas 
Review." By J. Welch. Washington. 

1849-1852. John S. Roane, gover- 
nor. Population by seventh census, 
209,897. 

1852. John R. Hampton, acting 
governor. 

1852-1860. Elias N. Conway, gov- 



ernor. Population by eighth census, 

435<45°- 

1853. Congressional grant of several 
million acres of government lands to the 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern 
railway, also to the Little Rock and 
Fort Smith railway. 

i860, December 20. Address to the 
legislature by David Hubbard, commis- 
sioner from Alabama, advocating seces- 
sion. 

1860-1862. Henry M. Rector, gov- 
ernor. 

1861, January 5. A large meeting at 
Van Buren favors co-operation rather 
than secession. 

February 18. By a vote of 27,412 
against 15,826 the state decides to hold 
a convention to consider the question of 
secession. 

March 4-17. Meeting of the state con- 
vention ; compromise measures adopted. 

May 6. State convention reassem- 
bles, and passes an ordinance of seces- 
sion by a vote of 69 to 1. 

May 18. Arkansas admitted as one 
of the Confederate states. 

June-July. Guerilla warfare begins 
in the northern counties. 

December. By the end of the year 
the state had furnished 21,500 men for 
the Confederate service. 

1862. Thomas Fletcher, acting gov- 
ernor ; Harris Flanigen, governor till 
1864. 

February 18. All able-bodied men 
called out by the governor for military 
service under the Confederate flag. 

February 18. United States troops 
under General Samuel R. Curtis enter 
the state from Missouri. 

February 19. Engagement near Su- 



3io 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



gar creek crossing ; General Curtis 
defeats the Confederates under Gen- 
erals Price and McCullough. 

March 6, 7, 8. Battle of Pea Ridge ; 
General Curtis defeats the Confed- 
erates under Generals Van Dorn and 
Price. 

May 19. Skirmish near Searcy. 

1862, August. Destruction of Con- 
federate ram " Arkansas " by the Fed- 
eral gunboats under Captain (afterward 
Admiral) Porter. 

August. John S. Phelps appointed 
military governor for the United States. 

September 22. Emancipation proc- 
lamation of President Lincoln. 

October. Engagement at Cross Hol- 
lows ; General Herron defeats Confed- 
erates. 

November 28. General Blunt defeats 
Confederates under General Marmaduke. 

December 7. Battle of Prairie Grove ; 
Blunt and Herron defeat Confederates 
under Hindman ; loss about 1,000 men 
on each side. 

1863, January 1. Emancipation proc- 
lamation goes into effect ; 111,104 slaves 
liberated in Arkansas. 

January n. Arkansas Post (Fort 
Hindman) captured by Federals under 
General McClernand, aided by gunboats 
under Commodore Porter. The fort 
was destroyed. 

July 4. Helena captured by United 
States troops under General Prentiss. 

July 31. General Steele assumes 
command of the military district. 



September 10. Occupation of Little 
Rock by the Union forces under Gen- 
eral Davidson. 

1864-1868. Isaac Murphy, governor. 

1864, January 1. Organized Confed- 
erate force 21,700 within the state. 

January 8-22. Union convention at 
Little Rock ; organization of a provis- 
ional government under Isaac Murphy. 

April 14. Adoption of the constitu- 
tional amendment abolishing slavery. 

September 26. Meeting of rebel leg- 
islature with thirteen senators and forty 
representatives. 

1865. Reorganization of the state 
under national laws. About 50,000 men 
altogether served with the Confederate 
colors, and 13,000 with those of the 
United States. 

1867. Major-General E. O. C. Ord, 
military governor for the United States. 

April 15. General Ord forbids the 
meeting of the legislature. 

December 28. General Irwin Mc- 
Dowell becomes military governor of 
the district, with General Gillem in 
charge at Little Rock. 

1868, January 7. Constitutional con- 
vention at Little Rock to adopt new 
constitution. 

1868-187 1. Powell Clayton, governor. 
Summary measure to repress lawless- 
ness by Governor Clayton. 

1869, May 30. Memorial Day ob- 
served for the first time. 

1870. Development of the Arkansas 
Hot Springs as a resort for invalids. 



/^U^^.X^y^^^ /£0-is£r^ r 



( To be continued. ) 



MINOR TOPICS 

GEORGE WILLIAM CURTIS 
1824-1892 

At all points where the man of letters might touch and influence the life of the 
day, for a long generation past the man of action has found George William Curtis 
either facing him or at his side to guide him. In moral reform, in social ameliora- 
tion, in the very important task of sweetening the literary mood and elevating the 
literary tone of America, he has been a steady and always available worker ; a 
friend to the painter and sculptor and architect, when these could be helped by 
the pen ; to the scholarly traveler who carried our sunny American temperament 
to the old world and brought home to us the Italian and Spanish charm, the 
Mauritanian color, the Egyptian mystery, the culture of Germany. In his sub- 
urban home he stood at the harbor wharf, as it were, to welcome the masters of 
song, and no skilled instrument of music reached our shores which did not call 
him to the city. The actor who promised a refining touch to our stage found in 
him an entertainer and friend ; the singer was sure of a welcome, and not only 
"first" nights, but great nights, at the opera or concert received inspiration from 
his presence. 

It is rare, indeed, that half a world lies at a man's feet in its pioneer stage, with 
all its civilizing work to do. But this was true of America fifty years ago, when we 
get our first glimpse of Mr. Curtis. It was the period of rough slashing in the 
wilderness. No music, no song, no art but that which went to Europe for encour- 
agement and came home to perish ; no literature to criticise, no critics to establish 
a standard for every form of literature. There were omnivorous readers in every 
farmhouse, and dreamers of dreams on every log-wagon ; and there were sons of 
clergymen in all the hamlets of New England prepared to live out those dreams in 
phalansteries. It is in one of those moral incubators that we first come upon Mr. 
Curtis — not yet a reformer himself, but, like Hawthorne, a near observer. Ripley 
was holding the goad to the most unruly ox-team that was ever set to drag the 
unhewn timber of this world ; Margaret Fuller was rhapsodizing from the top of 
the ox-cart ; Emerson was not far away — a good-natured and perhaps somewhat 
anxious watcher. Thoreau was in the woods chasing aboriginal ideas ; Lowell in 
a corner of Concord, about that time, laughing. All were, at bottom, poets, or of 
the poetizing temperament, not then set apart as a class by themselves, but straining 
to finish the job of clearing the wilderness in time for the evening song ; and that 
song has echoes of an amusing and exhilarating variety. Scarcely a man at Brook 
Farm, or in its neighborhood, did precisely what he thought himself born to do ; 






312 MINOR TOPICS 

and the pupils, like Curtis, did not escape the constraint which ruled the future of 
their masters. Genius tries all schools before it builds its own, and the lantern of 
foresight at no time shines over any considerable stretch of our path ahead. Who 
could have seen his way from Brook Farm to the New York Sun, or the Tribune, 
or the Easy Chair of Harpers ? But the touch of the Farm was on Curtis, and the 
associations begun in those days were the associations of his life. With infinite 
modifications of circumstance — Nile notes, the New England platform, the editorial 
chair — he was the result of the idealizing spirit, the poet's atmosphere of the tran- 
scendental period ; and that atmosphere was the breath of life to American letters. 
It was because he lived at a time when the poet felt assured of being a necessity 
to the world that Mr. Curtis's life, when it came to be one of a literary character, 
touched the world at all points. This may have been a loss to the man of genius, 
but what a gain it has been, through a long generation, to America ! 

The enthusiasms of youth burn more softly in the breast of manhood. If they 
burn out wholly, as a rule, it were better that the man should die. Such, however, 
was not the case with Curtis. He lived to see the end of the flaring of transcen- 
dentalism ; but the seeds of fire were in him as they were in so many of the young 
men of New England, and whenever an altar was to be v kindled for home and 
country, his was one of the first brands to be laid on. Forty years ago he was 
doing stout work for the rising literature, but edging into the forefront of the anti- 
slavery fight. When the fight was fought out, he might have " gone abroad to lie 
for his native land." He preferred to stay at home and tell the truth about some 
of her secret sappers ; and with what grace he told it ! 

He was a soldier in many fights, but not a strategist. Like Washington he lost 
more battles than he gained, but each defeat somehow brought him nearer to the 
enemy's capital. The anti-slavery fight was won by disasters. The civil service 
reform, whose last camp is near the enemy's stronghold, has been slowly edging 
" on to Richmond " by what seem to be unsuccessful assaults. The reform will 
get there, even though its bravest leader is taken from the field. He was a man so 
constituted and so instituted that he could not but take the right as his cause, 
and to such a man is due the serenity of the gods. Few men ever saw Mr. Curtis 
angry. Anger is the weapon of a man without resources ; and moral warfare, he 
knew, has all the forces of time in its reserves. With him, however, it grew to be 
a serious warfare. Before fifty it was difficult to detach him from literature. After 
fifty it was only on occasions that he would return to purely literary work with no 
purpose of reform in it. This we say without forgetting the monthly evenings in 
the Easy Chair. These are to us the after-dinner talk of the man of affairs when 
the real work of the day is over, the more racy and enticing because the events 
of the day have been stirring. They are the play of the mind — delightful as pas- 
time, even beyond the most graceful play of our essayists. They have for a long 
time served to show us what we have lost in brushing away with our most utili- 
tarian science the essayists of a past generation. Expanded essays, enriched by 



MINOR TOPICS 313 

more learning, and touching on deeper experiences, have been the occasional 
orations called out by the death of his old comrades in letters or in reform. For 
these, besides the graces of a voice and manner and an art not surpassed by any 
since Wendell Phillips died, he has drawn out stores from a wide reading, an ex- 
tended activity, and a long converse with the richest minds. When a man of 
capacity walks arm in arm with a university, much will spill in ; and how many 
universities has a man locked arms with who has had intimacies with a Thackeray, 
an Emerson, a Lowell ! But a more serious purpose has associated itself with all 
the work and play of his later years ; and when his essays are no longer read, his 
name will be stamped on the best page of our political history in its connection 
with civil service reform. Of many other things he has been a part ; of this it 
has seemed at times as if he were the whole. 

The charm of Mr. Curtis's personality affected everyone with whom he came 
in direct contact, and everyone who had seen him and heard him speak ; it was 
known by report to many thousands more, and was easily to be inferred from 
almost every line he wrote. An accurate description of the impression his pres- 
ence made upon the mind and ear follows an account, in the Times, of his stirring 
and memorable speech at the Chicago Convention of i860 : 

" While this was a remarkable triumph, it does not fairly indicate Mr. Curtis's 
power as an orator. His public speech was, on occasion, very stirring ; but it was 
still more persuasive, enlightening, and convincing. If it had a fault, it was its 
faultlessness. The orator's charm was felt the moment he arose. His form was 
manly, strongly built, and exquisitely graceful. His head was of noble cast and 
bearing, his features rugged but firmly cut ; his forehead was square, broad, and 
massive ; his lips full and mobile, and of classic modeling ; his eyes of blue-gray, 
large, deep set under shaggy brows, lighted the shadow as with an altar flame, so 
pure, so gentle, and so profound was their expression. His voice was a most for- 
tunate organ. Deep, musical, yielding without apparent effort the happy inflec- 
tions suggested by the thought or feeling, clear and bright in the lighter passages, 
ringing now like a bugle, now tender and flutelike, and now vibrating in solemn 
organ notes that hushed the intense emotion it aroused." — The Critic. 



LOUIS XIV. AND WILLIAM III. 

In 1692, the strong fortress of Namur was besieged and taken by the French 
army, under the personal command of the king. Of all his conquests this gratified 
him the most. Namur was a place of great strength ; it had been deemed impreg- 
nable ; it was defended by one of the most famous of living engineers ; the army 
of William III. was encamped near by, but was unable to relieve the town. The 
victory was enthusiastically applauded by Louis' subjects, and he did not hesitate 
to express his own approbation of his own conduct. In his delight he conde- 



314 MINOR TOPICS 

scended to patronize his opponent. Some criticised the Prince of Orange, he said, 
because he did not hazard a battle in the endeavor to relieve Namur. " There 
was, however, wisdom in the decision," he added ; " the experience of the past has 
shown that it was useless to oppose a design which the king carried out in per- 
son, and William judged Namur lost, as he knew that Louis was laying siege to it." 
The monarch's jealousy of William as a soldier led him at times to speak of his 
rival with less magnanimity. In the preceding campaign he criticised the conduct 
of one who certainly was not his inferior in personal courage. A bomb killed one 
of William's soldiers near the spot where the king was dining, and like a sensible 
man he got out of the way of unnecessary danger, and finished his meal elsewhere. 
" I am surprised," wrote Louis to the Marshal of Luxembourg, " that this should 
have disturbed the repast of the Prince of Orange, because, it seems to me, that 
since he had begun his dinner in that locality, he should have finished it there." 
The criticism is characteristic of the critic. 

The capture of Namur was the last of the victories won by Louis in person, 
and the following campaign saw his farewell appearance at the head of his armies. 
With one hundred and ten thousand men he entered the Low Countries. The 
army of William III. was not over fifty thousand strong, and it was possible to 
inflict upon him a crushing defeat that might go far toward ending the war. The 
hesitation, the moral timidity, that had kept Louis from risking a pitched battle 
during the many years that he had accompanied his armies, controlled him now. 
He announced that the Rhine was the critical point where the forces of France 
must be concentrated, and that he must sacrifice his own plans to the interests of 
the state. In vain did the Marshal of Luxembourg fall on his knees before his 
sovereign, and implore him not to let this great opportunity escape. Thirty thou- 
sand men were sent to the Rhine, and the king at once returned to Versailles. So 
sudden and so unsuspected was his departure, that the officers had barely time to 
present their farewell respects. — Perkins's France under the Regency. 



NOTES 

NOTES 



315 



The first use of forks — Mr. South 
wick, in his Wisps of Wit and Wisdom, 
says forks were introduced into England 
in the sixteenth century, and that Queen 
Elizabeth was the first English sovereign 
to eat with a fork. Her nobles thought 
it was sheer affectation on her part, and 
so great was the prejudice against their 
use, even by educated people, that an 
eminent divine preached a sermon about 
forks, saying, "it was an insult to the 
Almighty not to touch one's meat with 
one's fingers." Forks had been used in 
Italy as early as 161 1, but only to fasten 
the meat while it was cut with the knife. 
No one thought of carrying the food to 
the mouth with a fork until Queen Eliz- 
abeth set the fashion, which was very 
little followed in her time. As late as 
the reign of George I. so little was known 
of forks and their use that few inns pro- 
vided them for the use of the guests. 



Lewis and Clarke's expedition — 
Dr. Elliott Coues has been actively en- 
gaged preparing a new and important 
edition of Lewis and Clarke's expedi- 
tion over the Rocky Mountains in the 
years 1804, 1805, and 1806, which will 
be Tniblished shortly by Francis P. Har- 
per, New York. It is to comprise a 
faithful reprint of the Philadelphia edi- 
tion of 1814, the best and only com- 
plete one, with a bibliographical preface, 
biographical sketches, and numerous 
valuable explanatory, ethnological, geo- 
graphical, and scientific notes to the text 
by the editor. Maps, plates, and an index 
to the entire work will be added. Dr. 



Coues is admirably fitted for this task, 
having made a specialty of the literature 
of the subject, and has been over the 
entire ground these pioneers explored. 
The new edition, which will be limited, 
entirely supersedes all others. 



The primitive railroad of 1832 — 
In a letter from William H. Seward to a 
member of his family, dated August 24, 
1832, we have the following interesting 
description of the railway of the period. 
" We arrived at Schenectady at three 
this morning, and immediately were car- 
ried in post-coaches a mile and a half to 
the present termination of the railway. 
There were in waiting three large cars 
which the passengers entered. The cars 
differ not much as to the construction 
of the body from stage-coaches, except 
that they are about one-third larger, 
and have seats upon the top. The body 
is set upon very short springs, which 
cause but little elasticity of motion. The 
car is divided into two parts by a high, 
though not entire partition in the centre. 
In each of these compartments were six 
passengers. On the top was the driver's 
seat, and one other, each holding three 
persons, so that the car carried eighteen 
passengers, with all their enormous bulk 
of baggage. Having mounted our 
vehicle, a fine, large gray horse was at- 
tached to it by shafts, exactly like those 
of a one-horse wagon. ' Ready ! ' said 
the stage man ; the driver whistled to the 
gray, away went the car through hills 
and over valleys. Only think of riding 
from Schenectady to Albany without 
jolting, jarring, or bouncing ! " 



316 



QUERIES 



Memorial number of harper's 
weekly — George William Curtis has 
been associated with Harper s Weekly 
almost since its beginning in 1857, and 
has written the " Editor's Easy Chair" 
in Harper s Magazine since 1853. The 
number of the Weekly published Sep- 
tember 7th, is in a certain sense a me- 
morial number, and contains appropriate 
sketches of his life, character, and ser- 
vices, with a portrait and other illustra- 
tions. 



Canadian newspapers of the last 
century — -Extract of a letter from Que- 
bec, October 17, 1792 : I send you a few 
of our city gazettes. You will find little 
worth notice in them, this being the most 



recluse corner of all America for intelli- 
gence, at least during two-thirds of the 
year ; and, besides, the abject ignorance 
and moral servitude of the majority of 
the inhabitants (Canadians) afford little 
room or badly recompense any efforts 
to render newspapers useful or interest- 
ing ; for it is no less true, though it may 
appear incredible, that of upwards of 
fifty thousand families in lower Canada, 
not five hundred read public newspa- 
pers, or, in fact, read anything at all. 
It is thus education, that first and great- 
est interest of society, is neglected in 
this moral antipode of the United States, 
and you know it is impossible that print- 
ing should flourish where education is 
so neglected. 

Petersfield 



QUERIES 



Annexation to Canada — Has there 
ever been a formal proposition of an- 
nexation made by the United States 
government to the government of Can- 
ada ? Will some one enlighten us on 
the truth of the statement recently made 
that there has been such a proposition ? 

A Class of Teachers 
Duluth, Wisconsin 



William penn's rent— What rent 
did William Penn pay for his grant from 
the Duke of York ? Will the editor or 
some reader of the Magazine kindly 
enlighten me ? 

P. W. Clare 

Nashville, Tennessee 



First newspaper in Florida — 
When was the first newspaper printed 
in Florida ? Typo 



First college periodical — Editor 
Magazine of American History : When 
and where was the first college period- 
ical begun in the United States ? Was 
there one earlier than the North Carolina 
University Magazine, of which the first 
number was published at Chapel Hill, 
the site of the university, in March, 
1844? It contained forty-eight octavo 
pages. This periodical, after many ups 
and downs of fortune, and after four 
suspensions, is still in existence — now in 
its twenty-fifth volume. It has published 
many papers of value on local history, 
but there is probably not a complete set 
to be found. 

Stephen B. Weeks 

Trinity College, Durham, North Caro- 
lina 



REPLIES 

REPLIES 



31/ 



First great painting in the world 
[xxviii, 232] — Raphael's Transfigura- 
tion, was originally painted by order 
of Cardinal Giulio de Medici, Arch- 
bishop of Narbonne, for that cathedral. 
This picture was carried to Paris ; and 
on its restoration to Rome by the French, 
it was placed in the Vatican, and now 
bears the title of " The Jewel of the 
Vatican." It combines two scenes, an 
earthly and a heavenly, on one canvas. 
When Raphael died it was scarcely fin- 
ished, and it hung over his bed as he 
lay in state, and it was carried in his 
funeral procession. It has been called the 
first and grandest picture in the world. 

B. Emmons 
Montreal, Canada 



The most important invention 
[xxviii, 232] — The steam engine, be- 



yond all question ; for it has revolution- 
ized the world, utterly changed the 
economy of life, and made what was 
seemingly impossible the trite and com- 
monplace fact of our daily lives. 

Geo. G. Hepburn 
New York City 

The most important invention 
[xxviii, 232] — The art of alphabetical 
writing is the most important invention 
ever made by man, and the glory of 
its invention belongs, it is said, to the 
Phoenicians. The Greeks went to the 
Phoenicians for their alphabet. The Ro- 
mans went to the Greeks for their alpha- 
bet, and adopted it with few changes. 
And the Roman is the basis of all 
modern alphabets. 

Silas P. Manchester 
Chicago, Illinois 



3i3 



BOOK NOTICES 



BOOK NOTICES 



POLITICAL ECONOMY FOR AMERICAN 
YOUTH. Written from an American stand- 
point. By Jacob Harris Patton, Ph.D. 
i2mo. pp. 297. New York & Chicago, 1892. 
A. Lovell & Co. 

No writer of our time is better qualified to 
present the subject of political economy clearly 
and concisely to the young mind than Dr. Pat- 
ton, and this little text-book is as timely as it 
is excellent. Ours is a progressive nation, so 
situated as to be virtually independent of the 
rest of the world for the comforts and substan- 
tiate of existence, and it is well that our youth 
should be instructed in its possibilities, in the 
practical conditions of such an open field for 
competition. These youth are rapidly advanc- 
ing upon the stage of action, with their birth- 
right of political equality, and should study 
social science and political economy in the 
light of their own surroundings. Dr. Patton 
calls attention to the fact that in the United 
States there is scarcely a square mile that is not 
available for cultivation or pasturage, except 
perhaps the higher portions and sides of moun- 
tains. He says, also, "the territory abounds 
in mineral wealth of untold value;"' and he 
shows how we support two kinds of government, 
state and national, and how the funds for these 
are derived. He defines political economy as 
that branch of philosophy which discusses the 
sources and methods of a nation's material 
wealth and prosperity ; and he combines it 
with another definition, " that branch of social 
science which treats of the production and 
application of wealth to the well-being of man 
in society.'' Political economy as a practical 
study '"obtains only among peoples advanced 
in civilization, and, the higher the plane of 
that civilization, the more refined will be the 
tastes of the people, and the greater the extent 
of their individual wants — physical, moral, and 
aesthetic.*' Furthermore this science assumes 
proportions corresponding to the increasing 
desires and wants of a people, and the whole 
world is laid under contribution in supplying 
these wants. The necessity for labor is shown 
to be a supreme authority. Man cannot fur- 
nish the air he breathes, nor the sunshine and 
the rain, which causes the earth to produce ; 
neither can he command the blood to course 
through his own veins. Dr. Patton says: "In 
dealing with man the Creator has established 
laws in accordance with which He confers noth- 
ing tipon him that he can acquire by his own 
exertion." The vast majority of the inhabit- 
ants of this country are engaged in the active 
duties of life, and the gradual elevation of 
character as well as physical constitution 



from one generation to another is the result. 
" Strictly speaking, we have no leisure class," 
and health and vigor are cultivated and pre- 
served accordingly. Thirty-one pages are de- 
voted at the close of the book to pertinent 
questions, which lead the student into the 
whole line of thought so admirably presented. 
It is a text-book we can heartily commend to 
all educational institutions, and it will be useful 
in any library for reading and reference. 



VIRGINIA GENEALOGIES: A Genealogy 
of the Glassell Family of Scotland and Vir- 
ginia ; also of the families of Ball, Brown, 
Bryan, Conway, Daniel, Ewell, Holladay, 
Lewis, Littlepage, Moncure, Peyton, Robin- 
son, Scott, Taylor, 'Wallace, and others of 
Virginia and Maryland. By Horace Ed- 
win Hayden, M.A. Large octavo, pp. 759. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania : 1891. Price 
$8.00, in advance. 

This great genealogical work represents more 
than eight years of personal research, and is 
one of the most comprehensive in scope and 
material of any of the published Virginia geneal- 
ogies. It contains much that is new in the way 
of historic facts, with a multitude of most ac- 
ceptable side-lights, and shows with admirable 
clearness, and with documentary proofs, the 
falsity of the absurd charge, so often repeated 
by the uninformed and prejudiced, that the Vir- 
ginians are largely descended from the convict 
element sent to the colony by England in the 
seventeenth century. It is high time the fable 
was crushed out of the thought and speech of 
people who pretend to ordinary intelligence. 
They have only to look into English history for 
themselves to learn the truth. The chief au- 
thority for this charge — Hotten's List of Emi- 
grants to America, 1600-1700 — comprehends in 
its title-page " Persons of quality, emigrants, 
religious exiles, political exiles, serving men, 
sold for a period of years, apprentices, children 
stolen, maidens pressed, and others ; " and this 
list includes shipments to the West India islands 
and to New England as well as to Virginia. Mr. 
R. A. Brock writes : " There are more lists os- 
tensibly for New England than Virginia. These 
lists themselves seem to offer no more founda- 
tion for the stigmatizing term convict than that 
in some instances they were 'rebels' or political 
offenders.'' Mr. Hayden challenges proof of 
the assertion of convict descent among the rep- 
resentative families of Virginia by the produc- 
tion of a single instance of an ancestor of such 
a family having been convicted of any wrong 



BOOK NOTICES 



319 



doing, recognized as such by the present laws 
of Massachusetts. It will be well for the people 
who do no thinking, but are prolific in state- 
ments, to turn the pages of this genealogical 
work until they better understand the forces 
that brought settlers into Virginia. Mr. Hay- 
den says: '"The element that gave being to 
New England, like that which made permanent 
colonies in Virginia and Maryland, was com- 
posed of the younger sons of titled families — 
esquires, gentlemen, merchants, yeomen, and 
tradesmen — men of gentle blood." He finds 
in his researches " that many Virginia families 
of distinction in letters, statecraft, and military 
service, have descended from ancestors of gentle 
lineage, who had learned mechanical trades or 
crafts in the various Livery Companies of Eng- 
land and elsewhere." and he gives numerous in- 
stances among well known names, such as 
Henry Peyton of London, " merchant tailor," 
descended from the ancient Peytons of Iselham, 
tracing back to a.d. 1200, who was the ancestor 
of almost all the Peytons of Virginia ; Bishop 
Meade, who gloried in tracing his descent from 
Thomas Cromwell, "blacksmith," the uncle of 
Oliver Cromwell; John Byrd. "goldsmith," 
the grandfather of Colonel William Byrd of 
" Westover ; " John Gedney, "vintner," of 
Salem. Massachusetts, of an ancient family of 
Suffolk, England, and his son Hon. Bartholo- 
mew Gedney, " ship carpenter," Salem, an- 
cestors of Bryan, eighth Lord Fairfax, of Vir- 
ginia, whose father, Colonel William Fairfax, 
brother of Thomas, fifth Baron Fairfax, settled 
in Salem, and married thegranddaughterof Hon. 
Bartholomew Gedney, and from Salem removed 
to Virginia. James and John Cary were sons of 
the mayor of Bristol, England, 161 1, whose 
father, William Cary, was "merchant" of 
Bristol. James Cary was the ancestor of the 
Massachusetts Carys, and John, his brother, 
was the ancestor of the Virginia Carys. 

Mr. Hayden's essay on "Descent" teems 
with light on a multitude of imperfectly under- 
stood matters. All of the occupations men- 
tioned above, and many others, held relations to 
the social life of England two or three centuries 
ago, vastly different from those which they now 
hold to the social life of America. Mr. Hay- 
den tells us that "into the Livery Companies 
of England went, as indentured apprentices, to 
learn the craft or trade, the very best blood of 
England." To these companies even royalty 
joined itself. Herbert, in his History of the 
Livery Companies, gives an extended list of the 
sovereigns and nobility who had been freemen, 
many of whom, like the Earl of Southampton, 
the Duke of Chandos, the Earl of Bath, and the 
Earl of Essex, had served their apprenticeship. 
From the reign of Richard I., to the present 
day, the craft guilds held exclusive control of 
the franchise of London. A freeman, which 



class alone was entitled to elect civil officers, 
was one who had served his apprenticeship in 
one of the sixty odd Livery Companies or craft 
guilds, and had received his discharge from in- 
denture. The lord mayor of London, to be 
eligible to the office, must have been a freeman 
in one of the twelve great Livery Companies of 
the city ; and yet he ranks as an earl, and takes 
precedence of every person after the sovereign. 
The London Livery Companies were largely in- 
terested in the settlement of Virginia ; two hun- 
dred and sixty members have been identified, 
who in 1616 had subscribed to the Virginia com- 
pany, which was a powerful organization. These 
subscribers were designated by their trades, as 
" mercers, grocers, goldsmiths, skinners, haber- 
dashers," etc. James I. was a member of the 
" clothworkers' company," and Prince Henry 
Stuart, his eldest son, was a "merchant taylor." 
Mr. Hayden has produced a book that will be 
greatly prized in all parts of our country as well 
as in Virginia. It is a monument of patient in- 
dustry — a volume to be preserved and its infor- 
mation quoted for all time. Aside from the 
sixteen families mentioned on its title page, as 
of direct record, there are over one hundred 
elaborate pedigrees of other families. An 
adequate idea of the importance and value of 
the work cannot be given in any pen picture ; 
the book must be seen and examined to be 
appreciated. 



TYPICAL TALES OF FANCY, RO- 
MANCE, AND HISTORY. From Shake- 
speare's Plays. Edited by Robert R. Ray- 
mond, A.M. 8vo, pp. 224. New York : 
Fords, Howard & Hulbert. 1S92. 
The plays in this work represent three distinct 
types of Shakespeare's dramas, and are specially 
adapted to interest the youthful mind. They 
are presented in narrative form, largely in 
Shakespeare's words, with dialogue passages in 
the original dramatic text. A short memoir of 
William Shakespeare opens the volume, and the 
bright, intelligent child's attention is thus se- 
cured from the beginning. It is a notable fact 
that children undertake to read and digest Shake- 
speare's plays much earlier than is generally 
supposed ; and what they do not quickly under- 
stand they "skip." The editor of this book 
"skips" the obscure and dreary passages for 
them judiciously, and supplies exactly what will 
be most conducive to a correct comprehension of 
the master's whole work. He has done sys- 
tematically and successfully what thousands of 
teachers and parents have long been trying to 
do, and is to be congratulated by a grand army 
of readers. No attempt has been made to touch 
the nice questions which occupy the attention of 
Shakespearian editors and critics, nor does this 



320 



BOOK NOTICES 



version make any pretense to exact accuracy. 
But what is told is in such a clear, concise, and 
simple style that even children of mature age, 
who have read Shakespeare in its completeness 
again and again, cannot fail to be charmed in 
the perusal of this happily conceived and beauti- 
ful volume. 

PADDLES AND POLITICS DOWN THE 
DANUBE. By Poultney Bigelow. No. 
6 of "Fiction, Fact, and Fancy Series." ed- 
ited by Arthur Stedman. i6mo, pp. 226. 
New York : Charles L. Webster & Co. 1892. 
Mr. Bigelow had cherished the idea of cruising 
the whole length of the Danube, but it was not 
until the summer of iSgr that the feat was actu- 
ally accomplished. He had made several canoe 
voyages in this country and elsewhere, and be- 
lieved that the traveler who was able to carry with 
him his bed, his food, his library, and his clothes, 
without exhausting his physical powers, was suf- 
ficiently equipped to learn something new, and 
he was not mistaken. He tells us in this crisp 
little volume of his experiences, and whoever 
commences its reading will not be apt to pause 
until he reaches the closing page. He will find 
something informing on every leaf. The chap- 
ter on the " Hohenzollern Castle," for instance, is 
wonderfully entertaining, Mr. Bigelow says the 
Danube has ruins as striking and extensive as 
those of the Rhine, only more of them ; some of 
these were built a thousand or more years ago. 
He encounters dams and rapids as well as fort- 
resses, goes among the harvesters and the gyp- 
sies, shoots the rapids of the Iron-gate in his 
little canoe, talks politics with the men of the 
different countries along his route, and gives a 
vivid picture of the Jews from the Danubian 
point of view. It is a unique book of travels 
— an instructive contribution to that class of lit- 
erature. 



THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT: Na- 
tional and State. By B. A. Hinsdale, Ph.D. 
i2mo, pp. 422. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Register 
Publishing Co. 1891. 

A text-book that the average student, with his 
power of generalization and compass of facts, 
needs to enlighten him properly in the mysteries 
of political science, is not a treatise on constitu- 
tional law, but one that presents to his active 



mind the Constitution developed by the life of 
the people of to-day — the Constitution in action, 
and not the Constitution in a book. Dr. Hins- 
dale has traced in this volume, in the most able 
and satisfactory manner, the growth of the Amer- 
ican government, and gives due prominence to 
the fact that it is dual or federal, and that the citi- 
zen has two loyalties and two patriotisms. He 
defines society as " men living together in hu- 
man relations ; " the state as a " body politic, or 
society of men united together for the purpose of 
promoting mutual advantage by their combined 
strength." Man becomes perfect only in the 
state which is not the result of agreement, con- 
tract, or convention among men. It is an organic 
development, and perfectly natural. He says : 
" Compacts always belong to a considerably 
advanced stage of social and political progress, 
but never to its beginning. It is easy to see what 
would be the result if a society were without 
government ; society could not exist. Society 
and social order must go together. Government 
is a universal fact. Man, society, and government 
are always found together; they are the broadest 
terms in the vocabulary of political science." Dr. 
Hinsdale writes with remarkable force in his 
analysis of the relations of the local and general 
governments, which is often so confusing to the 
dull student, and he traces the making of the 
American government with a masterly hand. In 
his seventh chapter he discusses the questions 
which came before the famous convention of 
framers. Every new idea found its ready oppos- 
ers. They were all perplexed with the national 
and state considerations. Conflicting interests 
also produced trouble and long debates. Wash- 
ington said : " If to please the people we offer 
what we ourselves disapprove, how can we after- 
wards defend our work ? " Dr. Hinsdale de- 
scribes how the Constitution went into operation ; 
after which he takes it up, article by article, and 
treats of all its most important features. The 
subjects are so well arranged, that teachers who 
wish only to instruct their classes in the national 
government with merely incidental mention of 
the states, can find whatever they desire in the 
first and second part, the latter being a sufficient 
commentary on the Constitution. It adds greatly 
to the value of the book that it is adapted to the 
needs of students and classes giving different 
amounts of time to the study, andt hus pursuing 
it more or less thoroughly. It has an appendix 
of documents illustrative of the formation of the 
Union, and an exceptionally good index. 




THE FLORENCE 1'ORTRAIT OF COLUMBUS. 




MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 

Vol. XXVIII NOVEMBER. 1892 No. 5 

NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 

OCTOBER, 1492 — OCTOBER, 1 892 

HE people formed the most suggestive and impressive feat- 
ure of New York's monster celebration of the four hun- 
dredth anniversary of the achievement of Columbus. It was 
estimated by competent judges that not less than one mil- 
lion of visitors crossed the surrounding waters to Manhattan 
Island on the 12th, the fifth and last day of the festival, to 
witness the unique expression of a city's gratitude and patriotism. This 
throng of outsiders added to New York's own population perfected a 
spectacle of surpassing significance, and its educational and moral effects- 
cannot fail to be apparent through the coming century and in all the 
future. The great commercial capital stands in its glory to-day a living, 
bustling, instructive monument to the honor of the pioneer of modern 
civilization. Nowhere else on this continent could the progress of the 
world in four centuries have been so brilliantly illustrated, for it has 
in its daily life every accessory which the wealth, ingenuity, public 
spirit, and hospitality of its citizens could devise for such a ceremonial, 
with a harbor sufficiently spacious to accommodate all the fleets of the 
entire family of nations without in the slightest degree crowding its own 
shipping. 

Until quite recently very little has been heard of Columbus for many 
decades, except through the researches and publications of learned spe- 
cialists and antiquarians. Indeed the heroic navigator who faced the perils 
of unknown waters four centuries ago and discovered a continent, bring- 
ing a train of events affecting all history, seemed to have been relegated 
to the school books as an ineligible candidate for popular favor, and only 
brought out at intervals when infant classes made their debut on the stage. 
Everybody knew something of him, dimly or otherwise ; but his person- 
ality was mythical, too far away and too little talked about for present 
interest. 

Horace Greeley once said that people would read most eagerly that 
Vol. XXVIII.-No. 5.-2! 



322 



NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 



U7ll77l&=k 




THE WORLD AS KNOWN TO EUROPEANS IN I40O. 



which was in someway in touch with themselves — what they already knew 
or almost knew ; which is manifestly true in the case of Columbus. The 
approaching Chicago exposition has awakened the sleeping public, and the 
scramble for more knowledge concerning its hero has been in singular pro- 
portion to the information already possessed ; and as the personality of 
the great discoverer has been evolved from the shadowy past and brought 

more distinctly into 
our daily thoughts and 
sympathies, the a v a - 
lancne of books, bro- 
chures, criticisms, and 
magazine articles on 
the subject have com- 
manded hosts of at- 
tentive readers. His 
face, figure, peculiar- 
ities, and general char- 
acter have been studied 
with nearly as much 
intensity as his ex- 
ploits. He has come among us, so to speak, in the flesh, and every fact 
relating to his life, and many fables, have been brought into the blazing 
light. It is discovered that he was selfish, bent on making his own for- 
tune if he could, and that he was a barbarian like other men of his time. 
We have learned also that he possessed a combination of rare qualities of 
which intelligent observation and sublime courage Were among the chief ; 
that he was equal to any emergency, and that in perseverance he had no 
superior. When New York was fully prepared to carry out a scheme of 
magnificent proportions in honor of his landfall, there was an outburst 
of popular enthusiasm that was most gratifying to every lover of his coun- 
try. America was at last in touch with that little one-sided world of the 
fifteenth century, which knew positively nothing of its other and better 
half, and which was faithless and abusive concerning the hoped-for success 
of the bold project of the Genoese — that of sailing west to find the east. 
There is just enough uncertainty and contradiction in the obscure data and 
differing interpretations in this connection to render the whole story one 
of the most fascinating extant. And out of it all steps the majestic figure 
of Columbus as if to review the situation. 

When Prince Henry the navigator died, Columbus was twenty-four 
years old. Henceforward until 1495, when the enlightened Emanuel I. 






NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 



323 



succeeded John II. , there was slight chance in the little kingdom of Por- 
tugal for the development of a new idea. But in the interim the effort 
to find the " end of Africa " and reach the empire of gold at the east by 
that route was faithfully prosecuted ; the Portuguese seamen, as taught by 
Prince Henry, cruised in small, well-built vessels near the coast, making 
slow but sure southerly progress. The wonder is, that Columbus actually 
persuaded the sovereigns of Spain to invest in his precarious and vague 
enterprise. It was known all over Europe that Venice had acquired mar- 
velous riches and power and grandeur through the India trade ; the 



/1ARC GLACIAU 




/!TRlCA 

9 V^v 



THE WORLD AS KNOWN TO THE PORTUGUESE IN I49O. 

{After a map in the Kohl Collection] 

costly goods came from hand to hand overland, and Venice sold them at 
fabulous prices. Columbus could not help being aware that his success in 
opening a road through the unexplored ocean westward, to the land of 
promise, would confer enormous wealth upon Spain ; and as he had spent 
the best years of his life in the struggle to accomplish this, and was fully 
alive to the risks of the undertaking, he seems to have acted from what 
would now be considered good business principles in bargaining for a 
handsome dividend. 

Emilio Castelar says : " The new world would never have been dis- 
covered if to the divine impulses springing from the warmth of a self-Con- 



324 NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 

tained semi-religious ideal had not been joined the paltry but continuous 
incentives of more sordid motives, serving to spur the will to vigilant 
effort and tireless activity." When Columbus sailed away from Palos, very 
few expected he would be able to return, and when his crews mutinied it 
was because they believed they were sailing down into some appalling 
abyss from which they could never sail up again. 

In the literature of the ages, there is perhaps nothing — neither poetry, 
romance, nor reality — which can begin to compare in thrilling interest with 
the simple words of Columbus, describing his first sight of terra firma on 
the 12th of October, 1492. His three little ships were " sweeping swiftly to 
the west, for a gale was blowing." His eyes were open to the indications of 
land near by, for he had seen a coast-fish, swirls of seaweeds, and a branch 
of thorn with berries upon it, drifting by. He was not inclined to sleep as 
the night came on, but gazed continually into the dense darkness. The 
Pinta was in the lead, the Nina close in its wake, and the flag-ship follow- 
ing. About two o'clock in the morning the heavy clouds drifted suddenly 
away, and the clear, rich, white light of the moon flooded the sea for 
many leagues around. Had this welcome irradiation been delayed a few 
minutes longer, there would have been a shipwreck, which might have 
changed the whole current of events. The quick report of a gun from 
the Pinta announced land in sight. At that same instant Columbus from 
the Santa Maria was surveying a long, low, sandy coast, directly before 
them, not more than two miles away. 

It detracts nothing whatever from the glory of Columbus, that he died 
without knowing he had discovered a continent — that he had made the 
world twice as large as it was before. " He could not know it. Nobody 
in his place could have known it, since nobody could construct a map of 
lands that had never been seen or surveyed. The only fact present to the 
apprehension of Columbus was that he had found land, which he pres- 
ently discovered to be an island of no great size, situated among other 
islands, some larger and some smaller. When subsequently he did touch 
the continent, there was nobody to tell him that this was not another 
island. He set out with the preconceived idea that he was to find a group 
of islands adjacent to the coast of Asia, and what he did find fitted into 
his preconceptions exactly." One hundred and fifteen years afterwards 
England was so much in the dark about the width of the long stretch of 
land to the west of the Atlantic, that the colonists shipped to Virginia 
were expected to work their way through it to India, and were ordered, 
in 1607, to fill the returning vessel with gold enough to equal the costs of 
the expedition, or they would be " abandoned to their own devices." 



NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 



325 




INTERIOR OF ONE VAULT ON MANHATTAN ISLAND CONTAINING $72,000,000 IN GOLD. 

["' They dreamed 0/ -wealth, and here it is beyond imagination's furthest limit." Page 326.] 

The picturesque, canoe-shaped, thirteen-mile-long island at the mouth 
of the great river explored by Henry Hudson in 1609 — in the belief that 
it was the long-sought passage to India — had reposed tranquilly for cen- 
turies prior to that fruitful voyage of Columbus. It was as beautiful a 
wilderness in 1492 as one might wish to place upon canvas in imperishable 
colors. Its appearance then and its grandeur now form a series of won- 
derful contrasts. It may well be said, in the language of Governor Flower 
at the great Columbian banquet : " If the navigators of 1492 and their 
royal patrons, and the colonizers of later periods, could come back to earth 



326 NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 

to view the outcome of their ambitions and struggles in exploring and peo- 
pling a new hemisphere, I think they would find most to interest them 
right here on Manhattan Island. They dreamed of wealth, and here it is 
beyond imagination's furthest limit. They longed for power, and here it 
is greater than that of any ancient empire. They sighed for liberty, and 
nowhere is liberty more securely established and the right of citizens more 
jealously guarded. They sought the spread of Christianity, and nowhere 
is the influence of Christ's Church greater — not only sending its gospel 
through every household in our commonwealth, but diffusing its charity 
to the very ends of the earth. It seems particularly appropriate that Co- 
lumbus's great achievement should be celebrated after four hundred years 
in this greatest city of his hemisphere. All the longings and aspirations 
which inspired the discoverers in that famous age of exploration have 
found fullest expression in the history of this city and state, and now find 
their completest answer in the elements which make up the state and 
metropolitan supremacy." 

New York's celebration occupied five days and the evening of the sixth 
day. The city in its gala dress represented all the colors in the rainbow. 
Spain's yellow and red were everywhere visible, with the national colors of 
Italy, France, and indeed of every civilized people on the face of the 
globe, while over and above all waved the beloved red, white, and blue of 
the United States. The decorative display surpassed in beauty anything 
of the kind hitherto seen in this country. The great palaces of trade in a 
hundred streets, miles and miles in length, were artistically covered from 
cornice to street line with flags, streamers, bannerets, pictures, mottoes, and 
innumerable quaint and attractive devices. The costly mansions of the 
citizens were one great mass of color, arranged with inspiring effects, and in 
every cross-street and by-way there was scarcely a window from which 
some symbol of the general rejoicing was not flying. A classic arbor or 
pergola spanned Fifth avenue at Twenty-second street, profusely wreathed 
with green garlands and palms, and thickly studded with Chinese lanterns; 
and to the north from this for an entire mile Fifth avenue was canopied 
with standards and flags of all colors in the most indescribable fashion, 
and ropes with burdens of brilliant lanterns and long pointed gonfalons 
of every design and hue were stretched thickly between them in inter- 
crossing lines. The perspective in passing up this beautiful avenue was 
simply enchanting, and at Fifty-eighth street, just beyond the tall towers 
of many churches, a triumphal arch of gorgeous design closed the vista. 

The celebration opened with religious exercises in all the places of 
worship in the metropolis, of which there are not less than five hundred. 



NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 



327 




THE COLUMBUS ARCH IN FIFTH AVENUE AT FIFTY-EIGHTH STREET. 



The Jewish beginning was on Friday evening, when patriotic words 
were spoken and throngs of worshipers in the synagogues lifted their 
united voices in singing the national anthem. Saturday, the Jewish Sab- 
bath, October 8, was devoted to solemn and impressive services of praise 



328 NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 

and thanksgiving in honor of the great discoverer. In some instances 
changes were made in the Sabbath ritual for the occasion. At the Temple 
Emanuel in Fifth avenue, which was handsomely decorated, an eloquent 
sermon was preached by the rabbi on " America, the land of promise," 
in which he said that the Hebrews had ceased to long to return to Jeru- 
salem, and had come to regard America as the true land of promise. At 
Temple Ahavvath Chesed the whole interior of the edifice was hung with 
bunting and flags, even the altar itself, and pictures of Columbus framed 
in the stars and stripes were artistically arranged in different parts of the 
sanctuary. The rabbi reviewed the stormy voyage of Columbus across 
the Atlantic and said: "The Jewish people certainly have cause to 
express gratitude for the hero who founded a haven of repose for our 
noble race. The very name of Columbus is significant of love, truth, 
and rest, for Columbus discovered America because he had faith in 
himself and in God, and because he discovered a country for wandering 
Israel as well as for others." There was as much enthusiasm exhibited 
in the commemoration of the national jubilee among two hundred 
thousand Hebrews in the metropolis as elsewhere, and one eloquent rabbi 
declared that his people only wanted the opportunity to show their devo- 
tion to America by a call to its defense. 

October 9 was a Sabbath long to be remembered in New York — the 
pioneer of the Columbus jubilee on this continent. Sermons appropriate 
to the occasion and elaborate musical programmes welcomed the church- 
goers of every creed or denomination of Christians throughout the length 
and breadth of the great city. The lessons of Columbus's life, the lessons 
of his faith and courage and steadfastness of purpose, which never faltered 
amid the stormy waves of disappointment and perplexity, were presented 
from hundreds of pulpits. The love of country is akin to true religion; 
and it is a significant fact that the period of time which has elapsed since 
the achievement of Columbus compasses the whole history of music as an 
art, in the sense in which we now understand that term. This was nowhere 
forgotten, and in connection with every stirring and patriotic sermon and 
the chanting of prayers, the grandest effects of music and the hymning of 
praise and gratitude were evoked in honor of the great discovery. Wher- 
ever the cross of the Catholic church arose was a scene of festival and 
rejoicing, from the stately marble cathedral in Fifth avenue, with flags on 
the twin spires, flags pendant between them, flags and shields on the front 
facades and national colors inside, to the humblest mission chapel. The 
services at Old Trinity were of the most brilliant character. The altar 
and reredos were banked with flowers, potted palms stood about the 



new york's great object lesson 329 

chancel, and four large American flags were draped from the candelabra 
on either side — while hundreds of electric lights illuminated the scene. At 
St. Mark's church the American flag was placed in' graceful festoons over 
the entrance porch, and national colors were arranged about the pulpit. 
At St. George's church all the hymns were selected from that part of the 
church hymnal devoted to national jubilees : the thousand voices of the con- 
gregation united in singing them with marvelous effect. In the Central 
Congregational church the Rev. William Lloyd preached on " The indications 
of divine guidance in American history." In the Fifth avenue Baptist 
church the eloquent Rev. Mr. Faunce said : " As we reread the history of 
Columbus we are perplexed beyond measure by the dissolving processes 
of historical criticism. Remorseless investigation has broken into a thou- 
sand pieces the image of Columbus which was the fascination of our child- 
hood. While the truth is always welcome we have need to beware of the 
excesses and vagaries of reckless criticism, and we cannot put our trust in 
those whose sole accomplishment is skill in the arts of disparagement and 
disdain. Amid all disputes one fact no detractor can disguise — Columbus 
did the deed which brought the two continents together and made the life 
of the East to flow into the lands of the West." In the Madison square 
Presbyterian church the Rev. Dr. Parkhurst said : " We should rejoice in 
the present week as we should be patriotic. We are patriotic because we 
are made aware of patriotism, and when we cultivate patriotism it draws 
the people of the country closer together, and they rejoice in the national 
future. And this week, when we cultivate patriotism, we shall believe in 
our destiny. Believing in our destiny is a long way toward our destiny. 
An anticipated future assists in bringing about the future. Our destiny, 
as an English statesman recently said to me, is a superb destiny, and this 
week's celebration will more completely Americanize Americans and assist 
them to believe in a bright national future." In the Church of the 
Strangers Dr. Deems directed the thought of his congregation to the way 
in which God had prepared for the discovery and settlement of America, 
and how in all critical periods of national history he has gone before and 
shaped the destinies of the country. 

On Monday, the third day of the festival, New York was astir early. 
The skies were clear, and the bright October sunshine promptly on duty 
for the school-boys' parade. Never before in this country has there been 
such a marching host of American youth. The mass of spectators filled 
every stand and balcony and window and roof, and truck and step-ladder 
and box and barrel at the street crossings, and were banked in a line from 
the houses to the curb, forming a solid wall along the line of march. The 



330 NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 

procession was a little late in starting, but when it finally appeared the 
marching column moved rapidly on with full ranks, military precision, and 
without interruption. It was reviewed at Madison square by Vice-Presi- 
dent Morton and Governor Flower, near whom were many notables, in- 
cluding Mayor Haynes of Newark, J. Edward Simmons, ex-president of 
the Board of Education, and Governor Tillman of South Carolina. When 
the cordon of mounted policemen, ten abreast, followed by the grand 
marshal and his aids, rode through the triumphal arch at Fifty-eighth 
street and moved down the grand avenue, there was an outburst of 
applause that shook the brown-stone edifices to their very foundations. 
Mayor Grant walked at the head of the regiments of school-boys, the 
members of the Board of Education following. Marshal John D. Robinson 
with his guard of honor, the Seventh regiment band swept past with 
jaunty, dashing quick-step, and then the small boys, shoulder to shoulder, 
each left leg rising at the identical second that every other left leg rose, 
machinery-like in its accuracy, and the alignment almost as straight as if 
a stretched cord had just grazed every breast. No army ever marched 
through Fifth avenue that created more enthusiasm. The little men came 
proudly on, wave after wave of them, rank behind rank, until the beholder 
could neither count nor comment. Ten thousand from the public schools 
of the city, some in knickerbockers, some in uniform, some in their Sun- 
day clothes ; and before each company walked a military-stepping boy, 
already a leader of his comrades. Cheers, long and loud, and the waving 
of flags and handkerchiefs greeted them all along the route ; here indeed 
were our future citizens — the fathers, the men of affairs, the workers, the 
architects of a great nation, they whose task it will be to right wrongs, to 
grapple with great social problems. Often the tall boys would be at one 
end of the company and the file slant downward till a little wee lad was 
the end man ; and every bright young face was sternly serious, apparently' 
with the determination to do or die for the glory of Columbus. They 
looked neither to the right nor the left, every head was held high in the 
air, and all paid strict attention to business. The coldest critic could not 
have been otherwise than enthusiastic. It was one of those object lessons 
which take the heart captive as well as the eye. Some regiments wore 
button-hole bouquets, others a little flag as a necktie, and all kept up the 
long, swinging step which carried them at such a gait that the adult 
musicians did not need to lessen their speed ; and the toddlers from time 
to time went through various maneuvers with the conscious pride of well- 
drilled knights. 

Mayor Gleason of Long Island City, accompanied by the Board of 



NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 



33* 




HEBREW ORPHAN ASYLUM CADETS IN 



HUS PARADE. 



Education, led the public school children of his municipality, one thousand 
strong ; he was quickly recognized and saluted by the crowds, compelling 
him to bow to the right and left like a conquering hero. The Catholic 
and private schools of New York made a fine display. There were forty 
or more Catholic institutions represented, the paraders from them number- 
ing over six thousand. Some of these had full military bands composed 
entirely of school-boys. They brightened the whole procession with the 
colors of their varied uniforms. The pupils from the De La Salle Insti- 
tute marched with set faces as if actually going to war, and the fattest boy 
among them was one of the captains. The students of St. Francis Xavief 



33 2 NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 

marched with close attention to duty. They wore a handsome uniform of 
navy blue, white-cross belts, and white leggins. The older students, who 
didn't wear uniforms, followed, carrying flags in bamboo sticks. The St. 
Paul Cadets wore the regulation army uniform, and had an ambulance 
corps. This was compelled to halt directly in front of the reviewing stand, 
and the little chaps who were carrying the stretcher glanced toward Vice- 
President Morton and Governor Flower and gravely took off their caps. 
Then the distinguished gentlemen took off their hats and smiled, while 
other people cheered. 

One of the interesting features of the parade was the representation 
from the Italian and American school. There were fifty of these young 
fellows, and they marched with a dignity worthy of a nation that had pro- 
duced Columbus. They wore in part the uniform of the Italian soldier. 
Their flat, plate-shaped hats were almost concealed beneath the spread 
of their green plumes. Their dark blue coats were heavily slashed with 
black cord, and over them waved a silk banner. The little ones from the 
Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society were dressed in gray suits and blue 
caps, and all of them carried flags that were very small, but that were so 
much bigger than some of the little men who bore them that they trailed 
on the ground. The Dante Alighieri Italian College of Astoria was repre- 
sented by enough boys in sailor's costume to man a schooner. The real 
hero of the day was a little tot about two feet high, who marched at the 
head of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum Cadets. Eyes right, toes out, little 
fingers to the seam of the pantaloons, and thumbs out, he pushed bravely 
forward with six-inch strides, while men cheered and women laughed and 
cried alternately as they threw their bouquets to him. A little drum- 
major of the same organization, and only about three inches taller, twirled 
his baton and threw it into the air with all the dexterity of most bewhisk- 
ered members of the craft. There were five companies of these cadets, 
dressed in light blue uniform trimmed with black braid; officers, in dark 
blue. Their marching was superb. 

The Indian band of forty or fifty pieces that preceded the delegation 
from the Carlisle school excited the spectators along the route to such a 
degree that they rose and applauded again and again. It was playing a 
marching anthem with the smoothest harmony and in the most perfect time 
as it passed on, and the three hundred Indian boys, moving with a precision 
that surpassed everything before and after them, paused as they came 
opposite the reviewing stand, and every head of stiff black hair was bared 
in respectful salute and with a military swiftness that no pale-faced or- 
ganization equaled. Closely following them were fifty tall Indian girls, 



NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 



333 




3LUMBIA COLLEGE STUDENTS IN THE COLUMBUS PARADE. 



who wore glasses and looked as cultured as the blue-blooded pupils of our 
most fashionable schools. 

The members of the evening school of the General Society of Mechanics 
and Tradesmen, dressed in quiet black, floated a banner on which was in- 
scribed " By hammer and hand all prosper." The Germans were uniquely 
represented by the schools of the Turn Verein societies, in which were 
many little girls, keeping step to the music like veteran soldiers. There 
was also an interesting delegation from the Five Points mission. 

The college division came last and gave animation to the whole parade. 
The finest banners of the occasion, many of them of artistic design and 
exceptional beauty, and all of historic interest, including a portrait of 
Queen Isabella in oil, were borne by the students of the college of New 
York. There were about nine hundred of these merry collegians, and they 



334 NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 

rent the air all along the route with their college yells. At least eight 
hundred fine-looking students were in line from the New York university. 
They sported a Kazoo band in mortar-boards, that filled the pauses 
between their exhibition of the quality of their voices in shouting, " Who 
are we? Who are we? New-York U-ni-ver-si-tee ! " The college of 
Physicians and Surgeons contributed to the hilarity of the march by turn- 
ing out several hundred men in line with grinning white skeletons on their 
hats. The law department of the university made a very judicial and 
dignified showing. Columbia college came next, about eight hundred and 
fifty students, and their marching was superb. At the head of the line 
were seventeen of their number dressed differently from the others, who 
approached with the novel effect of a white cloud. They wore snow 
white "sweaters" and tall white hats adorned with the college colors, 
white and blue. On the breast of each was a letter in blue of great size, 
and standing in line, COLUMBIA COLLEGE could be read from them at a dis- 
tance of at least four squares away. One stout youth represented the space 
between Columbia and college, and another was the period after college. 
Just before reaching Madison square they halted, and these seventeen 
leaders yelled, " It is raining in London;" then they stooped in the gravest 
manner and turned up their trousers before proceeding to the front of the 
reviewing stand, where they faced about in saluting the distinguished 
officials, and in removing their hats held them before their breasts in such 
a manner that great letters on the top of each hat read, "We ARE THE 
PEOPLE." One regiment of the Columbia college boys carried an umbrella 
that told the spectators in white letters that the class was '93, and they 
yelled every few minutes, "What are we? What are we? We're-the-class- 
of-'93." A fine turnout of post-graduates followed: then the school of 
mines and the school of law. A class from the art students' league car- 
ried palettes in their hands, splashed with red, white, and blue. There were 
students from the Mills training school for nurses, in white coats and caps; 
and following them were companies from the Homoeopathic medical 
college and Flower hospital, whose hats and canes were adorned with white 
and orange ribbons. The students of the New York college of Dentistry 
displayed orange and blue on their canes. Three hundred students from 
the college of Pharmacy paraded, and one hundred from the Eclectic 
medical college. 

There were upwards of twenty-five thousand in this remarkable pro- 
cession, which was two hours and fifteen minutes in passing any given 
point. The school-girls, ten thousand of them, formed a picturesque fea- 
ture of the great object lesson, although it had not been deemed expedient 



NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 335 

to have them march in the street. Dressed in white, red, and blue, they 
occupied seats on the mammoth stands which lined the block at Reservoir 
square, at Madison square, three sides of Union square, and other places, 
and under an excellent leader they sang patriotic songs almost without 
intermission from the moment the head of the procession appeared until 
the last division had marched by. They were dressed in solid colors ; that 
is, one division wore long blue cloaks with sailor caps to match, another 
division wore red cloaks and caps, and a third division white cloaks and 
caps. Thus as they were skillfully arranged, each section of the stand made 
a. living flag, for the red and white maidens alternated, and in the upper 
left-hand corner was a group wearing blue cloaks and caps, with a white 
star on the liberty cap that crowned them. The effect, when at a signal 
each girl produced a flag and waved it, can be imagined. 

Fireworks of the most brilliant character on Brooklyn bridge enter- 
tained millions of people on land and water in the evening of Monday. 
For an hour the heavens were bombarded, and every color that pyrotech- 
nic art can produce was on exhibition. In the meantime at Carnegie 
music hall the fame of Columbus was being rendered in song. Five hun- 
dred voices and one hundred instruments under the leadership of com- 
poser Pratt presented the " Triumph of Columbus." Mr. Depew in his 
remarks introductory to the music said : " This is an American night, an 
American week, an American month, an American year, an American alle- 
gory. To-morrow will be presented the beginning of the pageants, which 
will last until nearly the close of 1893. The American people, who are an 
eminently practical people, not having too much poetry or romance, have 
suddenly concentrated all their energies and all their thoughts and their 
inventive skill upon an effort to represent to the spirit of Columbus the 
results of his discovery. In this effort they are aided by the peoples of 
every nation. Italy, of whose nationality Columbus was one ; Spain, which 
furnished the means that enabled him to go across the ocean ; England, 
France, Germany, Austria, which have been the recipients of the marvel- 
lous benefits of what he did, all of them join with us in this celebration. 
All of them are having celebrations in their own countries to illustrate 
their appreciation of the enormous influence of this tremendous event. 

I stood to-day for hours watching the march of the school children down 
Fifth avenue. To me it was more significant, more eloquent, than all the 
pageantry which is to follow. That which is to come is the splendor of mate- 
rial evolution. It marks the wealth and the civilization of a great people; 
it marks the things that belong to their comfort and their ease, their pleasure 
and their luxuries and their power ; but these companies and regiments Of 



33 6 



NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 



the schools on Fifth avenue to-day presented a larger field and a more 
hopeful aspect. It was the flower and the fruitage of the civil and reli- 
gious liberty of the American republic. The age of Columbus was an age 
of creeds warring against each other to the death with all the appliances of 
war. It was an age when all races, almost, and all nations were arrayed 
against one another under their several kings. But to-day what was the 
spectacle ? The boys and the girls who were the children of the Gentile 
and of the Jew, who were the children of parents of every creed in Chris- 
tendom, and every 
creed outside of it, 
and of parents who 
had no creed, chil- 
dren who were the 
descendants of the 
peoples of every 
nation, marched 
under one flag, the 
flag of the United 
States; to one 
music, the music of 
nationality of the 
flag of the United 
States ; all in har- 
mony with the flag 
and with the music, 
growing up to be 
educated American 
citizens, no matter 
what might be their 
creed or their ori- 
gin. This Colum- 
bian year would be unworthy the celebrations which so grandly mark it if 
it could only exhibit a continent peopled with new civilization and rich in 
accumulated wealth ; it is the glory of the American evolution that its in- 
tellectual, its spiritual, its moral growth has been equal to its unparalleled 
material development. 

We have read in our morning papers the thought of the editor and of 
the preacher of yesterday, each of them discussing Columbus. I read them 
all after the procession. I found that the general result of the composite 
photograph is, that probably the poorest specimen of humanity who ever 




CONTRASTING THE SHIP OF FOUR CENTURIES AGO. 



NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 



337 




masqueraded as a hero 
or a discoverer was 
Christopher Columbus. 
I want to say right here 
and now that is not my 
view. If there is any- 
thing which I detest 
more than another, it 
is that spirit of critical 
historical inquiry which 
doubts everything; that 
modern spirit which 
destroys all the illu- 
sions and all the heroes which have been the inspiration of patriotism 
through all the centuries." 

On the fourth day of the celebration was witnessed a naval pageant 
upon the beautiful waters surrounding New York, which demonstrated 

Vol. XXVIII.-No. 5.-22 



1. THE "PHILADELPHIA." 

2. THE FRENCH WAR SHIP " HUEZARD." 

3. THE SPANISH " INFANTA ISABEL." 

4. THE ITALIAN FLAG-SHIP " BAUSAN." 

5. UNITED STATES MONITOR " MIANTONOMOH." 

[From photographs of the naval parade by Edward Learning, M.D.] 



338 NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 

the progress in naval architecture from the little caravels of the Columbus 
period to the great ocean ships of war and commerce, and the excursion 
steamers, barges, squadrons, fleets, and pleasure yachts of inland bays and 
rivers — a miracle of advance since 1492. Four nations were represented 
in the parade ; and it was said that more people were afloat on these 
countless vessels than were ever before seen afloat together by any Ameri- 
can eye, while over two million spectators gathered along the shores of 
the harbor and river to gaze in wonder or admiration. 

The advance guard of the marine procession was a broad line of some 
twenty-one tugs, stretching half across the mile-wide Hudson with an 
almost perfect alignment, as if a file of soldiers on parade ; they were 
manned by white-uniformed volunteers. Among the craft that followed 
the saucy-looking tugs, was conspicuous the torpedo boat dishing, on 
which was Commander Kane, and tiny steam yachts darted back and 
forth like winged birds, apparently distributing orders for the chief — a sin- 
gular contrast to the Indian canoes that for centuries monopolized these 
waters. They bore the aides of the commander, among whom were Gen- 
eral S. V. R. Cruger, James W. Beekman, Woodbury Kane, Archibald 
Rogers, Irving Grinnell, and many other well-known gentlemen. The 
great steamer Hoiuard Carroll, bearing a host of notables — a burden of 
eminence not easily described — seemed to parade all by herself in lordly 
grandeur. Then came three large steamers sailing abreast, the Sam Sloan, 
Mattcazvan, and Mohawk, on which was the Committee of One Hundred 
and their invited guests. An interval of open water was given for the 
gigantic war vessels of America, Spain, Italy and France, a column of 
stately men-of-war, the chief attraction in the pageant. They moved in 
three Indian files, the foreigners flanked by the white-hulled vessels of 
America. On their decks and bridges and in their lookouts were drawn 
up the various crews, looking like statues at a distance, so impassively did 
they hold their respective stations. Our flagship Philadelphia, of the 
white squadron, was on the right, with her high white hull, and her two 
yellow smokestacks. The trim despatch vessel Dolphin followed in her 
wake, and the long, low, dynamite projector Vesuvius, looking like a 
torpedo boat enlarged, brought up the rear. The place of honor in the 
centre was given to the French flagship Aretheusc, the largest of the 
foreign contingent, with her triple row of portholes and towering masts, 
effective for display, and behind her came her mate, the rakish white 
Huzzard. The Italian flagship, Bausan, is a big, black, stately ship of 
modern type, which was regarded on all sides with special admiration. 
The little Spanish cruiser Infanta Isabel proudly carried the colors of 



NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 339 

Columbus. On the left was the United States monitor Miantonomoh, our 
coast defender, which looks very much like a floating derrick, and bears 
promise of deadly work if it should be called into use. She was followed 
by the graceful Atlanta, one of our earliest group of steel vessels, and the 
little yacht-like Blake. 

Behind this majestic craft came the immense flotilla of merchant vessels, 
steamers, yachts, excursion boats, and fire-boats that lent spectacular 
interest to the scene by spouting great streams of water into the air as 
they sailed — streams that have force enough to knock down brick walls. 

Between the lines of this article must be found a chronicle of the series 
of salutes which made the earth tremble, and their echoes and swirls of 
smoke, the screeching of steam whistles, and the prolonged cheers of the 
human multitude. From the start to the finish there was no place where 
the pageant made such an impressive display as between the shores of the 
incomparable Hudson. It was a picture of the civilization of the nine- 
teenth century, too vast for a painter and inexpressible in words. From 
the vessels in the procession the spectacle was even more remarkable. No 
other city in the world has such a stretch of water-front as New York, and 
the space was all taken. The tops of the tall buildings were crowded with 
spectators, also the masts of vessels at anchor, the roofs of cars and boats, 
and every foot of shore along the whole route. Staten Island and New 
Jersey were not beholden to New York for a view, but occupied their own 
roofs and side-hills. Riverside Park, which is three miles long, afforded a 
continuous bluff that was thoroughly appreciated by thousands and thou- 
sands of sight-seers, while the handsome mansions on the park drive were 
generously thrown open to invited guests. When the war-ships came in 
front of Grant's tomb they anchored while the great procession of civic boats 
passed by, and at every mast-head floated the American ensign with all 
the colors of other nations denoting that the foreign vessels were taking part 
in a ceremonial that was American and national. The vessel which closed 
the procession was the Vamoose restraining her speed like a greyhound in 
leash. It was altogether a great display, and one of which New York may 
ever be justly proud. "The queen of the western waves sat by her waters 
in glory and in light all day, proud of the past and hopeful of the future." 

In the evening (October 11), the Catholic societies, almost thirty thou- 
sand strong, paraded the streets of the city in honor of Columbus, and 
were reviewed at Madison Square by Vice-President Morton, Archbishop 
Corrigan, Governor Flower, and others. Representing a vast religious 
body, they wished to do honor to the great discoverer who started out as 
much the missionary for Isabella the Catholic, as the explorer for Isabella 



340 NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 

the queen. They came as Americans to rejoice in the work of him who 
made America a possibility. Every company carried the stars and stripes. 
Some had the papal banner with tiara and keys ; some had banners with 
painted pictures and rich embroidery. In the procession there was a float 
which represented the Santa Maria with several Indians on board. Trans- 
parencies, embroidered banners, little flags and streamers were present in 
profusion. Some carried crosses emblazoned on silk, and some bore crosses 
of shining brass, but before all and over all floated the forty-four stars with 
the thirteen stripes. 

During the same evening hours a memorial meeting was held in Carr 
negie hall under the auspices of the Catholic Historical Society, which was 
largely attended. Judge Daly presided, opening the exercises with a short 
address, and Archbishop Corrigan, who was present for a short time, was 
introduced, and among many good things said, " New York Catholics are 
in a position to be proud of the celebration of the Columbus festival, as 
the credit of suggesting it came from them." He also said, "that through 
the kind disposition of the Holy See the very spot where Columbus first 
set foot on this continent lies now within the diocese of New York. We 
also are honored to-night by the presence of the delegate apostolic to 
San Domingo. So that New York Catholics now have both the spot 
where Columbus first landed and a representative of the spot where his 
remains are said to lie." Ex-Governor Carroll of Maryland addressed 
the meeting, and Mr. Coudert reviewed the life and achievements of 
Columbus. 

The fifth and last day of the celebration, like each of the preceding 
days, was notable for its fair skies, its balmy breezes, and its soft October 
sunshine. It was the day of promise for the people, all business being 
suspended, and the city one vast arena of gay banners and bewildering 
colors. Cannons and church-bells awoke the town at dawn, and every 
incoming boat and car thereafter brought hosts of men, women, and chil- 
dren. There had been stands enough erected in the squares along the 
six miles of the military parade to accommodate, it was said, sixty-four 
thousand persons, and nearly all of these seats had been sold and were 
occupied before nine o'clock. Business houses and private dwellings had 
stands for private convenience, and balconies, windows, and roofs were 
ingeniously turned to account. Truckmen at the street corners had 
erected upon their vehicles toboggan slides of prodigious height, and the 
seats on the slopes rose in price as the demand increased ; these extraor- 
dinary grand-stands blockaded all the cross-streets from Central Park to 
the Battery. Step ladders from the kitchens were brought into requisi- 



NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 



341 




THE SEVENTH REGIMENT IN THE COLUMBUS PARADE, OCTOBER 12, 1892. 

tion, and seats sold on them at twenty-five cents to a dollar apiece. Bar- 
rels and boxes provided standing places at a ruinous price. The crowds 
came in armies, yet nowhere upon the streets was there any sign of confu- 
sion. The individual elements disposed of themselves rapidly. A million 
people sat on narrow pine boards all day, their backs against the knees of 
the people in the next row, and their dollars in the pockets of the ticket 
speculators. Every inch of all the observation stands, little and big, high 
and low, long and short, broad and narrow, was packed. Another million 
sat or stood upon the sidewalks and in the streets. In the front rank were 
those who sat upon the curbstone, then the occupants of a row of camp 
stools and chairs ; next, a row of people standing up. Behind these were 
men and women in ranks ten deep, some holding small children in their 
arms, standing on soap boxes and on barrels ; and back of them the hope- 
less ones, pushed to the wall, and doomed to pass the day in obscurity and 
ignorance, save for the occasional crumbs of information dropped from 



342 NEW YORK S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 

some fortunate friend who could see the passing glories from his higher 
level. The buildings with their first stories hidden by the swarm of human 
beings looked as if they were rising out of a sea of faces. Every side 
street was packed with people fifty or one hundred deep, and getting to 
the front was like fighting for one's life. 

Before the procession appeared, a living torrent had poured into the 
channel of the street, in some mysterious way, and could not get out. A 
dense black mass darkened Murray Hill, eddied up and down for miles, 
and opposed the dismayed police with the helpless resistance of a peaceful 
mob. The human embankment along the curb was as unyielding as the 
Chinese wall. For every small boy who was pushed back into the lines a 
dozen more popped out. Women ran to get into some safe place, they 
knew not where, and were caught in the arms of the policemen and turned 
the other way, and driven on by the head of the glittering column. The 
patrolmen formed in rush lines and charged the crowd. The frequent 
spectacle of a stalwart officer leaning up against a laughing throng at an 
angle of forty-five degrees, and striving to dig his toes into the pavement 
in the effort to get a foothold, was unique if not dignified, and much to be 
preferred over the old style of waving clubs and threatening with fists. In 
the end the thoroughfare was cleared, probably by the one and only out- 
let at Fifty-ninth street, and for six long hours the tramp, tramp, tramp of 
the flower of the national soldiery was uninterrupted. The governors of 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut each rode at the head of the 
troops of his state, and were greeted with deafening applause on every 
side. The Grand Army division was followed by the postal clerks of the 
cities and the letter-carriers, who made a fine appearance. There was an 
endless variety of uniformed organizations of every character and type, 
swelling the grand total to sixty-five thousand men. 

New York is not unfamiliar with military pageants of equal or greater 
magnitude and interest, but never has one occurred under more favorable 
conditions or excited more patriotic enthusiasm. The people seemed to 
have taken charge of the demonstration, and in the spontaneous expression 
of poetic sentiment, as well as patriotism and gratitude, distanced the 
magnificent formal celebration prepared by the official committee to a 
degree little expected. Cheers constantly ascended into the air from 
thousands and thousands of throats, the treble of women and children 
asserting itself in the deeper roar of the men, while the waving of hats and 
of handkerchiefs presented a scene of indescribable vivacity and apprecia- 
tion. The procession swept on, and at four o'clock had reached the statue 
of Columbus in the great circle at Eighth avenue and Fifty-ninth street, to 



NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 



343 




1. PROCESSION PASSING EX-SECRETARY WHITNEY S 
MANSION. 

2. COLUMBIAN ARCH AT FIFTH AVENUE AND FIFTY- 
EIGHTH STREET. 

3. UNITED STATES ARTILLERY IN THE COLUMBUS 
PARADE. 

4. NAVAL RESERVE IN THE COLUMBUS PARADE. 

5. ARCH AT FIFTH AVENUE AND TWENTY-SECOND 

STREET. 



[From photographs 0/ the Columbus parade by Charles C. Hibbard.\ 



344 NEW York's great object lesson 

be at that hour unveiled and presented to the city of New York by the 
Italians. The divine blessing was invoked upon the gift by Archbishop 
Corrigan. President Barsotti, of the Italian committees, whose labors and 
generosity produced the monument, made a short address on behalf of the 
donors, and General di Cesnola spoke for the Italian citizens of the United 
States. He said : " The Italian residents and citizens in the United States 
are conscious that the true monument of Columbus is this grand land, its 
institutions, its prosperity, its blessings, and its lessons of advancement for 
all humanity. Yet the Italians have desired to testify, at least to the pres- 
ent generation, their full and unfailing sense of their great and peculiar 
debt. They have procured, in contributions great and small, but uniformly 
large in spirit, the execution of this monument, and have erected and pre- 
sented it in token of their affection and gratitude to this great and beloved 
country, the country in which they have found a permanent home, a more 
congenial form of government, and better and freer facilities generally to 
earn their livelihood." 

The people were ready for the evening parade, irrespective of the dis- 
comforts of the long day, and waited far into the night to see the historic 
floats, the vision of ages past, of great and gallant deeds on sea and land 
— the story, indeed, of the prehistoric age and the giant strides of progress 
since then in one brilliantly illuminated panoramic view. To describe it 
in one chapter would be even more difficult than the task imposed upon 
Secretary Foster at the dinner which closed the festivities on the follow- 
ing evening. He said, "To make the United States the subject of an 
after-dinner speech reminds one of the despair of the great philosopher 
Kant, when the versatile and would-be omniscient Madame de Stael 
demanded of him an explanation of his philosophy at an evening recep- 
tion, and how his despair was turned to disgust when, after patiently 
hearing him for ten minutes, she interrupted him by saying: ' That will 
do, that will do, I understand it all now.' ' There were innumerable feat- 
ures of this memorable object lesson in the metropolis which it would be 
interesting to chronicle, but lack of space forbids. Our chief concern is 
with salient facts, not details. It should be stated, however, that twenty- 
five hundred policemen handled the surging millions of spectators admir- 
ably, without the use of a club. And considering all the circumstances 
of the festival, it is a source of sincere congratulation that no serious acci- 
dents occurred to mar the pleasures of reminiscence. As a whole the 
exhibition will pass into history as one which in its peculiar characteristics 
could be seen only in the city which stands in the vanguard of human 
progress. The following words of Vice-President Morton are to the point : 



NEW YORK'S GREAT OBJECT LESSON 345 

"The opening pageant has been worthy of the great pilot and the 
great discoverer. It has been applauded by a countless audience of mil- 
lions of intelligent people, so vast that no other city of the New World, 
and few of the Old World, could administer to its care and protection. 
Our houses of worship testified for two days to the deep impression called 
forth by the occasion ; the army of children from the public schools, 
equipped only with the weapons of education, put in evidence our confi- 
dent hope in the future ; and the processional progress on land and water, 
by day and night, gave constant proof of the patriotism of all our people, 
of every kindred and tribe and tongue, of the capacity of self-control of 
these educated masses, and of the power and ingenuity of a great people. 
There were transported to our doors, with speed and comfort, vast num- 
bers of men and women and children, exceeding the population of most 
of the capitals of the world, by scientific methods of which Columbus 
never dreamed ; and during the watches of the night this cosmopolitan 
city, with its streets and avenues, its squares and arches, its dwellings and 
monuments, was illuminated as by fire, by electric inventions which are 
the products of the land which Columbus discovered. 

It is impressive from the events of the past five days that we have 
added a new holiday to the American calendar. The 12th of October 
will hereafter be 'marked with white.' We have instituted the Columbian 
festival, to be repeated at the expiration of each one hundred years to the 
furthermost limit of time by actors who will not have been witnesses of 
the preceding celebration." 

The celebrating spirit has passed on to other cities — even to the Pacific 
coast. It reached Chicago on the 21st of October. General Porter, in 
his witty speech at the Columbian dinner, alluded to the confusion of 
dates involving research into the Julian and Gregorian calendars, saying, 
" When we consider the day selected for the celebration in New York 
and the dates selected for the celebration of the event in Chicago, 
it leads us to the unquestioned belief that Columbus must have discov- 
ered New York on the 12th and Chicago on the 21st of October." Of 
patriotism he spoke in a strain of impassioned eloquence. " Patriotism 
must be taught to the young when the mind is impressionable. That is 
the reason I enjoyed more than all things else connected with these 
memorable celebrations the marching through the avenues of our city 
of that phalanx of school children, waving the proud emblem of their 
country's glory. It is such sights as these that teach the young that the 
flag of their country is not only a banner for holiday display, but that it 
is a proud emblem of dignity, authority, power." 



DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF LOUISIANA 

THE SIMPLE TRUTH MORE WONDERFUL THAN FAIRY TALES 

The history of Louisiana from its discovery to the present day reads 
like a romance. The discovery of America in 1492 by Columbus opens a 
new page in the history of heroic adventure and wonderful discoveries 
never before limned by the historian. Individual enterprise undertook and 
accomplished wonders which challenge human credulity. Among the young 
and ambitious adventurers who followed the banner of Pizarro in the con- 
quest of Peru and acquired riches from the sack of the empire of the Inca 
was Hernando de Soto. It is recorded that he insisted that Pizarro should 
release the Indian emperor on his promise that he would set him at liberty 
upon filling a room with gold and silver, amounting to fifteen million dol- 
lars. And he continued to win laurels and fortune until 1536, when he 
returned to Spain in his thirty-sixth year, with a half million, and married 
the lady of his youthful love. Soon he invested his fortune in an expedi- 
tion to Florida, and in 1541 landed on its coast, and traveling in a north- 
west direction struck the Mississippi river, as tradition claims, at Natchez, 
the first white man to gaze upon that majestic stream. Following up the 
river for a week, he crossed and followed the west bank to the mouth 
of the Arkansas, thence up White river to the Ozark mountains, and win- 
tered in 1 541 in the county of Newton in Missouri, where the evidences 
of their mining still exist. The lead mines of Granby were taken by the 
Spaniards for silver, but on the discovery of the error they went south and 
discovered the hot springs of Arkansas, and believed they had found the 
famous fountain of youth which had lured Ponce de Leon to his ruin. 
Passing to the mouth of Red river, De Soto died, and was buried in the 
bosom of the great father of waters, at night, by his followers, who 
designed to impose upon the ignorant natives by pretending that De 
Soto was a divine being and had voluntarily gone to a celestial abode. 
The expedition was wrecked, and but few ever returned to recount the 
story of their wanderings, and only detached narratives are saved amid 
the historical records of Spain, from which we catch a few glimpses of the 
principal figures. Not enough was known to give Spain a title to the vast 
region entitled Louisiana, which was first seen by De Soto. It was left 
for French enterprise to rediscover and outline in vague shape the Missis- 



DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF LOUISIANA 



347 



sippi and the vast empire washed by its waters, and thus the French 
became the original owners of the territory of Louisiana. 

In 1554 the French had settled Canada, and voyagers and trappers had 




Ci^ 



,~— "~ -V J»»-rr--- 



: u: 






-V-/ 



,y 



;y 



gradually conciliated the Mohawks and Iroquois, and extended their dis- 
coveries to the great lakes and the sources of the Ohio river. In 1673 
the governor of Canada sent an expedition to find the Mississippi river, 



348 DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF LOUISIANA 

commanded by Louis Joliet, who was accompanied by Father. Marquette. 
They passed Green bay and carried their canoes to the Wisconsin river, 
and on June 17, 1673, reached the Mississippi. They passed down to 
Davenport bluffs and held a treaty, then descended to the mouth of the 
Arkansas, and being disappointed in the course of the river, which did 
not run into the Pacific ocean as they had hoped, they returned to the 
shores of Lake Michigan, where Marquette died in 1675. 

In 1680 La Salle and Hennepin guided an expedition to the Misiss- 
sippi river, and Hennepin claimed to have descended it from the falls of 
St. Anthony to the mouth of the Arkansas. In 1682 La Salle resumed 
the exploration and reached the Gulf of Mexico, calling the Mississippi the 
St. Louis river, and the Missouri, St. Philip. They returned by the Illinois 
river to the lakes. Returning to France in 1684, La Salle sailed with four 
ships for the mouth of the Mississippi, but landed at Matagorda bay, many 
miles west, and his expedition failed by bad management ; yet by the end 
of the century many Frenchmen had settled on the river and at Mobile. 

Louisiana as claimed by the French included the country from Mobile 
bay west to Matagorda, the Mississippi from its mouth to the Alle- 
ghanies, and west beyond the Mississippi and Missouri rivers to the Rocky 
mountains. In 1712 a grant was made of this domain by the French king 
to Anthony Crozat, who established laws and regulations for governing the 
province; but being disappointed in finding gold, he relinquished the grant 
in 1717, after building some forts and founding New Orleans. It was then 
granted to the celebrated John Law, so famous as the originator of the 
Mississippi bubble, which wrecked thousands of fortunes, as it was a joint 
stock company, of which the shares reached fabulous prices in a short time 
and descended rocket-like in smoke. The company sent out Renault and 
La Motte, who opened the lead mines at St. Francis and Potosi in Mis- 
souri, that are worked to the present time, and have yielded vast amounts 
of lead. In 17 19 the Spaniards sent an armed force from Santa Fe to dis- 
possess the French, but it was annihilated by Indians acting as friends. 

In 1732 Law's grant was abrogated and Louisiana declared free for 
trade and settlement to all French subjects. Small trading establish- 
ments were made at several points west of the river, but mostly in Illinois; 
in 1762 St. Charles was settled, and in 1764 La Cledc settled St. Louis. 

In 1763 the entire country known as Louisiana was ceded by Louis XV. 
to Spain. Among other provisions of this secret gift was one by which 
the French king ceded to England " everything possessed by him on the 
left side of the river Mississippi, except the town of New Orleans and the 
island on which it stands." The French settlers did not suffer under this 



DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF LOUISIANA 



349 



transfer of owners, as the French commandant d'Aubry continued to act 
as governor until 1770, when Count O'Reilly, the Spanish governor of New 
Orleans, arrived August 17, 1769.* The country remained under a mild 
Spanish rule, with occasional wars with Indian tribes, until 1800, when it 
was restored by treaty to France; and in 1803 the great Napoleon sold it 




THE DUKE DE CHOISEUL, I7I9-I785. 

\_From a very rare print. .] 

for fifteen million dollars to the United States. The settlements west of 
the Mississippi were largely French, and they hailed with great joy the 

* The French settlers of Louisiana held a general meeting of deputies in New Orleans, hop- 
ing that an embassy to Louis would make a dead letter of the remarkable treaty of cession, and 
appointed and sent two delegates to Paris. The Duke de Choiseul, prime minister of the French 
king, received them graciously, frankly told them the colony must submit, for Spain would never 
give up Louisiana, and dismissed them with a smile and a bow. 



35© DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF LOUISIANA 

return to French sovereignty in 1800; and although disappointed at the 
transfer to the United States, the consolation of escaping English rule, and 
the advent of the Anglo-Saxon, with his broad views of personal liberty, 
soon reconciled them, especially as their rights were fully protected by the 
treaty. Augustus Choteau had established a large trade in Indian goods 
and furs, which at the commencement of this century extended to the 
upper Missouri with the Loups on the Big Platte and the Omahas and 
Sioux as far as Yankton, and thus rendered the expedition of Lewis and 
Clarke in 1804 much easier to accomplish. The Spaniards left no impress 
upon any part of the vast country ceded to them in 1663, unless we except 
a few Spanish grants of lands made by the governors between 1771 and 
1800, which have been fully recognized by the government and the courts. 

The success of the American revolution and the treaty of 1783, by 
which the United States acquired all the possessions granted to England, 
east of the Mississippi river, and as far north as the lakes, doubtless 
saved the settlers of Louisiana from bloody incursions, if not destruc- 
tion, by the English and Indians in their pay. During the wars of the 
French revolution, from 1800 to 1803, such posts as Kaskaskia, Vincennes, 
and others would, if garrisoned by the British, have furnished nucleus for 
many expeditions of soldiery, as well as the means of exciting and arous- 
ing the Indian tribes west of the river. It is, however, a fact to be won- 
dered at that the French in Canada and all along the Mississippi assimi- 
lated with the savages better than any other nation of Europeans and had 
fewer wars with them. The spirit of bonhomie and bon vivant, so char- 
acteristic of the Frenchman, seemed to reach a chord in the savage 
nature that responded to his proffers of amity. 

The French conveyed to us all their claims of territory to the Stony 
mountains, and indefinitely to the Pacific ocean, which was then a vague 
terra incognita to be fixed afterwards by treaties and conventions. In 1804 
Louisiana was divided into two territories called Orleans and Missouri, the 
line being the southern line of Arkansas. This acquisition now contains 
fourteen states and three territories and nearly twenty millions of people, 
with billions of wealth and possibilities beyond prophetic ken. It has thus 
distanced the wildest tales of mediaeval romance and discounted the 
records of ancient or modern history. 



St. Joseph, Mo. 





OUR COUNTRY AND COLUMBUS 

BY PHILIP FRENEAU, I79O 

This American world, all our histories say, 
Secluded from Europe, long centuries lay, 
And peopled by beings whom white men detest, 
The sons of the Tartars that came from the west. 

No priests had they then for the cure of their souls, 
No lawyers, recorders, or keepers of rolls ; 
No learned physicians vile nostrums concealed — 
Their druggist was Nature — her shop was the field. 

In the midst of their forests how happy and blest, 

In the skin of a bear or buffalo drest ! 

No care to perplex, and no luxury seen 

But the feast, and the song, and the dance on the green. 

Some bowed to the moon, some worshiped the sun, 
And the king and the captain were centered in one; 
In a cabin they met, in the councils of state, 
Where age and experience alone might debate. 

Thus happy they dwelt in a rural domain, 
Uninstructed in commerce, unpracticed in gain, 
'Till, taught by the loadstone to traverse the seas, 
Columbus came over, that bold Genoese. 

From records authentic, the date we can shew, 
One thousand four hundred and ninety and two 
Years, born by the seasons, had vanished away, 
Since the babe in the manger at Bethlehem lay. 

Yet the schemes of Columbus, however well planned, 
Were scarcely sufficient to find the mainland ; 
On the islands alone with the natives he spoke, 
Except when he entered the great Oronoque : 



352 



OUR COUNTRY AND COLUMBUS 



In this he resembled old Moses, the Jew, 
Who roving about with his wrong-headed crew, 
When at length the rezvard was no longer denied, 
From the top of Mount Pisgah he saw it, and died. 




PHILII' FRENEAl' 
THE POET OF THE REVOLUTION 

[From a valuable print in possession of Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet] 



These islands and worlds in the watery expanse, 
Like most mighty things, were the offspring of chance; 
Since steering for Asia, Columbus they say, 
Was astonished to find such a world in his way ! 



QUAKERS IN PENNSYLVANIA 

The Quakers were quick to perceive the vanity underlying most of the 
customs and habits prevalent in their day, hence their determined opposi- 
tion. For titles and worldly honors generally, they always entertained 
special aversion. An instance is on record where William Penn was once 
accosted as Lord Penn in the colony of Pennsylvania. To evidence its 
great displeasure the assembly promptly ordered the practice to be dis- 
continued, and a fine was imposed on the transgressor, presumably to 
stimulate his memory in the future. When addressing Charles II., Penn 
never referred to him as " His Majesty," but always as "■Friend Charles;" 
and the king, either in his characteristic spirit of levity or mockery, styled 
the son of the admiral as " Friend William." 

The Quakers even discarded the use of the ordinary master or sir in 
conversation and correspondence. They contended that the Bible no- 
where contained any such expression as " My Lord Peter" or " My Lord 
Paul." They honored "all men in the Lord," but "not in the fashion of 
this world that passeth away." When William Penn became a convert 
to Quakerism, he positively refused to take off his hat to anyone. His 
courtly father, being exceedingly provoked at what he deemed such un- 
reasonable conduct, tried to conciliate the youthful proselyte. He pro- 
posed a compromise, that his son should only uncover his head before 
three persons; to wit, the king, the duke of York, and last but by no means 
least, the admiral himself. Yet even this apparently innocent concession 
William positively declined to make. He declined to remove his hat even 
in the presence of his father, because, as Mr. Graham expresses it, "he 
refused to lay a single grain of incense on what he deemed an unhallowed 
altar of human arrogance and vanity." It is related that George III., when 
he granted an audience to the Quakers, took care to save his honor, and 
at the same time to spare his own royal feelings, by stationing at the door 
of his chamber an extra groom, whose sole duty it was to remove the hats 
of the visitors as they approached the monarch. Such, indeed, was the 
obstinacy of the Friends in retaining their head gear, that one writer, in 
evident exasperation, declared that "their virtue lies in their hats, as 
Sampson's did in his hair." 

The Quakers rejected the custom of saying good night, good morning, 
good day, or passing the other ordinary compliments of the season. Penn 

Vol. XXVIII.-No. 5.-23 



354 QUAKERS IN PENNSYLVANIA 

excused such behavior by alleging that " they knew the night was good and 
the day was good without wishing of either." The members of the society 
always recommended silence by example as well as by precept. They 
rarely employed more words than were absolutely necessary to convey the 
intended meaning. Penn earnestly advised his brethren and sisters in the 
faith to " avoid company where it is not profitable or necessary ; and on 
those occasions speak little ; silence is wisdom, where speaking is folly." 
Attempts at ornamentation were viewed with grave suspicion, because they 
were deemed frivolous, and anything partaking of this nature, the Quaker 
believed to be injurious. The houses of the Friends were generally very 
plain, and almost entirely innocent of any sort of adornment or ostentation. 
Pictures for the decoration of their dwellings were used but sparingly. 
Wall paper was introduced, under protest, about the year 1790. Antece- 
dent to this date, the reign of whitewash had been universal. Carpets 
were deemed an undesirable luxury, for fresh sand was considered more 
healthful. But in the march of progress carpets had to come, and the year 
1750 is given in the books as that of their advent. Sewell mentions a case 
where one gentleman, in his desire for simplicity, even banished from his 
fireside the luxury of a pair of tongs, and substituted the primitive imple- 
ment of a cloven stick. 

Juridical procedure among the Quakers was both curious and instruc- 
tive. When the members of the society disagreed they seldom scolded or 
went to law. All their disputes were adjusted by what we call, in the 
language of administration, boards of arbitration. These peace commis- 
sioners, so to speak, arranged all difficulties arising between the Europeans 
and the Indians, as well as settling altercations between the colonists them- 
selves. Agesilaus, the famous king of Sparta, being asked on one occa- 
sion, "What ought children to learn?" quickly responded, "That which 
they ought to practice when they become men." With this opinion 
Penn's belief coincided exactly. At an early period in his administration 
of the Quaker colony he ordered that "all children within this province, of 
the age of twelve years, shall be taught some useful trade or skill to the 
end none may be idle, but the poor may work to live, and the rich if they 
become poor may not want." In his frame of government, Penn declared 
that a committee on manners, education, and art should be appointed, so 
that all " wicked and scandalous living may be prevented, and that youth 
may be trained up in virtue and useful arts and knowledge." As early as 
1683, an educational institution was established for the instruction of the 
children of the colonists. In 1689 the Quakers opened another school for 
"all children and servants, male and female — the rich at reasonable rates; 



QUAKERS IN PENNSYLVANIA 355 

the poor for nothing." George Keith was made principal of this founda- 
tion, and was assisted by a certain Thomas Makin, who, the records in- 
form the reader, was "a good Latinist." The plan of instruction was 
similar to that of an ordinary modern grammar school, with the exception 
that its curriculum included " the learned languages." It was entirely 
supported by the Friends, but representatives of all denominations were 
magnanimously permitted to share its advantages. 

With trivial exceptions the Quakers anathematized music in general, 
and denounced it as invariably corrupting in its tendencies. As early as 
the year 1536 the English Puritans presented a formal protestation to 
their king, emphatically declaring " the playing at the organyes a foolish 
vanity." Fox unhesitatingly affirms — and the majority of the inhabitants 
of Pennsylvania coincided perfectly in the opinion — " I was moved to cry 
against all kinds of music, for it burdeneth the pure life." In the opinion 
of the Quakers the saints alone might sing praise to God (in their worship). 
Concerning the wicked and the unregenerate, the society had an abiding 
belief that it would be more appropriate for them to " howl for their sins." 

There are certain constant factors in almost every community — namely, 
marriage and giving in marriage. Cupid exhibited as much activity in 
the Quaker colony as he did in other portions of the terrestrial globe. At 
the time, however, of which we write, bashfulness and modesty in youth 
were regarded as ornaments, nay even as great virtues. " Young lovers," 
says Watson, "then listened and took sidelong glances when before their 
parents or elders." Marriage among the Friends was a very important 
institution, and weddings in the early times were always the occasions of 
great festivity. The matches appear to have arisen solely from incli- 
nation. " Never marry but for love," was William Penn's advice to 
all, " but see that thou lovest what is lovely." The Quakers, moreover, 
gave considerable publicity to the celebration of marriage. Before the 
union could be consummated, the intentions of the persons concerned 
were promulgated by affixing a declaration to that effect on the court- 
house or meeting-house door; and when the act was finally solemnized at 
least twelve subscribing witnesses had to be present. In regard to the 
ceremony, it was a simple form of marriage in the meeting of their own 
society. The priest and the ring were discarded as being utterly heathen- 
ish. The Friends, in the language of George Fox, declared, " We marry 
none, but are witnesses of it ; marriage being God's joining, not man's." 
Penn said the Quakers believed " that marriage is an ordinance of God, and 
that God only can rightly join men and women in marriage." The paper 
that the engaged lovers submitted to the society was about as follows: 



356 QUAKERS IN PENNSYLVANIA 

t 

" We, the subscribers, A. B., son of C. and U. B. ; and F. G., daughter of 
H. and I. G., purpose taking each other in marriage, which we hereby 
offer for the approbation of Friends." Then followed the signatures of 
the contracting individuals. If no sufficient reasons were discovered for 
preventing the union, the hymeneal ceremony was performed at the 
appointed time. The company usually assembled early in the morning, 
remained to dinner, possibly even to supper. For two entire days it was 
customary to deal out refreshments with a lavish hand to all who honored 
the family with their presence. The gentlemen congratulated the groom 
on the first floor of the dwelling, and then ascended to the second story, 
where they wished future felicity to the blushing bride, and she was com- 
pelled by the unwritten law of the time to undergo the ordeal of being 
kissed by all the male visitors. 

It is somewhat astonishing when we reflect that the Quakers, strenu- 
ously opposed, as they unquestionably were, to all sorts of frivolity and 
ceremony, ever submitted to such veritable nuisances as these weddings 
soon turned out to be. The annalist, Watson, relates on credible author- 
ity, that it was nothing uncommon for families in affluent circumstances 
to have " one hundred and twenty persons to dine, the same who had 
signed their certificate of marriage at the monthly meeting. These," he 
adds, "also partook of tea and supper." At first these elaborate cere- 
monies were accepted, if not without question, certainly without expressed 
opposition. Finally, however, the good Friends revolted from all this 
worldly excitement and round of festivity. Such frivolities were rele- 
gated to the limbo of exploded vanities, and matrimonial alliances were 
attended with no other ceremony than that of the parties taking each 
other by the hand in public meeting and avowing their willingness to enter 
the connubial state, and the marriage certificate was registered in the 
record book. 

No mourning was ever worn for departed friends. Crape was ac- 
counted as especially heathenish, and not in accordance with biblical pre- 
cepts. Even the casket was denied its usual black covering. No vaults 
were used. Tombstones were also rejected. They were considered an 
especial abomination. 

In some respects the Philadelphia of that period reminds the historical 
student of Geneva at the time of Calvin. After nine o'clock at night, the 
officers — at first all private citizens serving in succession — inspected the 
town, and no inhabitant thereof was permitted to remain at any ordinary 
(the ancient word for inn or hotel) after that hour without good and suffi- 
cient reason. Originally the Quakers prescribed no particular style of 



QUAKERS IN PENNSYLVANIA 357 

dress; for, in their judgment, it was "no vanity to use what the country 
naturally produced," and they reproved nothing but that extravagance in 
raiment which " all sober men of all sorts readily grant to be evil." Wigs 
were at that period a la mode, and even the inhabitants of Pennsylvania 
succumbed to the seductive influences of that worldly custom. In the 
year 1719, a prominent Quaker, in ordering his wearing apparel, writes, 
" I want for myself and my three sons, each a wig — light, gud bobs." 
Even Franklin, disdainful as he was of display and artificiality, wore a 
tremendous horse-hair wig. And Penn's private expense book reveals the 
startling fact that even the proprietory of the province indulged in these 
vanities to the extent of four wigs per annum. 

In early times, too, the Quaker women wore their colored silk aprons 
as did the aristocratic ladies of other denominations. And the wealthy 
arrayed themselves in white satin petticoats embroidered with flowers, and 
pearl satin gowns with peach-colored cloaks of the same material. Their 
white and shapely necks were ornamented with delicate lawn or lace, and 
also with charms. In course of time white aprons were discarded by the 
elite, and then the Friends abandoned colors and adopted white. The 
Quaker ladies also wore immense beaver hats, which had scarcely any 
crown, and were fastened to the head by silken cords tied in a bewitching 
bow under the chin. This was the so-called skimming dish hat. The 
Quaker dress, however, gradually assumed a more subdued form. 

In the year 1771, the first umbrellas made their appearance in Phila- 
delphia, and were scouted by the more conservative as ridiculous affecta- 
tion. Afterwards, when the important character of their services was 
more fully understood and appreciated, their reception was decidedly 
more cordial. — Extracts from the monograph by Albert C. Applegarth, 
Ph.D., Quakers in Pennsylvania, Johns Hopkins University Studies. 



MEMOIR ON THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 

THE FIRST CRITICISM WRITTEN IN THE UNITED STATES 

Letter from Otto, Count de Mosloy, to Dr. Franklin * 

New York, April i, 1786. 
Sir: 

Almost all the authors who have written upon the discovery of 
America make mention of some information which Columbus procured 
at Madeira, upon the existence of a western continent ; but they do not 
tell us positively how far this information assisted him, or from what 
source he derived it. I have always been curious to clear up this interest- 
ing part of history ; and in running over many ancient historians, as 
well German as Spanish, I have found some circumstances which have 
appeared to me to establish, in the clearest manner, a discovery anterior 
to that of Columbus. I have the honor to send you the result of my 
enquiries, and if you think this piece worthy of being submitted to the 
consideration of the Philosophical Society, I beg you to present it to 
them as a mark of my homage, and of the desire which I have of being 
of some service. 

I have the honor to be, with respectful attachment, your Excellency's 
humble and most obedient servant, 

Otto 
To His Excellency, Dr. Franklin 

the piece 

It has always been looked upon as a piece of injustice not to have 
given the name of Columbus to that valuable part of the world which he 
discovered; and that Americanus Vespucius, who did nothing but follow 
his footsteps, has had the good fortune of having his name handed down 
to the most distant posterity, to the prejudice of his predecessor. What 
then will be said if it shall be proved that neither of those celebrated 
navigators were the first discoverers of this immense country, and that 
this honor belongs to a man scarcely known in the republic of letters? 

* Otto, Count cie Mosloy, of the French legation to the United States, was a man of much 
learning, many accomplishments, and charming social qualities. His piece was read before the 
Philosophical Society, April 7, 1786, and printed in the Transactions, Vol. II., 1786. 



MEMOIR ON THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 359 

I shall not here enter into an examination of the reveries of some his- 
torians on the voyages of the Carthaginians, the Atlantis of Plato, the 
bold expedition of Madoc, prince of Wales and son of Owen Guinnedd, 
of which Hackluyt has preserved some account, nor on the voyage of 
Bacchus, or the land Ophir of Solomon. Conjectures of this kind, whether 
true or false, could not lessen the glory of Columbus, were there not proof 
that he received, just before his expedition, the charts and journal of a 
learned astronomer who had been in America. 

Garcilasso de la Vega, born at Cuzco in Peru, has given us a history of 
his country, in which to take from Columbus the merit of the discovery 
of America, and give the honor of it to the Spaniards ; he assures us that 
this navigator had been informed of the existence of another continent by 
Alonzo Sanchez de Huelva, who, in his voyage to the Canaries, had been 
driven by a gale of wind to the Antilles ; but that his chief information 
was procured from a celebrated geographer of the name of Martin Behen- 
ira. Garcilasso says nothing more of this Behenira; and since we know 
of no Spanish geographer of this name, Garcilasso has been suspected of 
making a sacrifice of truth to the desire of wresting from a Genoese the 
glory of discovering the new world. 

On looking over, with attention, a list of all the learned men of the 
fifteenth century, I find the name of Martin Behem, a famous geographer 
and navigator. The Christian name is the same with that mentioned by 
Garcilasso, and I find that the syllables ira, added to his name, are owing 
to a particular circumstance: namely, the honor conferred on him by 
John II., king of Portugal. It is then possible that this Martin Behem 
is the same person as Martin Behenira mentioned by Garcilasso ; but this 
vague conjecture will receive the stamp of truth by the following detail. 
The literary history of Germany gives an account of Martin Behem, 
Beheim, or Behin, who was born at Nuremberg, an imperial city of the 
circle of Franconia, of a noble family, some branches of which are yet 
extant. He was much addicted to the study of geography, astronomy, 
and navigation, from his infancy. At a more mature age he often thought 
on the possibility of the existence of the antipodes and of a western con- 
tinent. Filled with this great idea, he paid a visit in 1459 to Isabella, 
daughter of John I., king of Portugal and regent of the duchy of Burgundy 
and Flanders. Having informed her of his designs, he procured a vessel, 
in which he made the discovery of the island of Fayal in 1460. He there 
established a colony of Flemings, whose descendants yet exist in the 
Azores ; which were for some time called the Flemish islands. This cir- 
cumstance is proved not only by the writings of cotemporary authors, .but 



360 MEMOIR ON THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 

also by the manuscript preserved in the records of Nuremberg, from which 
the following is copied : " Martin Behem tendered his services to the 
daughter of John, king of Lusitania, who reigned after the death of Philip 
of Burgundy, surnamed the Good, and from her procured a ship, by means 
of which, having sailed beyond all the then known limits of the western 
ocean, he was the first who, in the memory of man, discovered the island 
of Fayal, abounding with beech trees, which the people of Lusitania call 
faye ; whence it derived its name. After this he discovered the neigh- 
boring islands, called by one general name the Azores, from the multitude 
of hawks which build their nests there (for the Lusitanians use this term 
for hawks, and the French too use the word Effos or Eforrs in their pur- 
suit of this game), and left colonies of the Flemish on them, when they 
began to be called Flemish islands, etc." Although this record is contrary 
to the generally received opinion that the Azores were discovered by 
Gonsalva Velho, a Portuguese, yet its authenticity cannot be doubted ; it 
is confirmed by several cotemporary writers, and especially by Wagenceil, 
one of the most learned men of the last century ; who, after having trav- 
elled into Africa and throughout all Europe, was made doctor of laws at 
Orleans and chosen fellow of the academy of Turin and Padua, although 
he was a German by birth. The particulars are to be found in his uni- 
versal history and geography. I have, moreover, received from the records 
of Nuremberg a note written in German, on parchment, which contains the 
following facts : " Martin Behem, esquire, son of Mr. Martin Behem of 
Schroperin, lived in the reign John II., king of Portugal, on an island 
which he discovered, and called the island of Fayal, one of the Azores, lying 
in the western ocean." 

After having obtained from the regent Isabella a grant of Fayal, and 
resided there about twenty years, during which time he was busied in 
making fresh discoveries in geography, by small excursions, which need 
not be mentioned, Behem applied in 1484 (which was eight years before 
Columbus' expedition) to John II., king of Portugal, to procure the means 
of undertaking a great expedition towards the southwest. This prince 
gave him some ships with which he discovered that part of America which 
is now called Brazil ; and he even sailed to the straits of Magellan, or to 
the country of some savage tribes, whom he called Patagonians, from the 
extremities of their bodies being covered with a skin more like a bear's 
paws than human hands and feet. This fact is proved by authentic 
records, preserved in the archives of Nuremberg. 

One of which in particular deserves attention : " Martin Behem, travers- 
ing the Atlantic Ocean for several years, examined the American islands, 



MEMOIR ON THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 361 

and discovered the strait which bears the name of Magellan, before either 
Columbus or Magellan sailed those seas; and even mathematically deline- 
ated on a geographical chart for the king of Lusitania the situation of the 
coast around every part of that famous and renowned strait." This asser- 
tion is supported by Behem'sown letters, written in German and preserved 
in the archives of Nuremberg, in a book which contains the birth and illus- 
trious actions of the nobility of that city. These letters are dated in i486; 
that is, six years before the expedition of Columbus. This wonderful dis- 
covery has not escaped the notice of cotemporary writers. The following 
passage is extracted from the chronicle of Hartman Schedl : " In the year 
1485, John the second, king of Portugal, a man of a magnanimous spirit, 
furnished some galleys with provisions, and sent them to the southward, 
beyond the straits of Gibraltar. He gave the command of this squadron 
to James Canns, a Portuguese, and Martin Behem, a German, of Nurem- 
berg, in Upper Germany, descended of the family of Bonna, a man very 
well acquainted with the situation of the globe, blessed with a constitution 
able to bear the fatigues of the sea, and who by actual experiments and 
long sailing had made himself perfectly master with regard to the longi- 
tudes and latitudes of Ptolemy, in the west. These two, by the bounty of 
heaven, coasting along the southern ocean, and having crossed the equa- 
tor, got into the other hemisphere, where facing to the eastward their 
shadows projected towards the south and right hand. Thus, by their 
industry, they may be said to have opened to us another world, hitherto' 
unknown, and for many years attempted by none but the Genoese, and by 
them in vain. Having finished this cruise in the space of twenty-six 
months, they returned to Portugal, with the loss of many of their seamen, 
by the violence of the climate." 

This passage becomes more interesting, from being quoted in a book 
on the state of Europe during the reign of the emperor Frederick III., by 
the learned historian yEneas Sylvius, afterward pope Pius II. This his- 
torian died before the discoveries of Behem were made, but the publishers 
of his works thought the passage in Hartman Schedl so important that 
they inserted it in the history. We also find the following particulars in 
the remarks made by Petrus Mataeus, on the canon law, two years before 
the expedition of Columbus: "The first Christian voyages to the newly- 
discovered islands became frequent under the reign of Henry, son of John, 
king of Lusitania. After his death, Alphonsus the fifth prosecuted the 
design, and John who succeeded him followed the plan of Alphonsus, by 
the assistance of Martin Boehm, a very experienced navigator, so that in 
a short time the name of Lusitania became famous over the whole world." 



362 MEMOIR ON THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 

Cellarius, one of the most learned men of his age, says expressly: " Boehm 
did not think it enough to survey the island of Fayal, which he first dis- 
covered, or the other adjacent islands which the Lusitanians call Azores, 
and we after the example of Boehm" s companions call Flemish islands ; but 
advanced still farther and farther south, until he arrived at the remotest 
strait, beyond which Ferdinand Magellan, following his tract, afterwards 
sailed and called it after his own name." 

All these quotations, which cannot be thought tedious, since they serve 
to prove a fact almost unknown, seem to demonstrate that the first dis- 
covery of America is due to the Portuguese, and not to the Spaniards ; 
and that the chief merit belongs to a German astronomer. The expedi- 
tion of Ferdinand Magellan, which did not take place before the year 15 19, 
arose from the following fortunate circumstance. This person, being in 
the apartment of the king of Portugal, saw there a chart of the coast of 
America, drawn by Behem, and at once conceived the bold project of fol- 
lowing the steps of this great navigator. Jerome Benzon, who published 
a description of America in 1550, speaks of this chart, a copy of which, 
sent by Behem himself, is preserved in the archives of Nuremberg. The 
celebrated astronomer Riccioli, though an Italian, does not seem willing 
to give his countryman the honor of this important discovery. In his 
geography reformed, book iii., page 90, he says: " Christopher Columbus 
never thought of an expedition to the West Indies until some time before, 
while in the island of Madeira, where, amusing himself in forming and 
delineating geographical charts, he obtained information from Martin 
Boehm, or, as the Spaniards say, from Alphonsus Sanchez de Huelva, a 
pilot, who by mere chance had fallen in with the island afterwards called 
Dominica." And in another place : " Let Boehm and Columbus have each 
their praise, they were both excellent navigators; but Columbus would 
never have thought of his expedition to America had not Boehm gone 
there before him. His name is not so much celebrated as that of Colum- 
bus, Americus, or Magellan, although he is superior to them all." 

But the most positive proof of the great services rendered to the 
crown of Portugal by Behem is the recompense bestowed on him by king 
John, who in 1485 knighted him in the most solemn manner, in the pres- 
ence of all his court. I have before me a German paper extracted from 
the archives of Nuremberg to the following purpose. " In the year 1485, 
on the 18th of February, in Portugal, in the city of Allasavas, and in the 
church of St. Salvador, after the mass, Martin Behem of Nuremberg was 
made a knight by the hands of the most puissant lord, John the second, 
king of Portugal, Algarve, Asrica, and Guinea; and his chief squire was 



MEMOIR ON THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 363 

the king himself, who put the sword in his belt ; and the duke of Begia 
was his second squire, who put on his right spur; and his third squire was 
count Christopher de Mela, the king's cousin, who put on his left spur; 
and his fourth squire was count Martin Marlarinis who put on his iron 
helmet; and the king himself gave him the blow on the shoulder, which 
was done in the presence of all the princes, lords, and knights of the king- 
dom : and he espoused the daughter of a great lord, in consideration of 
the important services he had performed, and he was made governor of 
the island of Fayal." These marks of distinction conferred on a stranger, 
could not be meant as a recompense for the discovery of the Azores, which 
was made twenty years before ; but as a reward for the discovery of 
Congo, from whence the chevalier Behem had brought gold and different 
kinds of precious wares. This discovery made much greater impression 
than that of a western world, made at the same time, but it neither in- 
creased the wealth of the royal treasury, nor satisfied the avarice of the 
merchants. 

In 1492 the chevalier Behem, crowned with honors and riches, under- 
took a journey to Nuremberg, to visit his native country and his family. 
He there made a terrestrial globe, which is looked on as a master-piece 
for that time, and which is still preserved in the library of that city. The 
tract of his discoveries may there be seen under the name of western 
lands, and from their situation it cannot be doubted that they are the 
present coasts of Brazil and the environs of the straits of Magellan. This 
globe was made in the same year that Columbus set out on his expedition, 
from whence it is not possible that Behem could have profited by the 
works of this navigator, who, besides, went a much more northerly course. 

After having performed several other interesting voyages, Behem died 
at Lisbon in July, 1506, regretted by everybody, but leaving behind him 
no other work than the globe which we have just been speaking of. It is 
made from the writings of Ptolemy, Pliny, Strabo, and especially from 
the account of Mark Paul the Venetian, a celebrated traveller of the thir- 
teenth century, and of John Mandeville, an Englishman, who, about the 
middle of the fourteenth century, published an account of a journey of 
thirty-three years in Africa and Asia. He has also added the important 
discoveries made by himself on the coasts of Africa and America. 

From these circumstantial accounts, little known to modern writers, 
we must conclude that Martin Behenira, of whom Garcilasso makes men- 
tion, is the same chevalier Behem, upon being the place of whose birth 
Nuremberg prides so much. It is probable that, as soon as he was 
knighted in Portugal, he thought it necessary to give a Portuguese ter- 



364 MEMOIR ON THE DISCOVERY. OF AMERICA 

initiation to his name, to make it more sonorous and more conformable 
to the idiom of the country. Garcilasso, deceived by this resemblance of 
sound, has made him a Spaniard, in order to deprive Columbus of the 
honor of having procured to his country so great an advantage. And 
what ought to confirm us in this opinion is, that we neither find in Mari- 
ana nor any other Spanish historian the name of this Martin Behenira, 
who was certainly a man of too much importance not to have had a dis- 
tinguished place in history. Besides, the Spanish pride would have been 
flattered in giving to a native those laurels with which it crowned 
Columbus. 

It is, then, very unlikely that this navigator was treated as an enthusi- 
ast when he offered to the court of Portugal to make discoveries in the 
west. The search after unknown countries was at that time the reigning 
passion of this court ; and even if Behem had not offered the interesting 
ideas which he had procured, the novelty of the project had undoubtedly 
engaged king John to give in to the views of Columbus ; but it appears 
that this prince declined it, because all his thoughts were turned at that 
time to the coast of Africa, and the new passage to the Indies, from 
whence he promised himself great riches ; whilst the southern coast of 
Brazil and the territories of the Patagonians, seen by Behem, offered to 
him only barren lands, inhabited by unconquerable savages. The refusal 
of John II., very far from weakening the testimony of Behem's discoveries, 
is, then, rather a proof of the knowledge which this politic prince had 
already procured of the existence of a new continent ; and it was only in 
1 501, that is to say three years after the voyage of Vasco de Gama to the 
Indies, that Emanuel thought proper to take advantage of the discoveries 
of Behem by sending Albares Cabral to Brazil, a measure which was per- 
haps rather owing to the jealousy which has already existed between Por- 
tugal and Spain than to a desire of making advantageous establishments, 
for which the Indies were much more proper than this part of America. 

If any doubts yet remain respecting the important discovery made by 
Behem, it is particularly the authority of Dr. Robertson, which attacks 
the testimony of the different authors we have transcribed. This learned 
writer treats the history of Behem as a fiction of some German authors, 
who had an inclination to attribute to one of their countrymen a discov- 
ery which has produced so great a revolution in the commerce of Europe. 
But he acknowledges, nevertheless, with Herrera, that Behem had settled 
at the island of Fayal, that he was the intimate friend of Columbus, and 
that Magellan had a globe made by Behem, by the help of which he under- 
took his voyage to the South sea, a circumstance which proves much in 



MEMOIR ON THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 365 

favor of our hypothesis. He relates, also, that in 1492 this astronomer paid 
a visit to his family at Nuremberg, and left there a map drawn by himself, 
which Dr. Forster procured him a copy of, and which, in his opinion, par- 
takes of the imperfection of the cosmographical knowledge of the fifteenth 
century ; that he found in it, indeed, under the name of the island of St. 
Brandon, land which appears to be the present coast of Guiana, and lies 
in the latitude of Cape Verd, but that there is reason to believe that this 
fabulous island, which is found in many ancient maps, merits no more 
attention than the childish legend of St. Brandon himself. Although Dr. 
Robertson does not appear disposed to grant to Behem the honor of hav- 
ing discovered the new continent, we find the means of refuting him in his 
own history. He allows that Behem was very intimate with Columbus, 
that he was the greatest geographer of his time, and scholar of the cele- 
brated John Muller or Regiomontanus ; that he had discovered in 1483 
the kingdom of Congo upon the coast of Africa ; that he made a globe 
which Magellan made use of ; that he drew a map at Nuremberg, contain- 
ing the particulars of his discoveries, and that he placed in this chart land 
which is found to be in the latitude of Guiana. Dr. Robertson asserts, 
without any proof, that this land was but a fabulous island ; we may sup- 
pose, upon the same foundation, that Behem, engaged in an expedition to 
the kingdom of Congo, was driven by the winds to Fernambone, and from 
thence, by the currents, very common in those latitudes, towards the coast 
of Guiana; and that he took for an island the first land which he discov- 
ered. The course which Columbus afterwards steered, makes this suppo- 
sition still more probable ; for if he knew only of the coast of Brazil, which 
they believe to have been discovered by Behem, he would have laid his 
course rather to the southwest. The expedition to Congo took place in 
1483 ; it is then possible, that, at his return, Behem proposed a voyage to 
the coast of Brazil and Patagonia, and that he requested the assistance of 
his sovereign, which we have mentioned above. It is certain that we 
cannot have too much deference for the opinion of so eminent a writer as 
Robertson, but this learned man not having it in his power to consult the 
German pieces in the original, which we have quoted, we may be allowed 
to form a different opinion without being too presumptuous. 

Should it be asked why we take from Columbus the reputation which all 
Europe has to this day allowed him ? Why we are searching the archives 
of an imperial city for the causes of an event which took place in the 
most western extremity of Europe? Why the enemies of Columbus, who 
are numerous, did not take advantage of the pretended Behem to lessen 
his consequence at the Spanish court ? Why Portugal, jealous of the 



366 MEMOIR OX THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 

discovery of the new world, had not protested against the assertions of the 
Spaniards ? Why Behem, who died only in 1506, had not left to posterity 
any writing to confirm to himself so important a discovery ? I shall, to 
answer all these questions, submit the following remarks : 

1. Before Columbus, the great merit of a navigator consisted rather 
in conceiving the possibility of the existence of a new continent than in 
searching for lands in a region where he was sure to find them. If it is 
certain that Behem had conceived this bold idea before Columbus, the 
fame of the latter must necessarily be considerably diminished. 

2. We have only to explain the moral causes of the silence of the 
Spanish and Portuguese authors, of the enemies of Columbus, and of 
Behem himself. 

3. It is well known that previous to the reign of Charles V. there 
was little communication between the learned men of different nations. 
Writers were scarce, excepting some monks who have related, well or ill, 
the events which came to their knowledge, in chronicles which are no 
longer read ; or they had but little idea of what passed in foreign countries. 
Gazettes and journals were unknown, and the learned obliged to travel to 
inform themselves of the progress of their neighbors. Italy was the 
centre of the arts and what was called science at that time. The fre- 
quent journeys of the German emperors to Rome gave them an oppor- 
tunity of knowing persons of merit, and of placing them in the different 
universities of the empire. It is to this circumstance that we ought to 
attribute the great progress which the Germans made, particularly in 
mathematics, from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century ; during which 
time they had the best geographers, the best historians, and most enlight- 
ened politicians. They were particularly attentive to what passed in 
Europe, and the multiplied connections of different princes with foreign 
powers assisted them greatly in collecting in their archives the original 
pieces of the most important events of Europe. It is to this spirit 
of criticism and inquiry that we are indebted for the reformation of 
Luther, and we cannot deny that, particularly in the fifteenth century, 
there was more historical and political knowledge in Germany than in 
all the rest of Europe, Italy excepted. It is not, then, astonishing that we 
should find in the archives of one of the most ancient imperial cities the 
particulars of an expedition planned upon the banks of the Tagus by a 
German, a man of great repute in his own country. 

4. It was different in Portugal where the whole nation except the king 
was plunged in the most profound ignorance. Everybody was either 
shopkeeper, sailor, or soldier ; and if this nation has made the most 



MEMOIR ON THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 367 

important discoveries, we must ascribe them rather to avarice than to a 
desire for knowledge. They were satisfied with scraping together gold 
in every quarter of the known world, whilst the German and the Italian 
took up the pen to transmit to posterity the remembrance of their 
riches and cruelties. The Spaniards were not much more informed 
before Charles V. introduced at Madrid the learned men of Flanders 
and Germany. It is, then, very possible that Behem made interesting 
discoveries in geography in 1485, without the public's being acquainted 
with them. If he had brought back from his expedition gold or 
diamonds, the noise would have been spread in a few weeks ; but simple 
geographical knowledge would not interest men of his turn of mind. 

5. The long stay Columbus made at Madeira makes his interview with 
Behem more than probable. It is impossible that he should have neg- 
lected seeing a man so interesting, and who could give every kind of 
information for the execution of the plan he had formed. The mariners 
who accompanied Behem might also have spread reports at Madeira and 
the Azores. What ought to confirm us in this is, that Mariana says him- 
self (book 26, chap, iii.) that a certain vessel going to Africa was thrown 
by a gale of wind upon unknown lands, and that the sailors on their 
return to Madeira had communicated to Columbus the circumstances of 
their voyage. All authors agree that this learned man had some informa- 
tion respecting the western shores, but they speak in a very vague manner. 
The expedition of Behem explains this mystery. 

6. This astronomer could not be jealous of the discoveries of Columbus, 
because the last had been farther north, and that in a time when they did 
not know the whole extent of the new world ; and when geographical 
knowledge was extremely bounded, it might be believed that the country 
discovered by Columbus had connection with that discovered by Behem. 

It appears certain, however, that Behem discovered this continent before 
Columbus, and that this, which is only curious in Europe, becomes inter- 
esting to the American patriot. The Grecians have carefully preserved 
the fabulous history of their first founders, and have raised altars to them ; 
why are not Behem, Columbus, and Vespucius, deserving of statues in the 
public squares of American cities? These precious monuments would 
transmit to posterity the gratitude which the names of these benefactors 
of mankind should inspire. Without knowing it they have laid the foun- 
dation of the happiness of many millions of inhabitants ; and Sesostris, 
Phul, Cyrus, Thesus, and Romulus, the founders of the greatest empires, 
will be forgotten before the services rendered by these illustrious navi- 
gators can be effaced from the memory of man. 



WASHINGTON AND HIS MOTHER 

DR. TONER ON THE FALSE CHARGES OF UNFILIAL CONDUCT 

In a letter to the Washington Evening Star of October i, 1892, the 
celebrated scholar, Dr. J. M. Toner, writes: " In your issue of February 
19, 1892, you published an item accredited to the New York Times, with- 
out date, headed ' Washington was too Truthful.' It is by suggestion a 
willful if not a malicious perversion of the commendable fact of George 
Washington's high regard and dutiful respect exhibited on all proper 
occasions for his noble mother. A pretty general familiarity with Wash- 
ington's letters justifies me in affirming that there is not one which gives 
a warrant, even to a reckl'ess imagination, for the sentiments attributed to 
him. The paragraph, however, has gone the round of the papers and 
gives evidence of a purpose to malign the good name of Washington by 
polishing up the false accusations and giving them more venom. 

The clipping has been sent to me in its different forms by seven dis- 
tinct parties, with the expressed or implied desire that I would take some 
public notice of the statement. The last comes from an esteemed friend 
and a historical writer of repute. His note accompanying it reads : 
'Alleghany, September 12, 1892. Dear Doctor: Inclosed I send you a 
slip from to-day's Pittsburg Commercial-Gazette. It is more than probable 
that it has come under your notice ere this, but I want to make sure that 
you will see it. . . . Yours very sincerely, Isaac Craig.' 

The following is a literal copy of Washington's letter which has been 
diverted from its true intent : 

To Mrs. Mary Washington : 

Hou'd Madam : In consequence of your communication to George Washington, of 
your want of money, I take the (first safe) conveyance by Mr. John Dandridge to send 
you 15 guineas which believe me is all I have and which indeed ought to have been paid 

many days ago to another agreeable to my own assurance. 1 have now demands upon 

me tor more than 500^ three hundred and forty odd which is due for the tax of 1786 ; and 
I know not where, or when, I shall receive one shilling with which to pay it. In the last 
two years I made no crops. In the first I was obliged to buy corn and this year have 
none to sell, and my wheat is so bad I cannot neither eat it myself nor sell it to others, 
and tobaco I make none. Those who owe me money cannot or will not pay it without 
suits, and to sue is like doing nothing, whilst my expenses, not from any extravagance, or 
inclination on my part to live splendidly, but for the absolute support of my family and the 
visitors who are constantly here, are exceedingly high ; higher indeed than I can support, 



WASHINGTON AND HIS MOTHER 369 

without selling part of my estate, which I am disposed to do rather than run in debt or 
continue to be so, but this I cannot do without taking much less than the lands I have 
offered for sale are worth. This is really and truly my situation. I do not, however, 
offer it as any excuse for not paying you what may really be due, for let this be little or 
much I am willing, however unable, to pay to the utmost farthing ; but it is really hard 
upon me when you have taken everything you wanted from the plantation by which 
money could be raised — when I have not received one farthing, directly nor indirectly, 
from the place for more than twelve years, if ever, and when in that time I have paid, as 
appears by Mr. Luna Washington's account against me (during my absence), two hun- 
dred and sixty odd pounds and by my own account fifty odd pounds out of my own 
pocket to you, besides '(if I am rightly informed) everything that has been raised by the 
crops on the plantation. Who to blame, or whether anybody is to blame for these things 
I know not, but these are facts. And as the purposes for which I took the estate are not 
answered, nor likely to be so, but dissatisfaction on all sides have taken place, I do not 
mean to have anything more to say to your plantation or negroes since the 1st of January 
except the fellow who is here, and who will not, as he has formed connections in this 
neighborhood, leave it ; as experience has proved him I will hire. 

Of this my intention I informed my brother John some time ago, whose death I 
sincerely lament on many accounts, and on this painful event condole with you most 
sincerely. I do not mean by this declaration to withhold any aid or support I can give 
from you, for while I have a shilling left you shall have part, if it is wanted, whatever 
my own distresses may be. What I shall then give I shall have credit for — now I have 
not, for though I have received nothing from your quarter, am told that every farthing 
goes to you, and have moreover paid between three and four hundred pounds besides 
out of my own pocket, I am viewed as a delinquent and considered perhaps by the world 
as unjust and undutiful son. My advice to you, therefore, is to do one of two things 
with the plantation, either let your grandson, Bushrod Washington, to whom the land is 
given by his father, have the whole interest there — that is, lands and negroes, at a reason- 
able rent — or next year (for I presume it is too late this, as the overseer may be engaged) 
to let him have the land at a certain yearly rent during your life, and hire out the negroes. 
This would ease you of all care and trouble — make your income certain and your sup- 
port ample. Further, my sincere and pressing advice to you is to break up housekeep- 
ing, hire out all the rest of your servants except a man and a maid, and live with one of 
your children. This would relieve you entirely from the cares of this world and leave 
your mind at ease to reflect undisturbedly on that which ought to come. On this subject 
I have been full with my brother John and it was determined he should endeavor to get 
you to live with him. He, alas, is no more and three only of us remain. My house is 
at your service and would press you most sincerely and most devoutly to accept it, but 
I am sure candor requires me to say it will never answer your purposes — in any shape 
whatsoever — for in truth it may be compared to a well-resorted tavern, as scarcely any 
strangers who are going from north to south, or from south to north, do not spend a day 
or two at it. This would, were you to be an inhabitant of it, oblige you to do one of 
three things: First, to be always dressing to appear in company ; second, to come into 
Cleft blank) in a dishabille, or third, to be as it were, a prisoner in your own chamber. 
The first you'd not like, indeed, for a person at your time of life it would be too fatiguing. 
The second I should not like, because those who resort here are, as I observed before, 
strangers and people of the first distinction. And the third, more than probably, would" 
Vol. XXVIII. -No. 5.-24 



370 WASHINGTON AND HIS MOTHER 

not be pleasing to either of us. Nor, indeed, could you be retired in any room in my 
house, for what, with the sitting up of company, the noise and bustle of servants and 
many other things, you would not be able to enjoy that calmness and serenity of mind 
which in my opinion you ought now to prefer to every other consideration in life. If 
you incline to follow this advice the house- and lots on which you now live you may rent 
and enjoy the benefit of the money arising therefrom as long as you live. This with the 
rent of the land at the little falls and the hire of your negroes would bring you in an 
income which would be much more than sufficient to answer all your wants and make 
ample amends to the child you live with ; for myself I should desire nothing. If it did 
not 1 would most cheerfully contribute more. A man, a maid, the phaeton and two 
horses are all you would want. To lay in a sufficiency for the support of these would not 
require one-quarter of your income.' The rest would purchase every necessary you could 
possibly want, and place it in your power to be serviceable to those with whom you may 
live, which, no doubt, would be agreeable to all parties. 

There are such powerful reasons in my mind for giving this advice that I cannot help 
urging it with a degree of earnestness which is uncommon for me to do. It is, I am con- 
vinced, the only means by which you can be happy. The cares of a family without any- 
body to assist you — the charge of an estate, the prof [its] of which depend upon wind, 
weather, a good overseer, an honest man and a thousand other circumstances, cannot be 
right or proper at your advanced age and for me, who am absolutely prevented from 
attending to my own plantations which are almost within call of me — to attempt the care 
of yours would be folly in the extreme ; but the mode I have pointed out you may reduce 
your income to a certainty, be eased of all trouble and — if you are so disposed, may be 
perfectly happy for happiness depends more upon the internal form of a person's own 
mind than the externals in the world. Of the last if you will pursue the plan here recom- 
mended I am sure you can want nothing that is essential. The other depends wholly 
upon yourself, for the riches of the Indies cannot purchase it. 

Mrs. Washington, George and Fanny join me in every good wish for you, 

And I am Honored Madam, Your Most Dutiful & Afft. Son 




Mount Vernon, February 15, 1787. 

The clipping itself, dressed up somewhat from what it was when it 
started, while retaining all its falsity, is as follows: 

' There was read recently at a woman's club a letter written by George 
Washington which casts slight reflection upon the filial qualities of the 
father of his country. It would seem that Madam Washington had sug- 
gested spending the winter with her distinguished son because she was 
afflicted with the rheumatism and the roof of her house leaked. 

To which the son, who has been held up as a model for all sons, 
replied that as for her room he would have it shingled, and for her rheu- 



WASHINGTON AND HIS MOTHER 37 1 

matism he would send a doctor, but that it would be impossible to receive 
her at his home for three reasons : First, she could not eat at the table 
with his guests without causing remarks from them ; second, if her meals 
were sent to her room it would inconvenience his wife ; and, third, if she 
were to eat with the servants it would cause scandalous talk. If the doc- 
ument is genuine — -and its veracity has not been questioned — it would 
appear that the hero of the hatchet story was not unlike the generality 
of sons.' 

It is hardly possible that the frank, deeply respectful, sympathetic, and 
well-expressed letter of February 15, 1787, of George Washington to his 
mother (and the last one to her which has been preserved) on family affairs, 
could have been so perverted, which if viewed in the proper spirit and 
with judicious reflection shows how earnestly solicitous he was to secure 
peace of mind and greater comforts to his mother in her declining years. 
That readers may judge for themselves of his filial respect the letter has 
been given in full from a transcript of the original, preserved among the 
Washington papers in the Department of State. 

The author of this disreputable philippic is unknown to me, and 
whether the squib originated in a desire to produce a specimen of crabbed 
smartness, or with intent to manufacture and foist a false picture of the 
personal appearance and habits of Mary Washington, or to lower the 
character of our first President in public estimation by exhibiting him as 
wanting in filial respect for his aged mother, is uncertain ; but, whatever 
the motive, the publication is deserving of the most hearty condemnation, 
and is as false in suggestion as it is despicable in its intention. 



Washington, D. C." 




GUY JOHNSON ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS 

HIS REPLY TO DR. ROBERTSON'S INQUIRIES, IN MAY, 1 775 
[From the original manuscript] 

As Dr. Robertson is entitled to the assistance of all friends to litera- 
ture, it would give me particular pleasure to contribute in any shape to his 
satisfaction by affording any information in my power on the subject of his 
labours, particularly since by the sudden death of Sir William Johnson, he 
is deprived of that gentleman's valuable communications ; however, the 
many years I acted as his deputy, during which I took uncommon pains in 
enquiries of that nature, and the office I now have the honour to hold as 
superintendent of Indian affairs, justify my attempting an answer to the 
doctor's queries. I call it but an attempt, as by the destruction of my 
house last year by lightning, I was deprived of a curious and valuable col- 
lection. 

Sir William Johnson who communicated the queries to me proposed to 
confine his remarks to the Six Nations of whom he had the most particular 
knowledge, and as they are a great and respectable confederacy, I mean to 
follow the same method, and for the same reasons, only premising that the 
difference of accounts given by authors, have been sometimes owing to 
their relying on ignorant interpreters, but may generally be attributed to 
the slender opportunities they had of distinguishing between antient cus- 
toms and modern, between solemn rites and amusements, that should I 
fall short of the Dli - expectations, I shall make up for it by strict impar- 
tiality, suggesting nothing but what may be perfectly relied on. 

As [to] the first query respecting the bodily constitution of the Indians, 
it is perhaps harder to be answered than all the rest, for the construction 
of their bodies and limbs, being in general more delicate than ours, 
and their lives a mixture of fatigue and indolence, it is not easy to deter- 
mine how they might appear if they lived as we do. The make of their 
bodies render them very agile and they pass from one extreme to another, 
without any visible inconvenience, and recover very easily of dangerous 
wounds and diseases : but they generally break much earlier than an 
English farmer which may perhaps be owing to the extremes they go thro', 
and the too copious use of spirituous liquors ; neither are they in general 



GUY JOHNSON ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS 373 

so strong as our people, tho' they are more capable of bearing hardships, 
and fatiguing journies at the worst of seasons than we are ; but their 
fatigues are the effect of necessity; for the majority of them would not 
even hunt, if they could be provided with proper food otherwise — a remark 
I thought it necessary to make, as I believe it is generally imagined that 
they are highly gratified with it as an amusement. 

As to the beardless chin and want of hair on other parts of the body, it 
is owing to themselves, and not to the effect of nature. They are averse to 
wearing hair on those parts referred to, though it grows plentifully where 
it is not prevented ; and I have seen several Indians with beards ; but it is 
a general custom with them, on its first appearance to pluck it out with a 
twisted brass wire, and afterwards to apply ointment to the parts which at 
length overcome the hair. And I have seen white men employed in the 
Indian service in the late war, who followed the same method and got rid 
of their beards effectually. 

As to the next query — I answer, that, although the Indians appear to 
be little attracted by personal beauty, yet they are by no means defective 
in the animal passion for their women, or in constitutional vigor, but 
thro' education and habit, they do not manifest them to superficial ob- 
servers — for I remember about twelve years since the chiefs of the Six 
Nations in public congress with Sir William Johnson commented [on] the 
degeneracy of their warriors, who then pursued intrigues, and did not 
conceal them by which they became enervated, whereas antiently no man 
had any intercourse with the sex till the age of thirty, as it debilitated 
them, and drew their attention from the pursuit of glory and military 
achievements. Now, the Indians being all warriors whilst young, and 
valuing themselves on that reputation, affect a coldness of character, 
however amorous, there being no reputation derived from the latter, by 
which and the uncommon affectation of modesty in their women, when 
sober, strangers are easily deceived : besides which Indians, who naturally are 
very jealous, assume a seeming indifference for the sex, in order to satisfy 
their doubts by rendering those whom they suspect more unguarded in 
their actions. Therefore the Indians are by no means chaste, but being nat- 
urally of a cold behaviour, rather than disposition, they Spartan-like, avoid 
the outward appearance of an attention to that which derogates from 
their military merit. 

The answer to the next query respecting their songs and dances and 
whether they have reference to love or war &c, would require great 
enlargement, as much depends on their songs. But confined to the latitude 
of the query, it is sufficient to observe in general that they have for the 



374 GUY JOHNSON ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS 

most part a relation to, and are the remains of solemn rites and original 
institutions, of which, as they depended merely on oral tradition, they 
in general retain only the forms at present, having lost much of their 
antient mythology & constitution thro' their intercourse with the white 
people ; so that among some nations, that is become a sport, which was 
originally a solemn rite, and very few Indians are found who understand 
the purposes of their institution. The first Indian dance I ever saw, on 
my arrival in America, gave me reason to believe what I have since found 
to be true, an assembly of persons dancing around a fire and at certain 
periods bowing their heads low, and pronouncing the same words, Yo-hc- 
waJi appeared as the remains of some religious worship, and an ingenious 
man who resided thirty years in the Indian country, built an hypothesis 
on it, deriving them from the scattered Hebrews, on a variety of conject- 
ural proofs, I believe never yet published. Among others he considers 
the worship of the deity, under the attributes of fire, light and spirit as 
contained in the Yo-kc-zvah, which he took infinite pains to prove was the 
original sense and pronunciation of the Hebrew Jehovah. But without 
resting much on his authority, it is certain that the Indian songs are 
chiefly on subjects in which love has no part. Of the solemn kind are 
their war songs, wherein they generally express in half a dozen words 
often repeated, their designs against the enemy or their prowess, and their 
ordinary songs that I consider as the relicks of some solemn rites and 
which are danced by their young men almost every night, and their dances 
in which women are introduced, which are more common than either, and 
which arc chiefly accompanied with sounds, have little and sometimes no 
meaning, but merely as an accompanyment to the measure — and this may 
suffice respecting their dances, as it is a large and curious field that wj! 
exceed the limits of my design. 

Quer. 5th. With regard to the subject of their common discourse, it 
generally relates to their warlike atchievements, or hunting or to any droll 
adventures they met with, in the course of which, an Indian's slipping off a 
log in crossing a brook, or missing a fair shot, affords infinite laughter, and 
some time amours with the sex are introduced, on which occasion they are 
by no means delicate, but the latter is seldom the subject of conversation. 

Quer. 6th. The appetite of the Indians far exceeds that of white men. 
They arc necessitated often to fast for a long time, and therefore eat with 
little moderation ; they in general hold it necessary to eat what is set before 
them, and when in places where they can be supplied regularly, they eat 
much more than the Europeans. 

Quer. 7th. The Northern Colonies in America, and the country of the 



GUY JOHNSON ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS 375 

Six Nations, are extremely healthful in general, but as the transition from 
winter to summer is very sudden it appears as if the health of the inhab- 
itants was very much affected by it. The complexion is not so good as in 
England, and neither whites or Indians are in general so long lived as 
there, though perhaps the latter are chiefly injured by their intemperance, 
besides the venereal disorder, in the cure of which they are very successful, 
they are subject to rheumatic complaints, consumptions, and glandular 
diseases: but the small pox is most fatal to them. 

Quer. 8th. With regard to polygamy — it does not meet with encourage- 
ment, nor is it usually found among northern, and warlike people. Some 
Indians indeed, among the upper nations have two wives ; but it is not 
general & there are some batchelors among them. All this will be 
easily accounted for in answering 

Quer. 9th the next query before me : for as their marriages depend 
much on the will of the parties, except those made in their infancy by 
parents, they change for the better when they please. The requisites in 
a wife are industry, and skill in the tasks imposed on her, as in a husband, 
address in hunting, but several of the nations for some years past grow 
more constant, and alter so much from their original manners, that in half 
a century more, they will, with difficulty, be traced. As for the offspring, 
they generally go with the mother, who is the fountain of honour, the 
children her property, and all descents in the maternal line. 

Quer. 10th. With regard to their chastity, it is hard to determine : they 
speak much of their virtue and constancy in former ages, and they still 
affect its appearance ; neither are there wanting some instances at present, 
but they are more uncommon among the unmarried, than the married 
women, many of whom are strictly chaste, and which will answer the next 
query. 

Quer. nth. They are generally well treated by their husbands, when 
sober, though they do all the offices of labour & from their irregular 
lives & indulgence to their children many die young. 

Quer. 12th. The proportion of births is not so great as in civilized 
nations : but this is generally, and I believe truly ascribed to intemper- 
ance. 

Quer. 13th. With regard to parental tenderness, the Indians appear to 
possess it in a high degree; but they carry it to a dangerous indulgence, 
which is seldom returned with the same warmth by their posterity who at 
some times have been known to bury their aged parents alive, when incap- 
able of labour, and have not been condemned for it, but the practice is not 
universal, and wears out fast. 



2,76 GUY JOHNSON ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS 

Quer. 14th. As to their ideas of property &c, their several confeder- 
acies have their own limits, & each nation its particular boundary, which 
is in general further subdivided between each tribe, but they have no 
property in common, the product of the labour & hunting of each indi- 
vidual, being at his own disposal. 

Quer. 15th. The authority of their sachems, or chiefs is not (at present) 
coercive ; though I have reason to think it was more than it is now. It 
consists in the power of convening the people, and proposing matters to 
them for their compliance, the success of which much depends upon their 
influence and the strength and reputation of their connexions. In war 
it consists in advising and directing operations. 

Quer. 16th to public affairs, and the authority of the chiefs being 
generally the result of their merit, it is not conferred meerly by collecting 
the suffrages of the people but like all their measures, is proposed in pub- 
lic meeting by some persons pf influence, assented to by a few more, and 
the business is done, for the majority with the younger people, are gener- 
ally silent and seldom asked opinions. However, there are in most nations 
some particular families who, (by ancient prescription) furnish a sachem to 
their tribe, and this office is often conferred on a child, and since their 
connexion with the English, he is generally brought to the superintendent 
to be approved of, and receive his medal : a ceremonial I performed a few- 
weeks ago. There are also particular offices (often hereditary) for keeping 
the belts of wampum, which are their records, and taking care of the kay- 
enarongsera, or their public concerns. 

Quer. 17th. The right of revenge is generally left to the parties ag- 
grieved, or their friends, tho' sometimes the chiefs will meet, and destine 
a person to die for some public offence, chiefly a charge of witchcraft, in 
which they all believe : but they are by no means fond of punishment, and 
often beg our people, and the soldiery off, for offences. 

Quer. 18th. As their natural genius inclines them to war, and that they 
always consider their happiness as depending on their military skill, they 
use all methods, and all things tend to preserve that spirit, so that they 
require less motives than other people, nevertheless they chuse to be pro- 
vided with them — they generally are encroachments, jealousies, national 
affronts, frauds, &c, in which they can have no relief, but from war, and 
as for their prisoners they are generally adopted, unless sacrificed to the 
resentment of some powerful individual. 

Quer. 19th. The Indians by example and precept are endowed with a 
kind of passive valour which enables them to support various modifica- 
tions of cruelty, with astonishing patience, so as even to sing, and insult 



GUY JOHNSON ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS l~JJ 

these who inflict it. Instances of their sinking under them are very 
uncommon, and they support themselves under grievous diseases without 
repining, with a strange insensibility, and may be said to possess more 
passive than active valour. 

Quer. 20th. As they have but few wants, they have little of arts among 
them. Their works in that way of the imitative kind discover uncommon 
ingenuity, and their substitutes for wants are equally curious. 

Quer. 2ist. This turn they manifest when among Europeans, but they 
do not discover much industry in these pursuits, which they hold to be 
beneath the dignity of a warrior. — Don Ulloa s remarks thereon respecting 
the Peruvians, may in many points be applied to them. 

Quer. 22d. Their songs are too short, and contain too few words to 
hand down any traditions; but their chiefs frequently repeat their history 
and mythology to the young men, to be transmitted to posterity. 

Quer. 23d. Translations of their songs may be easily procured, but I 
know of none that are worth transmitting, for the reasons before given. 

Quer. 24th. They have an idea of a deity who rules, and is the author 
of all things, as well as of an evil spirit, who is at variance with him & 
the world, into which he introduced confusion, and that he flew over the 
face of the earth, rendering it uneven, and forming mountains & vallies, 
cataracts, rocks &c, concerning all which they have a variety of stories, 
which renders it extremely difficult to reduce their mythology to any 
regular system. The Metamorphosis of Ovid will give some idea of many 
of them ; but they are too numerous to be introduced here, and differ much 
from one another. Though all the Indians have an idea of a future state of 
existence, [Quer. 25th.] those who retain their antient usages, bury arms 
& implements with the deceased, for which they conceive they have occa- 
sion in the other world. — This custom, you know, is found among many 
savage nations. 

Quer. 26th. With regard to the language of the Americans, they maybe 
referred to a few mother tongues, nevertheless there is an accidental dif- 
ference in each of the six confederate nations, which at most is not more 
than between Erse and Irish & chiefly arises from a difference of pronun- 
ciation. To enter fully into their languages would require a larger scope 
than I have given myself at this time. One thing I must, however, observe, 
neither do I recollect that it has ever been remarked that the Six Nations, 
who chiefly inhabit the middle country, south of Lake Ontario, appear to 
have forced a settlement where they now are, and to be distinct from 
the rest, & their language is so peculiar that they neither understand, or 
are understood by their neighbours, whilst the Ottawas & Chippeweighs, 



378 GUY JOHNSON ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS 

north of the lakes, can make their wants known to the southern Indians, 
as well as to the Indians of New England &c. The language of the other 
nations also abound in sabials, very few of which are to be found in that 
of the Six Nations. 

Quer. 27th. Specimens of their eloquence can easily be transmitted. 
They abound in figures, which are strong and expressive, and they deliver 
them with a good grace. Speaking of a grievance affecting one of their 
tribes, at a late congress, they said, " The fire this has kindled, is at 
"present small and has caught but one tree, but if not immediately extin- 
guished 'twill seize on the forrest, and become ungovernable." I have 
already observed that a particular enquiry into their languages, wou'd be 
a tedious work; it wou'd require a separate paper, their genus, and 
structure being not easily, or briefly described. That of the Six Nations 
(& it holds good with many others) has, as in the case of all languages, 
suffered some change. It consists of a few simple, but expressive words, 
sufficient to convey their ideas, and like the Latin contains the article in 
the noun, and also expresses the adjective in the noun in the direct sense, 
e. g. ungive, is a person, deed is good, they therefore say ungivedeed, a good 
person ; ungivedoxa, a bad person ; a road, yohatc — supplying the last 
syllable, & combining the adjective, they say yoJiahcea, a good road &c. 
Ganeringagua, I love, Yongwancungluia, We love, 

Sancringligua, Thou lovest, Yenerunghgua, Ye love, 

Ranerzvingligua , He loveth, Heonernnghwa, They love. 

I forbear entering on the terms of distinction used by each sex to express 
the same idea, which is peculiar to the Indians as it has been mentioned 
in Sir William Johnsons letters in the Philo-Transactions; but I must 
observe that they use modes of speech and a stile in public transactions, 
which differs much from ordinary conversation, is not commonly known 
among themselves, and hardly intelligible to our interpreter, and the 
women do not make use of the same substantive with the men, a strange 
peculiarity, but in them founded on the pride of superiority. As they 
made new discoveries and became acquainted with the white people, they 
framed a multiplicity of words to express their ideas of sensible objects 
by a combination of the qualities & uses, and those words are generally 
long, some of them consisting of 10 short syllables & even more, & 
they* abound most among the nations who border on the colonies, — besides 
which many birds &c. are called by names formed from letters, expressing 
their ordinary notes, and some from their most distinguishing qualities — 
\_cahnnke, as they sound it, perfectly expresses the noise or note of a wild 
goosej in short their language fully expresses all their passions, and 



GUY JOHNSON ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS 379 

original ideas & is only defective in those nicer distinctions and refine- 
ments the effects of education. 

Quer. 28th. The state of population is greatest where there is the least 
intercourse with the Europeans, who finding their general passion for 
spirituous liquors (in which most uncivilised people agree with them) and 
deriving great profits from the sale of it, have introduced it in such great 
quantities, that it has become the constant subject of complaint, tho' the 
Indians honestly confess they cannot resist the temptation when set before 
them. Another circumstance is, that by intoxication they become the 
dupes of mean, avaricious men, who deceive them in the quantity, and 
value of their peltry [Quer. 29th] & render them poor & discontented, 
but it is peculiarly fatal to their constitutions, which together with the 
small pox causes many nations to dwindle away, for in the height of the 
latter they generally plunge themselves into the water, which they appre- 
hend will relieve them, by which the disease is struck in & generally 
proves mortal. Some of them have, however, of late laid aside that prac- 
tise, and Sir W™. Johnson caused most of the Mohawks to be inoculated, 
which was attended with so much success that they much approve of it, 
but they are not so regular as to confinement, or regimen. 

Quer. 30th. The deer in the northern colonies is not so large as in 
England, but are by many preferred for their flavour, — and it is generally 
observed that the wild animals of a carniverous nature are less fierce than 
in Europe. — With regard to the tame animals, tho' they are remarked 
to degenerate it may be principally attributed to the want of attention in 
raising them, & keeping them from intermixing with smaller animals of 
the same species, unless the effect can be accounted for from the sudden 
changes of seasons, and severity of the winter; for the pastures are 
naturally good, and where improved by cultivation as rich as in any 
country. The American forrests certainly abounded with game formerly, 
but thro' the increase of the British settlements, and the many idle 
fellows who of late years interfere with the Indians in hunting, the game 
is much dispersed, and in some places extremely scarce. 

It may be a matter of some difficulty, as well as delicacy for a 
European without the suspicion of partiality to determine with respect to 
the constitution &c. of the people in our colonies — and indeed they differ 
widely from each other. The people in the sea coasts of the colonies, 
from New Jersey south, being in general subject to disagreeable disorders, 
whilst those living west of the mountains, are strong & healthful, — but 
in the more northerly colonies & in this province in general, the people 
are robust, and live to a good age, tho' they are not, I think, so long 



380 GUY JOHNSON ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS 

lived as in England ; but the women are equally prolific with any 
others. 

As for the provincial troops, such of them as were kept under strict 
discipline and served for sometime, discovered as much strength of consti- 
tution as others. But the provincials in general were raised every spring 
& disbanded every autumn, and in general commanded by plain men, 
strangers to discipline, and of such stations at home, as prevented them 
from exersising that authority which is so essential to a military profession, 
least they should offend their neighbors, who were their soldiers, and 
whose ideas were not very reconcilable to strict discipline, or obedience to 
men often their equals & sometimes even their inferiors. 

With regard to the effects produced by the improvement of the coun- 
try &c. they are (I speak of the northern colonies) obvious ; for on clear- 
ing swamps & heads of waters, the larger streams have gradually 
diminished, & the influence of the sun has been found greater, & the 
winter less severe, tho' the quantity of rain does not appear to have 
increased ; — and of late years the winters set in later than formerly. Wheat 
is usually sown in the beginning of October in those parts, and reaped in 
July, and generally produces about 10 or 12 for one; but other grains 
have a much greater proportional increase, Indian corn in particular. 
Barley is but little regarded here. — Wheat has latterly fetched about 3-6 
Stg. per bushel at Albany market, and oats scarce half as much. With 
these latter matters I confess myself but little conversant, but if I can be 
of any use in treating any of the other subjects separately at large, D^ 
Robertson may freely lay his commands upon me, as -I shall feel a sensible 
pleasure in gratifying to the utmost of my power, the least request of a 
gentleman, to whom the public is so much indebted for some of the most 
elegant & distinguished productions of the age we live in. 

Col° Johnson's most respectfull compliments to D r . Robertson, he 
still expected to have seen him at London, but as Col. Johnson is now 
going for America, it is recommended to be forwarded by Mr Phyn, & 
will transmit D r Robertson's answer. 

London, May, 1775. 

{Contributed by) 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

" HORSE SHOE ROBINSON " 
[Fourth chapter, continued from page 307] 

Before Horse Shoe had finished his report of the events of the night, 
Bloody Spur dashed into the camp, and held a hurried interview with Gen- 
eral Marion. Mildred was feeling, when she arrived at this camp, that she 
had seen war in all its horrors ; but as a trumpet sounded and everything 
asleep started erect, its romance was disclosed to her in its wildest sense. 
She might have fancied herself among the Scottish chiefs of song and 
story. Troopers with torches ran here and there, buckling on broad- 
swords, saddling horses, and rattling muskets. In the midst of the stir 
General Marion came forward, without any appearance of excitement, to 
apologize to her for his sudden desertion — he was going to follow and 
punish the merciless fellows who had intruded upon her slumbers. He told 
her of a good friend of his some two miles distant, Mrs. Rachel Markham, 
the widow of a brave Carolina colonel, whose hospitable mansion would be 
open to her, and a guide from his camp would conduct her there ; then 
he mounted a spirited charger, and galloping to the front of his men, 
wheeled them into column, and swiftly disappeared. The change seemed 
like enchantment. The fires and many of the torches were yet burning, 
but our travelers were alone. 

They reached Mrs. Markham's just as the day dawned, and through 
General Marion's letter were cordially received. It was a stately home of 
the best class, and the widow resided there alone with her three daughters, 
and an only son, too young to be of much account as a protector. She 
had been exposed to the most cruel exactions from the enemy, who 
plundered her estate at their pleasure, for which they had been more than 
once severely chastised by Marion who mysteriously appeared at exactly 
the right time and then was gone, no one knew whither. Mildred was so 
fatigued that she spent the day in refreshing sleep, as did her faithful 
attendants ; and at the supper table she learned that Marion had over- 
taken the freebooters who burned Wingate's cabin, before sunrise, and had 
won a great victory over them after a severe combat. It was settled the 
next morning that Mildred should remain a day or two with Mrs. Mark- 
ham for rest before continuing her journey. 



382 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

A succession of exciting events had happened in the vicinity of Mus- 
grove's mill during the interim. John Ramsay, with the approval of his 
commander, had loitered in the vicinity after Horse Shoe's departure for 
the Dove Cote, to devise some method for Butler's escape. Since the 
letter of Williams had reached Cornwallis the prisoner had been granted 
more personal comforts and privileges, but there was no certainty about 
his life being spared when his case should again be taken up. Mary Mus- 
grove was John Ramsay's most efficient ally, and in due course of time it 
was arranged that at a certain hour on a dark night Butler was to slip 
through the gable window of his prison to the roof and leap into the 
branches of an oak tree near by, from which he could swing to the 
ground, and find a horse saddled at a tuft of willows about a quarter of a 
mile above the mill. Ramsay was to have his own horse near by, and take 
care of the sentinel usually posted not far from this tree ; and Christopher 
Shaw was to provide a suitable disguise as well as the horse which was 
one of the wagon team known in the family as Wall Eye. The signal for 
movement was for Ramsay to flash a little powder at the edge of the 
woods on the hill, and Butler was to show his candle near his window. 
The scheme worked well, and the liberated captive and his gallant comrade 
were presently galloping rapidly towards David Ramsay's cabin, which 
they reached in the darkness. Butler hastily changed his clothes for the 
dusty miller's suit, and with a meal-bag across his saddle and pistols sup- 
plied by Ramsay was ready for a fresh start; for however dangerous 
traveling in the daylight, they esteemed it more so to wait. Their first 
object was to gain a point some seven miles distant, in the direction of 
Fair Forest, where Ramsay had concealed a few troopers furnished him 
by Williams to aid in Butler's escape ; and they reached the rendezvous 
before eight o'clock A.M. 

These men had been there several days. " What say you now, Harry 
Winter? I have brought you the miller's boy, as I promised," cried 
Ramsay in triumph. "Truth, John, there is more stuff in you than we 
counted on ; McDonald must be a silly crow to let the fox steal his cheese 
so easily," replied the soldier. " You would come nearer the mark if you 
called him a sleepy lout ; for whilst he was nodding I took his cake off the 
griddle. But come, boys, there is no time for dallying; we have a whole 
pack of King George's hounds on our trail," and John Ramsay led the 
party forward at a racing gallop. The troopers, although armed, were 
clad in the coarse dress of the country, which enabled them to claim the 
party of either whig or tory militia, as occasion might justify. They had 
proceeded but a short distance when they met some ten or fifteen horse, 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 383 

and Harry Winter whispered : " I answer all questions, be silent and, if 
asked, swear to the truth of every word I say ; steady — these fellows are 
tories." He then called out sternly to the strangers: "Where from and 
whither do you go?" The reply came from an officer: " As we are the 
larger party, we ask who are you and whence came you ? " Winter answered : 
" We belong to Floyd's new draft and left Winnsborough yesterday 
morning." "And where bound?" "To Augusta on business with 
Brown." " Do you bear dispatches?" " Your pardon, sir, that's a secret. 
You will meet Floyd himself with a hundred men before you ride five 
miles." The two parties had become united in a common throng, com- 
pletely filling the road, and the men were chatting together, when 
Butler observed the eyes of a soldier fixed upon him with pointed 
scrutiny, and recognized in him one of McDonald's guard from the 
mill, who had been despatched some days before on an errand to Ninety 
Six, and was now returning. He evidently was not sure that he had 
seen Butler before and turned away ; but the horse the fellow rode was 
the yoke-fellow of Wall Eye, and their mutual recognition at this critical 
moment was distressingly conspicuous. With great presence of mind 
John Ramsay spurred his horse between the two animals and addressed a 
conversation to the soldier, which for the moment turned his thoughts into 
another channel. 

The conference presently terminated and each party went its way, but 
Butler's horse began to neigh, and a response was heard from Wall Eye's 
mate in the distance. The danger was apparent, and quick as thought the 
party with Butler used whip and spur and rode on at high speed ; they were 
followed, for the soldier had communicated his suspicions, and it was an 
exciting chase. When the larger part of the enemy had paused in the 
run, and only a few bold horsemen were still in sight, John Ramsay, seeing 
that the horses of his comrades were beginning to flag, wheeled about 
and ordered a charge upon the pursuers. A sharp skirmish ensued and 
the tories were compelled to fly. As Butler's escort reassembled, John 
Ramsay was nowhere to be seen and they started to look for him. A 
riderless horse presently came bounding over the turf directly to them, and 
with a groan of anguish Butler cried, " Scatter and search the woods." 
Ramsay was found stretched upon the grass breathing out his life. He had 
received a fatal wound. Butler sprang from his horse and tried to revive 
him with water which Winter quickly brought from a little stream near 
by, but all in vain. " I was foolish to follow so far," said John faintly. " I 
fought for you because Mary wished it. This will kill Mary — she warned 
me not to be rash — but I could not help it. Be kind to her, Major Butler, 



384 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

and take care of her. Go to my parents and let them know that I thought 
of them in my last moments." "John! John !" exclaimed Butler, with 
choked voice. " In my pocket is a testament," continued Ramsay, " Mary 
gave it to me for a keepsake ; take it out and give .it to Mary — back from 
me ; and this hair upon my wrist — take it, major, and wear it on your own 
— it will remind you of Mary — you will guard her from harm?" "Before 
God," said Butler with solemn fervor, " I promise you that while I live 
Mary shall not want; your parents too shall be my special care." John 
Ramsay gasped " Thanks — thanks," and spoke no more. The audible sobs 
of Butler for some moments were alone heard in that little circle, as he sat 
supporting the head and grasping the hand of his brave comrade. 

The incidents that followed were of singular interest. Butler deter- 
mined to make his way back to David Ramsay's, and fulfill John's dying 
request, irrespective of his possible recapture by so doing. The remains 
of the hero who had died in his service were borne tenderly through the 
woods about two miles, to the cabin of a patriot named Drummond. This 
man at once offered to go with Butler on his hazardous errand, while 
Winter and his troop should guard the body until their return. It was 
eight miles to Ramsay's, and on arriving there Butler found Mary Musgrove 
and her father in the cabin. The distressing news overwhelmed the family 
with grief, and Mary swooned in the arms of her father. The piteous scene 
was enough to touch the stoutest hearts. " My son ! my son — killed in a 
skirmish ! " moaned David Ramsay. Allen Musgrove, with his arm still 
supporting his fainting daughter, fell on his knees, and lifted his clear, 
heroic voice above the lamentations in solemn prayer. The men soon 
stepped aside for consultation, and it was agreed that Allen Musgrove and 
David Ramsay should immediately go back with Butler and Drummond 
to bury the beloved dead, the nearness of the enemy making it unwise to 
delay the sad duty. Four silent horsemen were presently on the road, 
and when they reached their destination found all necessary preparations 
had been made. David Ramsay was almost inconsolable as he stood over 
the rough bier of his sleeping son in all the beauty of his young manhood. 
Allen Musgrove conducted the brief funeral exercises, when suddenly a 
wild, piercing scream from without startled the mourners, and Mary Mus- 
grove rushed into the room and fell into her father's arms, followed by 
Andrew Ramsay. Allen Musgrove turned to the boy for explanation of 
Mary's venturesome night ride, and learned that the girl was frantic when 
she discovered they had gone to bury her lover, and had mounted her 
own horse, which was at the door, to ride after them alone, and Mrs. Mus- 
grove unable to stop her had sent Andrew as her escort. " I could not 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 385 

stay behind, father," cried Mary. " I must see John once more," and 
springing to the coffin, yet unclosed, she kissed the cold lips, while a 
deluge of tears poured from her eyes. Her father drew her gently away, 
and admonished her that she must behave like the brave Christian woman 
she really was. There was a little grave-yard a mile distant where the 
soldier was to find his last resting place, and already it was one hour after 
midnight. Mary insisted upon accompanying the weird funeral procession, 
and her father could not dissuade her. The wife of Drummond finally 
proposed to go along and help care for the girl in case of need. No words 
were spoken after the party formed outside the door, except the few 
orders given by Harry Winter in a whisper. The religious services at the 
burial-place were brief, and the party started on the return to Drummond's 
cabin. The troopers paused, however, by order of Winter, to discharge 
their fire-arms over the grave, that "John Ramsay might have the honors 
of war," a useless and idle ceremony, as they found to their sorrow. This 
was scarcely accomplished when they were suddenly surrounded by a 
company of British troopers, the officer in charge of whom would have 
made the mourners all prisoners had not Butler interposed by stating the 
exact truth in the matter, giving his own name and rank, and asking for 
the release of everyone except himself and his four military comrades. 
Thus David Ramsay and Andrew, Allen Musgrove and his daughter, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Drummond passed on, and Butler was once more a 
captive. 

Mildred Lindsay in the meantime had remained two days quietly with 
Mrs. Markham, but on the third morning announced her intention of leav- 
ing her kind hostess, and was met by an almost positive prohibition. The 
two ladies held an animated discussion, through which Mrs. Markham first 
learned of Mildred's mission to the headquarters of Lord Cornwallis, and 
that she depended on the strength of her father's influence with that 
British commander for protection. Horse Shoe was summoned to the 
consultation, and with his customary sagacity advised a reconnoitring 
expedition as a preliminary to any movement of the young lady, and 
appointed himself to this service. Both Henry Lindsay and Alfred Mark- 
ham petitioned to go with him, but he said " No." As he mounted his 
horse and rode away Henry cried, "You are not going without your 
rifle ? " Horse Shoe smiled as he answered, " That's a consarn for you to 
ruminate over; mine is a business of legs, not arms to-day." 

He trotted along the country road towards Camden until nearly mid- 
day, learning very little from the people he chanced to meet, except that 
troops of horse were out, but whether friends or foes he did not discover. 

Vol. XXVIII.-No. 5.-25 



386 THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 

While passing through a deep forest his quick ear detected sounds like 
the tramp of one of these detachments, and he turned aside amongst the 
trees, dismounted, fastened his faithful horse, and concealed himself on a 
high point of rock near by, where he could see the green uniformed cav- 
alry (a part of Tarleton's command) without being observed. But alas ! his 
horse pricked his ears, and with a long, clear note of recognition broke his 
bridle and bounded into the midst of the troop, where he wheeled into 
line like a disciplined charger, on the flank of one of the platoons. The 
commander ordered a halt and sent some of his men to seek the owner of 
the horse. Presently Horse Shoe appeared in full view on the exposed 
rock, where he seemed to be busily and unconcernedly engaged with his 
jack-knife in stripping the bark from the roots of a sassafras tree that 
grew out of one of its fissures. He did not seem to hear the clamor below 
him or make the slightest effort to conceal himself. " Who in the devil are 
you — and what are you about? " yelled the leading soldier as he mounted 
the rock. " Good day, friend," said Horse Shoe, over his shoulder, " good 
day ; from your looks you belong to the army, and perhaps you mought 
be able to tell me how far it is from here to the river?" "Follow me 
quickly," was the response, " or I will prick your sides with my sword- 
point." " Anywhere you wish," replied Horse Shoe, deliberately untying 
the handkerchief about his neck, and spreading it on the ground threw 
into it the pieces of bark he had been cutting, then marched clumsily after 
the soldier. 

The officer catechized him hurriedly when he came up, and Horse Shoe 
contrived to make his answers so long and complicated, that he was im- 
patiently called a " fool." When asked, " Whence -do you come, and why 
do you stop ? " he said, " Old Virginy " in a slow, drawling tone. " You axed, 
I think, where I was goin' ; I was goin' to get on my horse that broke his 
bridle, which I see you have cotched for me, and then back to my young 
mistress, sir, that was tooken sick over there at a gentleman's house on 
the Pedee. She thought a little sassafras tea might help her, and I was 
gettin' a few scrapins of the bark to take to her. I must have lost my 
way to find it." The officer interrupted him with, " Your horse seems to 
have been trained for other duties than gathering herbs for ladies." 
" Yes," said Horse Shoe, " he would have broke clean off if it had not been 
for your honor. They say he belonged to a muster in old Virginy, and 
I was warned he might get rampagious when sodgers was round." " Get 
on your beast, and fall to the rear; you will go with us," said the com- 
mander sharply. 

It was afternoon and Horse Shoe found himself an unwilling traveler 



THE SUCCESSFUL NOVEL OF FIFTY-SIX YEARS AGO 387 

the remainder of the day, through a series of byways with which he was 
unfamiliar; and during the most of the night the troop were apparently 
returning by the same route in response to an unexpected order. About 
daylight they arrived at the quarters of Tarleton, and Horse Shoe was 
ordered into his presence. When asked his name, Horse Shoe replied, " I 
am called Stephen Forster, sir; at home I'm a kind of gardner to a gentle- 
man in Virginy, and it isn't long since I sot out with his daughter to come 
to Caroliny, and she fell sick. Yesterday while I was getting a little sassa- 
fras for her, your people saw me, and fotch me here. That's about all 
I've got to say." 

Other questions followed, but Horse Shoe managed to impart so little 
information in his answers, that he was thought to be only a " simple- 
minded booby." He even disremembered the name of the people at whose 
house the lady had stopped. When asked if he had any passport he said 
"yes," but could not read it himself; he was told if he showed it he 
" mought pass free without molestification from the sodgers of the king," 
and he pulled a wrinkled paper from his pocket and handed it to Tarleton, 
upon which was written to three suppers at the Rising Sun — four and six- 
pence. " This is only a tavern bill ! " exclaimed Tarleton impatiently. 
" Well," said Horse Shoe, laughing, " so it is; and there I've been keepin' 
it, supposin' it was my certificate — and like a fool I have gone and tore up 
the. t'other." Tarleton felt he was wasting his time on such an ignoramus 
and dismissed him, and a little later Horse Shoe was on his faithful horse, 
galloping with celerity toward Mrs. Markham's house. 

The family were just rising from the breakfast table when he rode into 
the yard, and clustered about him to hear of his adventures. From his 
reckoning Tarleton was not many miles away, and he had learned enough 
to believe that his expedition was directed against the country in that 
vicinity. The consternation of the household can be imagined. Horse 
Shoe suggested that the plate and other valuables should be secreted, and 
an ample dinner provided as a safeguard against disaster. It was scarcely 
noon when Tarleton's cavalry was seen approaching. Mrs. Markham was 
in despair, and, rushing to her chamber, summoned her women about her. 
Mildred followed and cowered beside her weeping hostess, more frightened 
than ever before in her life. 

The officers of the party, on reaching the premises, dismounted and 
entered the hall, where Horse Shoe had posted himself and greeted them 
with awkward bowing and scraping. "What!" exclaimed Tarleton, "so 
you are the gentleman-usher to Mrs. Markham?" "Your sarvant, sir." 

(To be continued) 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 

[Continued from page 310] 
Arkansas 



Population, 484,471 (ninth census). 

1 87 1. January 10. Election of Gov- 
ernor Clayton to be United States sen- 
ator. Fraud alleged, and much political 
excitement followed. 

1871-1873. Ozro A. Hadley, acting- 
governor. Ku Klux excitement, involv- 
ing alleged outrage against Union men 
and negroes. 

1 873-1 874. Elisha Baxter, governor. 

1873. Political controversies, touch- 
ing the state election. 

March 3. State election, ratifying the 
new constitution, and restoring to citi- 
zenship some 20,000. 

1 874- 1 87 7. Augustus H. Garland, 
governor. 

1874. The state election contested 
by rival claimants for the governorship, 
Baxter, Republican ; Brooks, Democrat. 
Both parties bring suit to establish their 
respective claims. 

April 15. Judgment in favor of 
Brooks issued by the circuit court of 
Pulaski county. Forcible possession 
immediately taken of the state offices. 
Active hostilities follow, with loss of life 
on both sides. 

May 13. The legislature meets and 
asks for federal interference. 

May 15. Baxter recognized as gov- 
ernor by President Grant, and order 
restored. 



July 14. Constitutional convention 
at Little Rock. 

October 13. Constitution ratified by 
general vote, 78,697 against 24,807. 

1877-1881. William R. Miller, gov- 
ernor. 

1880, June 16. Settlement of the 
Hot Springs controversy by act of con- 
gress. Population by tenth census, 
802,525. 

1881. The state legislature, both 
branches concurring, prescribe the pro- 
nunciation of Arkansas as follows : 
" The final j to be silent, the a in each 
syllable to have the Italian sound, and 
the accent on the first and last sylla- 
bles." This is as nearly as possible the 
aboriginal pronunciation. 

1881-1882. Thomas J. Churchill, 
governor. 

1882-1885. James H. Berry, governor. 

1885-1889. Simon P. Hughes, gov- 
ernor. 

1885, March 5. Dorsey county 
changed to Cleveland county. 

1888, January 31. Convention at 
Little Rock to promote immigration. 

September. Election returns ab- 
stracted from clerk's office in Pulaski 
county. Frauds discovered, and claims 
for seats contested in the legislature. 

1889. Length of railroads within the 
state, 818 miles, exclusive of branches. 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



389 



1 889-1 893. James P. Eagle, gov- 
ernor. 

1890. Population by eleventh census, 
1,128,179. 

April. A commission meets at Little 



Rock to take evidence concerning the 
election of 1888, and the murder of 
John M. Clayton. The seat of Con- 
gressman Breckenridge declared va- 
cant. 



California. 




California Seal. 

First of the Pacific states, area 158,- 
360 square' miles. Dimensions, 770 
miles northeast and southwest. Aver- 
age breadth east and west, about 250 
miles. Latitude, 32 28' to 42 N. 
Longitude, 114/ 30' to 124 45' W. 
The name '' California " occurs in a 
Spanish romance of 15 10. It was doubt- 
less invented by the author, Ordonez 
de Montalvo. (See American Anti- 
quarian Society, 1862.) State motto, 
Eureka = " I have found it." Nick- 
names, " The Golden State." Inhabi- 
tants, " The Gold Hunters." 

Prehistoric. Evidences of ancient 
crdlization are found in parts of the 
state, left probably by the Aztecs or 
their kindred. For centuries, however, 
prior to Spanish discovery, the savage 
tribe in the ascendency. 



1539. Francisco de Ulloa, acting 
under the orders of Cortez, sails from 
Tehuantepec, with three vessels. He 
discovers the gulf and peninsula of 
lower California. (See Preciado's diary, 
where the name California is first ap- 
plied to a locality on the Pacific coast.) 

1542, September 28. Juan Rodriguez 
Cabrillo, a Portuguese navigator com- 
manding Spanish ships, discovers what 
is now California. 

October 23. Cabrillo voyages nearly 
or quite -to the latitude of San Fran- 
cisco. 

1543, January 3. Death of Cabrillo, 
the discoverer of California, on San 
Miguel Island. 

Bartholome Ferrelo, chief pilot of the 
expedition, succeeds to the command. 

March 5. Ferrelo reaches a point 
on the coast, not far from the present 
northern boundary of California. 

1579, June 17-July 23. Sir Francis 
Drake, the English navigator, refits his 
ship, the Golden Hind, in a harbor not 
far from San Francisco. He named 
the country New Albion. 

1602. Sebastian Vizcaino discovers 
the harbors of San Diego and Monterey. 

1604. Juan de Onate descends the 
Colorado, necessarily touching Califor- 
nian territory. 

1697-1767. Jesuit missions estab- 
lished at various points. 



39° 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



1767. Charles III. substitutes Fran- 
ciscans tor Jesuits. 

July 14. Father Junipero Serra be- 
comes president of the California missions. 

1769. Junipero Serra establishes a 
mission at San Diego. 

April ir. Juan Perez anchors in San 
Diego bay. 

July 14. Gaspar Portola. marches 
north from San Diego, and after endur- 
ing many hardships reaches San Fran- 
cisco bay. 

July 22. First Christian baptism in 
California. Two dying Indians baptized 
near Los Angeles. 

1770. Mission of San Carlos established. 

1 77 1. Missions of San Antonio de 
Padua and Santa Lucia. 

1772. Mission established at San 
Luis Obispo. 

1774. The missions suffer from want of 
supplies and Apache raids. Father Fran- 
cesco Garces explores the Tulare valley. 

January-March. First overland expe- 
dition from Sonora to San Francisco, 
under Juan Bautista Anza. 

1777, February 3. Felipe de Neve 
becomes governor, headquarters at Mon- 
terey. 

March. First public execution in 
California. Two Indians shot by order 
of Ortega at San Diego. 

October 4. Formal establishment of 
a mission at San Francisco. 

1 78 1. July massacre of the Pueblo 
missions on the Colorado. 

September 4. Los Angeles founded 
by order of Governor Neve. 



1 782-1 790. Pedro Fages, governor. 
7,500 baptized native converts. Eleven 
missions established. 

1782, April 21. Santa Barbara found- 
ed by President Serra. 

Mission of San Buena Ventura estab- 
lished. 

1784, August 28. Death of Junipero 
Serra, the most conspicuous figure in 
early Californian history. 

1786, September 14. La Perouse, the 
French navigator, visits Monterey. 

1787. Publication of Francesco Pa- 
Ion's life of Serra, the first authentic 
history of the missions and of California. 

1 790-1 792. Jose Antonio Romeu, 
governor. 

Mission of La Purissima founded. 
Captain Nicolas Sole proposes the sup- 
pression of ecclesiastical authority, and 
a heated controversy follows. 

1791, Neustra Senora de Solidad 
founded. 

1 792- j 794. Jose Joaqum de Arril- 
laga, governor ad interim. 

1792, November and December. Cap- 
tain George Vancouver, the English nav- 
igator, visits California. 

1793, October. Second visit of Van- 
couver. 

1794-1S00. Diegode Borica, governor. 

1794, November. Vancouver's third 
visit. 

1796, October 29. Arrival of the first 
American ship, the Otter, Ebenezer 
Dorr, master. 

1799, May. Arrival of American ship 
Eliza, James Rowan, master. 



£>H6<sd. J^P^y^i^^ /&n^cr^ 



( To be continued. ) 






MINOR TOPICS 

JOHN AND EBENEZER CLEAVELAND 

Your readers may be interested to know something further concerning the two 
Cleavelands, sons of Josiah of Canterbury, Connecticut, who were expelled from 
Yale College, as related in your October magazine [xxviii., 280]. They were after- 
wards so far restored to favor as to obtain their degrees, John receiving his in 
1748. 

Ebenezer was ordained in December, 1755, as tne nrst P a stor of the Sandy Bay 
parish in Gloucester, Massachusetts, with a salary of £60 per annum. It is said 
that he was chaplain in the army sent against Ticonderoga in 1758, in the trium- 
phant campaign to Canada in 1759, and for three months in 1765 at Fort Edward. 
In 1775, Wlt h the consent of his people, he joined the Revolutionary army as chap- 
lain, and the following winter was stationed at Dorchester heights, Massachusetts. 
He served in Rhode Island in 1777, and in other places afterwards. His people 
suffered severely from the war, on land and sea, and on his return were not only 
deeply in debt to him for his past labors, but the best they could do for his future 
support was to give him " ninety quintals of hake-fish per annum." Accordingly, 
he was compelled to leave them, and became superintendent of the Dartmouth 
college lands at Llandaff, New Hampshire, preaching also in some of the neigh- 
boring towns. About 1785 he returned to Sandy Bay, and preached to his old 
flock when not otherwise engaged, for such contributions as they could raise for 
him. After a few years he removed to Amesbury, Massachusetts, where he preached 
till some time in 1797, when he returned to Sandy Bay and finished his days in the 
house he built at the commencement of his ministry there. He died July 4, 1805, 
aged eighty. 

A local historian says : " In all his private relations he was kind and loving ; 
and his public duties were performed in a manner to gain him the respect and 
affection of his people. His virtues were subjected to severe trials, but they came 
from the ordeal with increased brightness. Unusual domestic troubles fell to his 
lot, but he kept his faith and preserved a patient, serene, and affectionate spirit to 
the end. He died with Christian resignation, trusting, as he said, ' in the same 
God who had protected him when the bullets were flying about his head on the 
battle-field,' and resting ' on the doctrines of free grace his hope of immortal 
glory-'" 

The only production of his pen known to have been printed is a sermon pub- 
lished in 1774, entitled "The Abounding Grace of God towards Notorious Sin- 
ners." His wife was Abigail Stevens of Canterbury, who died December 25, 1804, 



392 MINOR TOPICS 

aged seventy-seven. They had twelve children, descendants of some of whom are 
living in the west. Mr. Cleaveland's tombstone in the old parish burial ground 
of Sandy Bay (now Rockport, Massachusetts), besides the usual inscription and a 
tribute to his worth, has the following lines : 

" Farewell, thou man of God ! We saw thy grief ; 
Nor youth nor hoary days produced relief ; 
By painful crosses try'd, by sorrows prov'd, 
By good men honor'd, and by Jesus lov'd, 
Thy many years one hallow'd current ran ; 
A faithful pastor, and a godly man." 

John Cleaveland also became a noted clergyman and chaplain in the colonial 
and Revolutionary wars. He studied theology in 1745 with the Rev. Philemon 
Robbins of Branford, Connecticut, supplied the pulpit of a Separatist church in 
Boston several months, and was ordained over the Chelacco parish (now Essex) 
church in Ipswich, Massachusetts, Feb. 25, 1747, " in tne presence of a large audi- 
ence, though the services were held in the open air, at an inclement season." He 
served as chaplain in the French and Indian war, at Ticonderoga and Louisburg, 
1758-17-59, and also during the Revolution, at Cambridge and White Plains, and 
died April 22, 1799. He was a man of erect, muscular form, nearly six feet tall, 
of florid complexion, with blue eyes, and amiable and benevolent aspect. He is 
the clergyman of whom it was remarked that " he preached all the men of the par- 
ish into the army and then went himself." Three of his sons were soldiers in the 
Revolution. S. 



NOTES 



393 



NOTES 






Newspapers in Kansas — In an elo- 
quent address before the Kansas Edi- 
torial Association, Judge F. G. Adams 
recently paid a glowing tribute to the 
Kansas newspapers in their relation to 
the history of that state. He said : 
" Horace Greeley used to advise the 
country editor to give small space to the 
general news of the world, but to culti- 
vate assiduously the home field, to glean 
every possible detail of private life in 
the circuit of the country, and print it. 
This advice was founded on a deep 
knowledge of human nature ; namely, 
upon the fact that people read most 
eagerly that which is in some way in 
touch with themselves ; that which they 
already know, or almost know ; what is 
about themselves or their neighbor ; a 
report of something they have seen or 
been concerned in, a lecture they have 
heard, a fair or festival or wedding or 
funeral or barn raising they have at- 
tended. And this advice 'of Editor 
Greeley, the greatest among newspaper 
men of his time, had been pretty well 
brought into practice before the time of 
the founding of Kansas newspapers. 
Hence the earliest of Kansas newspaper 
publishers were well posted in the arts 
of their craft, and they were no dullards 
in adopting them. 

We find in the very first issue of the 
very first Kansas newspaper — a news- 
paper whose type was set from cases put 
up under a tree, for want of a roof in 
the projected town in which the paper 
was established — words of cheer and en- 
couragement of the most stirring char- 
acter ; a little extravagant may be, but 



words which seem' to have been as a 
clarion note ; as the bugle blast which 
has sounded all along the line ever 
since, inspiriting the Kansas hosts to 
this very day. The first editor intro- 
duces the Kansas settler to his work, by 
telling him that he had enlisted in, and 
had become one of, that band of gallant 
western pioneers possessed of that un- 
conquerable spirit destined to annihi- 
late time and space, to surmount every 
obstacle, and to accomplish the most 
herculean undertakings ; before whom 
everything is made to yield, forest and 
wilderness alike to disappear, and in 
whose continual and onward march 
cities, towns, churches, school houses, 
academies, and colleges are to spring up 
as if by magic, and at a rate to actually 
astonish the most progressive. In this 
march railroads are to be substituted for 
the winding foot-path of the burdened 
pack horse, and the iron steam steed is to 
be seen traversing the same track, richly 
laden with commerce and with the in- 
exhaustible productions of the country, 
before time has had a chance to obliterate 
the moccasined footprints of the aborigi- 
nal red proprietors of the soil. ' Such,' 
said this first Kansas editor, ' is to be 
the history of Kansas, such is the spirit 
which has seized upon her pioneers, and 
which is destined, in brief time, to raise 
her to a position among her sister states, 
which will be truly enviable in the high- 
est degree.' 

So, in considering the relation of 
Kansas newspapers to the history of the 
state, they must be regarded as having 
taken a large part in making the history 



394 



QUERIES 



of the state by prompting, projecting, 
advising, counseling, encouraging, guid- 
ing, leading, and in no small degree di- 
recting the progress Kansas has made. 
And this may be considered the first 
relation of newspapers to the history of 
Kansas. 

There is another feature in the re- 
lation of Kansas newspapers to the 
history of the state which the old pub- 
lishers can best appreciate. It is that 
of the newspaper as a record of history. 
The newspapers have made a record of 
the history of the state — a full record, a 
very complete record — for the informa- 
tion of all the future generations of the 
people." 



Discipline of the French army — 
The discipline of the French army, like 
that of other bodies military and civil, de- 
pended much less on regulations than on 
the individual character of the men in 
command for the time being. France 



was engaged in but one war during the 
reign of Louis XVI., and in that war the 
land forces were occupied only in Amer- 
ica. " The French discipline is such, 
writes Lafayette to Washington from 
New York, that chickens and pigs walk 
between the lines without being disturbed, 
and that there is in the camp a cornfield 
of which not one leaf has been touched." 
And Rochambeau tells with honest pride 
of apples hanging on the trees which 
shaded the soldiers' tents. "The dis- 
cipline of the French army," he says, 
"has always followed it in all its cam- 
paigns." It was due to the zeal of the 
generals, of the superior and regimental 
officers, and especially to the good spirit 
of the soldier, which never failed. But 
Rochambeau was a working general, and 
Lafayette had done his best in France 
that, as far as possible, the French com-